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PAGE13MAZINAIGANSPECIESesonlandwaterNorthwoodsCooperativeWeedManagementAreaInternSarahMoodieworksthroughagarlicmustardpatchneartheupperBadRiver.CORKakagonSloughsundergoingmakeoverformanoominTheback-and-forthmechanicalroarrumblingdeepwithintheKakagonSloughsthispastsummermaybeaharbingerofbettermanoominseasonstocome.PuttingoutreverberationsworthyofanairshowapairofFondduLacBandairboatsmadethreetripstotheSloughsmowingaquaticvegetationthathascommandeeredonce-productivewildricesites.AfterhearingconcernsfromcommunitymembersaboutwildricebeingoutcompetedbyotherplantswedecidedtotrytocontrolthesecompetitorspeciesinareaswherewildricestemdensityislowandtheseotherspeciesareabundantsaidJessicaSoineBadRiverNaturalResourceDepartmentNRD.WithassistancefromFondduLacFdLnaturalresourcestechniciansBadRiverNRDisexperimentingwithbothhand-treatingaquaticplantsandutilizingairboatsequippedwithcuttingbladestomakeroomformanoomin.FornarrowleafcattailsBadRivercrewseithermanuallyshearedoffthestemsorpulledentireplantsfromthemuckbottom.Inlargerareasabout25acresinallairboatmowersbuzzedpickerelweedalsocalledmooseearandarrowheadjustbelowthewaterline.Themanagementtechniquesaredesignedtopreventthenuisanceperennialplantsfromproducingseedandtopromotewinterdie-off.WhiletheresultswontbevisibleuntilnextJuneReggieDeFoeexpectsgoodthingsfromtheworkparticularlytheshorttermeffectivenessofairboatmowing.IfyoudontdoanythingintheseareasmooseearwillendupreplacingallthewildricesaidDeFoeFdLDirectorofNaturalResources.Airboatcuttinggivesyoutwo-to-sevenyearsthericerecoversandthenyouconsidermakinganothercut.WithFdLsownmanoominwatersbeingchoked-outbymooseearintheearly2000stribalstafftinkeredwithaquaticmowingdevicesanddevelopedamulti-shearcuttingbar.DeFoesaidthepairingofairboatsandbladeshashelpedthetribemain-tain800-1000acresofgoodmanoominhabitatontheeasternMinnesotareservation.InacooperativeprojectintheSuperiorNationalForestFdLboatshavealsobeendeployedtotheancientmanoomingroundsofBigRiceLake.TribalwatersinfuxDeFoesaidtribalbiologistssuspectthatmooseearalthoughnativetothewater-shedisanewcomertothethreeFondduLacreservationlakesthatexperiencedthestarkmanoomindeclinearoundtheturnofthecentury.IntheKakagonSloughspartofthelargestundevelopedcoastalwetlandintheupperGreatLakeswaterlevelchangeisemergingastheleadingculpritforwaningwildricedensities.ByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffWriterAFondduLacNaturalResourcesairboatmakesapassthroughaquaticvegetationinBadRiversKakagonSloughs.ThissectionofextensiveGichigamicoastalmarshisdominatedbymooseeararrowheadandscatteredmanoominplants.FundingforthecooperativeprogramtorestorewildricestandscomesfromtheGreatLakesRestorationInitiativeandanappropriationfromtheBadRiverTribalCouncil.InsetAseriesofbladesmountedtothebackofanairboatmowsaquaticplantsjustunderthewaterline.PhotobyCORInsetphotobyFondduLacNaturalResourceDepartmentWildriceseedthatfallsfromthestalkandintothesubstratecanremainviableformanyyears.Followingaquaticmowingoperationstoremovenuisanceveg-etationsomeareasreceivesupplementaldosesofgreenricebutoftentimestheexistingseedbedisrichenoughtoreestablishamanoominstand.WithfifteenyearsinvestedintoaseeminglyinfinitefighttorepelthenorthwoodsexoticplantinvasionMilesFalckhasonethingtosayprevention.TheGLIFWCwildlifebiologistisaprimemoverintribaleffortstolocatemapanddestroyinvasiveplantspeciesthatharmimportantnaturalresourcesinthecededterritory.Onceinvasiveplantsgainafootholdandbegintosuccessfullybroadcastseedthecampaignshiftstothesoberingworkofcontainment.Youhavetosetpriorities.WereatapointwhereeverythingcantbetreatedsaidFalckwhocoordinatesdatasharingwithstatefederalandlocalnaturalresourcesorganizationstomanageinvasiveplants.NearCopperFallsStateParkalongtheupperBadRiverinteragencystaffandvolunteersrecentlyreturnedtoapriorityareaforgarlicmustardcontrol.InthelushgreenfloodplainforestsmallwhiteflowersbetrayedthelocationoftheEuropeaninvader.Armedwithglovesandtrashbagsthegroupscatteredupanddowntheriverhand-pullinggarlicmustardplantsrootsandall.Whilestillconspicuousfewerplantswerevisiblein2013followingyearsofphysicalremovalandselectherbicideapplications.Theworkmakesroomforna-tivespeciesimportanttotribeslikeostrichferngichi-aniibiishthebestsourceforfiddleheadsusedinsoupsandotherdishes.Blackashwiisgaaksaplingsalsobenefitandtheirexpansiverootsystemshelpreducefloodingtribalmembersdraw-outlongsplintsofwoodfrommatureashtreesforbasketmaking.LeftuncheckedFalcksaidthatgarlicmustardandotheraggressiveplantsfromEuropeandAsiacanchokeoutallotherplantsontheforestfloor.InsomecasesGLIFWCandotherresourceman-agersintheupperMidwestenlisthelpfromthenaturalworldtocontrolexoticplants.KnownasbiologicalcontrolsnaturalenemiesapprovedbytheUSDepart-mentofAgricultureareintroducedintotheenvironmenttoreducetheabundanceofnuisancevegetation.FortheEuropeanwetlandplantpurpleloosestrifeonceapopularadditiontoflowergardensaleaf-eatingbeetlehasservedbiologistswell.GLIFWChasanintegratedapproachtocontrollingpurpleloosestrifesaidFalck.Insmalllowdensityareaswedigupplantsoruseaherbicide.Beetlesarereleasedintolargerloosestrifecoloniesanddoanicejob.Falcksaidinvasivespeciesmanagementrequiresatremendousamountofworkandcanbeadrainonfinancialresourcesasmore-and-moreexoticplantsap-pearonthelandscapeeachyear.Preventingnewintroductionsissoimportantinthelongrun.Itsabouteducation.GointotheoutdoorswithcleangearandequipmentdontmovemudthatmightcontaininvasiveseedsFalcksaid.Themorepeoplelearnaboutinvasivespeciesthebetterchancewellhaveminimizingnegativeenvironmentalimpacts.ContactFalck715.685.2124formoreinformation.OncehereinvasiveplantstendtostayByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffWriterSeeTribalwatersinfluxpage19Hand-pullingisaveryeffectivemeansofdealingwithgarlicmustardaslongastherootispulledout.Theplantiscapableofresproutingifthestembreaksoffandtherootremainsintheground.COR