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MAZINAIGANPAGE2FALL2014LeafyspurgephragmitestargetedbyGLIFWCOdanahWis.GLIFWCsinvasivespeciesprogramstaffarebusythissum-mer.StaffhavebeendistributingbiologicalcontrolsforleafyspurgesurveyingcededterritorylakesforaquaticinvasivespeciesAISconfirmingphragmitesreportsandfollowinguponlastfallsphragmitescontrolefforts.GLIFWCscontrolcrewstartedearlythisyearcollectinganddistributingAphthonabeetles.ThesefleabeetleseatnothingbutleafyspurgeaperennialherbnativetoEurasia.Leafyspurgedisplacesnativevegetationinopenhabitatsincludingprairiespinebarrensandpastures.Itisespeciallydominantondryornutrientpoorsiteswhereitsextensiverootsystemandlackofnaturalenemiesgiveitasubstantialadvantageovernativevegetation.Becauseleafyspurgeisunpalatabletocattleanddeeritcancausesignificanteconomicandecologicalimpacts.PinebarrenshabitatsinnorthwesternWiscon-sinareuniquehabitatsthatareespeciallyvulnerabletothethreatsposedbyleafyspurge.Theseareasprovidehabitatforawiderangeofwildlifeaswellasgather-ingandhuntingopportunitiesfortribalmembers.Theuseofbiologicalcontrolscomplementsherbicideapplicationsconductedinthefallandreducestheamountofherbicideneededtoachieveeffectivecontrol.LastfallGLIFWCconductedrapidresponsecontroleffortsonsmallpioneerstandsofnon-nativephragmiteswhichweredetectedalongthewesternshoreofChequamegonBay.Thenon-nativesubspeciesofphragmitesPhragmitesaus-tralisssp.australisisextremelyinvasivegrowinginmoisthabitatsandwatersuptoonemeterdeepaswellasfloatingmatsindeeperwater.PhragmitescanquicklyestablishdenseclonalstandsandposesaseriousenvironmentalthreattothefreshwaterestuariesofChequamegonBayaswellasinlandmanoominwildricewaters.PhragmitesarealreadycommonandwidespreadalongtheLakeMichiganshorelinehoweverithasonlyrecentlybeenintroducedtotheWisconsinandMichiganportionoftheLakeSuperiorwatershedwhereonlysmallscatteredphragmitespopulationsexist.Acoordinatedfollow-upeffortamongRedCliffNaturalResourcesDepart-mentBayfieldandAshlandCountyAISCoordinatorsNorthwoodsCooperativeWeedManagementAreaandGLIFWChasdeterminedthatlastyearsphragmitescontroleffortswereover90successful.Follow-uptreatmentswillbeappliedtothefewareaswhereregrowthhasbeenobserved.OnenewphragmitessitewasdetectednearFishCreekSloughsinAshlandandwillalsobetreatedthissummer.ThisyearsannualAISsurveyeffortsincludeverificationofphragmitesreportsinthecededterritoryespeciallythoseinornearmanoominwaters.AsofpresstimeoveradozenreportedsiteshavebeenvisitedandallhaveturnedouttobethenativesubspeciesofphragmitesPhragmitesaustralisssp.americanus.ByMilesFalckGLIFWCWildlifeBiologistTheinvestigationsutilizelongcylindricaltubesdrivenintothelakebedtoextractsedimentcoresamples.Researchersareabletoestimatemanoominabundanceoverthepast10000yearsbycountingsilicaphytolithsinrefinedcorecross-sectionswhichactliketimecap-sules.Withtheexceptionofopen-watercoredrillingatSandyLakemostofsampleswereretrievedinthewintertimeHowessaid.UnitedunderthebynameTeamZaagaiganLakestudentsandmentorspreparedtheirstudy-coresattheUMLacCoreLaboratoryinMinneapolis.Usingprecisioncuttingequipmenttheteambisectedcoresfromthethreestudylakes.UMlaboratorystafflabeledandarchivedone-halfofeachsedimentcoreleavingtheremainingsectionformicroscopicexaminationbackattheFondduLacResourceManagementCenter.ForTeamZaagaigantheworkisoftenintensiverequiringstudentstoengageinfieldworkconducteye-straininglaboratoryanalysisandorganizedataoncomputerspreadsheets.Despitebeingimmersedinmathandscienceinternsunderstandthebroadersignificancethattheirresearchrepresents.Ididntknowwhatwildricewasbeforecominghere.ButthemoreIlearnabouttheculturalaspectsthemoreIseehowimportantitissaidRicardoMunozUniversityofCalifornia-SantaCruzundergraduate.Wecanhelpverifyoralstoriesaboutwildriceabun-dance.Wecanseehowtheditchsystemhadanimpactonwildriceonthereservation.IdaClarkPineRidgeOglalaSiouxsaidherMin-nesotaexperienceisbecomingacatalystforworkshehopestodobackhomeinsouthwesternSouthDakotadevelopmentofauraniummineismovingforwardjust40milesawayfromthereservation.ImtryingtoseehowminingaffectsnaturalresourcessaidClarkanundergraduatestudentatBlackHillsStateUniversityinSpearfishSD.IwanttogobackhomeandusewhatIlearntohelpthecommunity.ExpandingmanoominikericingopportunitiesEvenasthemanoomininternshipwrapsupthehuntforwildricephytolithsandotherancientcluesisjustgainingmomentumatFondduLac.ThroughpartnershipswithcooperatinginstitutionstheBandhasbeenbuildingitsscientificcapacitytostudymanoo-minoverthepastfiveyears.Howesandanumberoftribalnaturalresourcestechniciansarepreparingforamorethoroughcorestudyofwildricelakesonthereservation.WhataretheidealconditionswhenwildricehasflourishedatacertaintimeinhistoryHowessaid.Weultimatelywanttohaveadetailedstudyofallourwildricelakes.Overthepastcenturywildriceproductiononthe101000-acrereservationhasexperienceddramaticchanges.Hopingtoboostthevolumeoftillablefarm-landstateauthoritiesconstructedanetworkofditchesacenturyagopartiallydrainingareawetlandsconnectedtomanoominlakes.Theditchesproducedlittlebenefittoagricultureandhundredsofacresofvaluablewildricewerelostfromlowwaterlevels.Colonizationandcompetitionfromotheraquaticplantshasfurthercomplicatedconditionsforwildricerecovery.Continuedfrompage1BisectedcoresamplesfromFondduLacReservationsMudLake.PhotobyT.HowesSeeFdLBandpage3INVASIVESPECIESGLIFWCWildlifeLTERonParisienJr.bundlesarecentlydiscoveredphragmitespatchinFishCreekSlough.GLIFWCtechniciansusebundlingpriortoherbicidetreatmentstoavoidnon-targetplants.PhotobyJakeParisienFdLBandUMcollaborateinscienceprogramAttheFondduLacResourceManagementLaboratorystudentsfromaroundtheUnitedStatesscanformicroscopicwildricephytoliths.FdLProgramManagerThomasHowesbackgroundandapairUniversityofMinnesotaresearchersserveasmentorsforthesummerinternship.CORPhytolithsGete-manoominaneniwiseginancientwildriceremainsOjibwemowininScience