Page 1
Page 2
Page 3
Page 4
Page 5
Page 6
Page 7
Page 8
Page 9
Page 10
Page 11
Page 12
Page 13
Page 14
Page 15
Page 16
Page 17
Page 18
Page 19
Page 20
Page 21
Page 22
Page 23
Page 24
PAGE1MAZINAIGANFALL2014CollegestudentstracemanoominlifehistoryatFondduLacCloquetMinn.Afterthelastfragmentsofplantmatterdissolvefromlake-bottommuckanimportantclueremainstohelpresearchersunderstandaquaticnaturalhistoryphytoliths.ForagroupofcollegestudentsthehuntformicroscopicphytolithsformthelinchpinofasummerprogramtohelpanswerquestionsaboutmanoomininMinnesotaandimportantlytolearnscientificapproachestonaturalresourcesesteemedbyAmericanIndiancultures.TribalpeopleinthiscountrywillalwayshavelandandnaturalresourcestomanagesaidFondduLacNaturalResourcesProgramManagerThomasHowes.Trainingthenextgenerationcantstartsoonenough.ManoominprojectstudentshailfromallovertheUnitedStatesCali-forniaSouthDakotaTexasOklahomaplusMinnesota.Whilemostarenativeotheryoungpeoplewhoareunderrep-resentedinscienceincludingwomenroundoutthegroup.Untilnowwildriceletalonephytolithsoccupiedavaguedisconnectedcornerofmoststudentsminds.Ourprojectfocusesonwildrice.ItsimportanttousinOjibweCountryHowessaid.Weareexposingstudentsfromacrossthecountrytoresearchprob-lemschallengingthemwithresourcesandconceptsthatareforeign.WildriceormanoominisreveredasasacredgiftfromtheCreatortoupperGreatLakestribes.Fromthepre-contacterathroughtodaymanoominremainsaprimarystaplefoodpartofalow-fathealthydiet.Anaquaticgrainwildriceissensitivetowatershedalterationsandpollutionfromtoxicminerunoff.Asthesummerinternshipnearscomple-tionstudentsaredetailingreportsthathighlighthowhumanactionsaffectwildriceinformationthatmayhelpnaturalresourcesofficialsmakebetter-informedmanagementdecisionsinthefuture.FocusinginPhytolithsfeaturetinysilicathinkglassdepositsandaccumulateoveraplantslifetime.Theycanonlybeviewedunderamicroscopeappearinginanaliencombinationofglobularandgeometricshapes.PaleoresearcherChadYostexplainedthatscientistswhostudyhistoricplantdistributionhaveonlyidentifiedphytolithsignaturesforashortlistofplantscornbeansandofcoursewildrice.ThesesilicastonesareallthatsleftforustofindaftertheplantisgonesaidYostaUniversityofMinnesotaUMexpertworkingwithstudentsandtribalstaff.Themanoominprojectisascien-tificmarriageoftheFondduLacBandNaturalResourcesProgramandUMsCollegeofScienceEngineering.WithfundingfromtheNationalScienceFoun-dationstudentsandprofessionalmen-torsarecollaboratingtodescribewildriceabundanceandfirst-occurrenceonapairofon-reservationlakes.AtathirdlocationBigSandyLakelocatednexttoMinnTacsmassiveironminenorthofMountainIronaresearchteamisstudyingtheimpactsofsulfatemineseepageonwildricegrowth.OdanahWis.WithlastyearsdiscoveryofemeraldashborerinSuperiorWisconsinanditsrecentappearanceinDoorCountytheemeraldashborerEABcontinuestospreadintothewesternGreatLakesregion.UnfortunatelyitsrapidspreadisduetoanunlikelyallyusEmeraldashborerinfestationsusuallyonlyspreadamileortwoayearontheirown.ThatmeansforexamplethatitwouldtaketheEAB40yearstotraveltoAshlandWisconsinfromthenearestknowninfestationinSuperiorWis.60milesaway.ButitgladlyacceptsridesfrompeoplehaulingfirewoodandlogsmeaningthatEABfromSuperiorcouldreachAshlandinundertwohours.ThecityofSuperiorestimatesthatitwillcost2.2milliontoremoveandreplacealltheirashstreettrees.Andthatdoesntincludetreesinpeoplesyards.WhenyouconsidertheeventuallossofmillionsofashtreesacrossnorthernWisconsinandnortheastMinnesotatheenvironmentalandfinancialcosttotheLakeSuperiorregionalonewillbeenormous.Thelossofblackashbaapaagimaakinparticularisamajorcon-cerntotraditionalbasketmakers.Theyworrythatashwillnolongerbeavailablesomeday.Buttheirconcernsgomuchfartherfromthelossofanimportantforesttreetothepotentiallossofthestoriesandtraditionsthathavebeenpasseddownforcenturiesseesidebarpage19.FederalandstatequarantinesareinplacetopreventinfestedashfirewoodlogsornurserytreesfrombeingtransportedtouninfestedStudentinternMaKoquahJonesrightlinesupacoresampletothebladeofacastcuttingsawattheLacCoreLaboratoryinMinneapolis.LacCoresRyanOGradyandmanoominprojectinternIdaClarkelookon.PhotobyThomasHowesByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffWriterSeeFdLBandpage2PublishedbytheGreatLakesIndianFishWildlifeCommissionFall2014EmeraldashborertightensitsgriponLakeSuperiorregionBySteveGarskeANAForestPestEnv.GrantCoord.SeeInvasivespeciesthreatenlifewayspage19Emeraldashborerquarantineareas.ThereddotsindicatetherstEABinfestationfoundineachcounty.Keepinmindthatevenwithinthequarantinedareastherearemanycommunitiesandwoodlotsthatarestillnotyetinfested.Forafull-sizedversionofthismapgotohttpwww.emeraldashborer.infolesMultiState_EABpos.pdf.