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MAZINAIGANPAGE10FALL2014ENVIRONMENTALFindusonfacebookhttpswww.facebook.comGLIFWCNewzebramusselbiopesticidetobetestedinKeyesLakeBySaraMosesGLIFWCEnvironmentalBiologistScientistsfromtheU.S.Geo-logicalSurveyUSGSarehopefulthatanewexperimentalpesticidemaybeapowerfulweaponinthebattleagainstatroublesomeinvaderinourlakesthezebramussel.TheeffectivenessofthepesticidewillbetestedthissummerinKeyesLakeinthe1842cededterritoryofWisconsin.Zebramusselswerefirstintro-ducedtothelowerGreatLakesinthemid-1980saftertinylarvalmus-selswerereleasedfromtheballastwaterofacommercialcargoshipthatarrivedfromEuropesBlackSea.Bythe1990szebramusselsspreadtoalloftheGreatLakesandnumerousinlandlakesincludingmanylakeswithinthecededterritories.Theyareoftencarriedfromlaketolakeinboatsandbaitbuckets.AccordingtotheWisconsinDepartmentofNaturalResourcesWDNRzebramusselshavebeenfoundin163lakesandriversinthestate.FirstthebadnewsAnarrayofenvironmentalandotherissuesarisefromzebramusselinfestations.Theyclogwaterintakesystemsdisruptecosystemsbyalteringthenaturalfoodwebcontributetoharmfulalgalbloomsoutcompetenativespeciesandlitterbeacheswiththeirsharpshells.ButthegoodnewsisthatZequanoxanewbiopesticidemadefromcellsofacommonbacteriamayprovideanewwaytocombatthisaquaticinvasivespecies.Zequanoxishighlyspecificmeaningitisonlytoxictozebramusselsandtherelatedquaggamusselanotherinvasivespeciesthatisnotyetwellestablishedwithinthecededterritory.Itishighlytoxictothesespecieskillingupto90oftheindividualsinatreatmentarea.Ithasnotbeenfoundtohaveanynegativeimpactonotherspeciesincludingnativemussels.Zebramusselsconsumethebiopesticidealongwithphytoplanktontheirmainfoodsource.ComponentsofthebacterialcellsinZequanoxthendeterioratetheliningofthemusselsdiges-tivetractsresultingindeath.Anypesticideleftintheenvironmentbreaksdownafter18-24hours.Zequanoxisalreadybeingusedtoeradicatezebramusselsfromisolatedindus-trialwaterintakesystemsbutisonlyrecentlybeinginvestigatedforpotentialusedirectlyinlakesandrivers.ThefirstopenwatertestingofthisbiopesticidewithinthecededterritoryisscheduledtotakeplacebetweenJuly15andAugust15inthe194-acreKeyesLakeinFlorenceCounty.Zebramusselswerefirstidentifiedinthelakein2010.Thelakealsohasahealthynativemusselpopulation.TheUSGSincollaborationwithWDNRwillcreateandtreat6enclosuresinthelakefor8hoursobservingthepercentageofzebramusselssuccessfullykilledandassuringthereisnoeffectonthenativemussels.Thebiopesticideisnotanticipatedtobeasilverbulletforeradicatingzebramusselsfromourwaters.Butitmayproveeffectiveforgreatlyreducingthenumberofmusselsintreatedareashelpingalleviatethenegativeimpactsthatarisewhenthepopulationsarehigh.ToseewhereinvasivezebramusselshavebeenfoundinWisconsinMichiganandMinnesotaandtolearnmoreabouthowyoucanhelpstopthespreadoftheseaquatichitchhikersvisithttpinvasives.glifwc.orgais.KeweenawyBayMich.HowmanyyearswillittakebeforethemostsensitivepopulationsinKeweenawBayareabletosafelyconsumetheamountoffishthattheydesireThisistheguid-ingquestionfortheteamofresearchersconductinga1.45millionstudybasedatMichiganTechnologicalUniversityMTUalongwithscientistsfromtheMassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyMITtheDesertResearchInstituteinRenoandBostonUniversity.The3-yearprojectwhichbeganinSeptemberof2013isfundedbytheNationalScienceFoundationNSFandistitledManagingImpactsofGlobalTransportofatmosphere-surfaceexchangeablepollutantsASEPsintheContextofGlobalChange.Thestudyisacollaborationbetween18investigatorswithexpertiseinawiderangeofsubjectsincludingnaturalandsocialsciencesaswellaseducationandoutreach.Theprojectalsoincludes11localregionalnationalandinternationalpartnersincludingKeweenawBayKBIndianCommunityNaturalResourcesandForestryDepartmentsKBOjibwaCommunityCollegeGLIFWCtheNationalParksServiceandtheInter-nationalJointCommissionIJC.ThestudyfocusesonmercurypolychlorinatedbiphenylsPCBsandpolycyclicaromatichydrocarbonsPAHs.Thesecontaminantsarereleasedlargelyasaresultofhumanactivitiesandhaveatendencytoconcentrateinnorthernregionscarriednorthwardbyairandwatercurrents.TheycanbefoundinremoteregionsfarfromtheirsourcessuchastheupperGreatLakesandtheArctic.Oncepresentintheenvironmenttheycanaccumulateinfishandultimatelypeopleresultinginharmtohumanandecosystemhealth.Theirpresencehastriggeredwidespreadfishconsumptionadvisoriesandrestrictionssincetheearly1970s.Theresearchteamisinvestigat-ingseveralcomponentsoftheguidingquestion.FirsttheyareexploringhowmercuryPCBsandPAHsarearrivingintheGreatLakesregionandendupinthefishweeat.Thefocuswillbeontwolocallyimportantspecieswalleyeandlaketrout.Nexttheyarelookingtothefuturewheretheyaimtopredicthowglobalchangewillimpacttheseprocesses.Aspectsofglobalchangetheyareexploringincludeclimatechangepopulationincreaseandchangesinlanduse.Inadditiontheywilllookattheimpactthatexistingandpotentialfutureregulatoryactionsstatefederaltribalandinternationalmayhaveontheemis-sionsandultimatelytheconcentrationsinfishofthesethreecontaminants.Theresearchersalsorecognizeandwillcon-sidertheuniquephysicalsocio-culturalandspiritualimpactsthepresenceofthesecontaminantsinfishhasontribalfishingcommunities.Theprojectwilltakethreeyearstocomplete.AlthoughthestudyisrootedintheKeweenawBayregionanditspeopletheresearchersarescaling-uptolargerareasofconcernsuchasLakeSuperiorandthewiderGreatLakesbasin.Theresearchteamhasengagedthelocalcommunityinhelpingframeandanswertheguidingresearchquestion.Ledbycommunityconcernstheresearchteamiskeepingtheseventhgenerationinmindthroughoutthedurationofthestudyanditsactivities.Foradditionalinformationyoucanvisittheprojectwebsiteatwww.asep.mtu.edu.NewstudylooksatthefutureofsafefishconsumptioninKeweenawBayDenverCo.SeveraltribalstaffincludingGLIFWCsDawnWhiteminingspecialistbenefittedfromaUSGeologicalSurveyUSGStrainingonwatersam-plingtechniquesthissummer.ThetrainingentitledFieldWater-QualityMethodsforGroundWaterandSurfaceWaterincreasedtribalcapacitytoconducteffectivesamplingaswellasprovidecriticalreviewsofsamplingplansproposedbyagenciesandcontractorssaysWhite.ThefocuswasonsurfaceandgroundwatersamplecollectionandsampleprocessingmethodsbasedonUSGSestablishedprotocols.Thetwo-weektrainingwascomprehensiveaccordingtoNaomiTillisonBadRiverWaterResourceSpecialistwhoattendedthetrainingalongwithBadRiverEnvironmentalSpecialistCyrusHester.ItcoveredeveryaspectofwaterqualitymonitoringfromselectingamonitoringsitetoshippingwaterqualitysamplesTillisonstates.Amixoflectureswithlaboratoryandfieldexperiencesallowedparticipantstoactuallypracticeconceptspresentedinlectures.Tillisonwasparticularlyinterestedinreceivingtrainingonmonitoringtracemetalinorganicconstituentsinsurfacewaters.Sheplanstoincorporatelessonslearnedintothetribesmonitoringprojectsandtoultimatelyexpandmonitoringtoincludelow-levelmercury.Shesaidthetrainingalsogavehersomenewper-spectivesonmonitoringthatwillallowhertocontinueimprovingthequalityandeffectivenessofBadRiversexistingprotocols.AsecondtrainingsessionwasattendedbystafffromRedLakeandLacduFlambeau.ThetrainingswerefundedthroughagrantfromtheCharlesStewartMottFoundation.SueEricksonBySaraMosesGLIFWCEnvironmentalBiologistValoreeGagnonKBOCCMTUTribalstaffimprovewatersamplingskillsLaketroutandwalleyelivinginLakeSuperiorspicturesqueKeweenawBayinMichiganarethesubjectofathree-yearstudyofcontaminantlevelsinthesh.Researcherswilllookathowthecontaminantsarrivedthereandwhatimpactclimaticchangemayhaveinthefuture.PhotobyJimSt.Arnold