Page 1
Page 2
Page 3
Page 4
Page 5
Page 6
Page 7
Page 8
Page 9
Page 10
Page 11
Page 12
Page 13
Page 14
Page 15
Page 16
Page 17
Page 18
Page 19
Page 20
Page 21
Page 22
Page 23
Page 24
PAGE9MAZINAIGANFALL2014GREATLAKESFISHERYCaringforGichigamiHabitatprotectioncriticalTheSacredShellroseupoutofthewaterandtoldthepeoplethatthiswastheplacetheyhadbeensearchingfor.HeretheWaterdrummadeitsseventhandfinalstoponthemigration.TheSacredFirewascarriedhereandhereitburnedbrightly.TheMishomisBookEdwardBenton-BanaiOjibweteachingstellofthelongmigrationthattheOjibwepeopleundertookguidedbytheSacredMegisShelltotheirultimatedestinationMadelineIslandinGichigamiLakeSuperior.ItwasalongtheshoreofLakeSuperiorthattheyfoundthepreciousfoodmanoominwildriceandalandofbeautyandabundance.Itbecametheirhomeland.Todayitistheresponsibilityofallpeopletoprotectthisgreatgiftandresourcewhichnourishesusbothspirituallyandphysically.Thoseofuswhoworkday-to-dayonissuesrelatedtoLakeSuperiorprobablydonotreflectoftenenoughonthisuniqueandmagnificentresource.ByvirtueofitsgreatsizeandgeographicpositionLakeSuperiorcreatesitsownmicroclimatethatdistinctlyinfluencesthefloraandfaunathatfallwithinitsreach.InthecontextofnaturesbeautydiversitypowerandvalueLakeSuperiorstandsalone.Asyoulearnoftheculturalheritageandtravelitsruggedmostlyundevelopedshorelineitiseasytobecomecaptivated.ItisalsoeasytoimaginewhynativepeopleandearlyEuropeanexplorersalikesoreveredandrespectedthisGreatLake.AlthoughmanagingLakeSuperiorfisherieshasbeenandwillcontinuetobeachallengingendeavortheultimatechallengemayrestinourabilitytopreservetheenvironmentonwhichthefisheriesdepend.Fordespiteitsrelativeisolationthelakesgreatsizeandpristinenaturemakeitexceptionallyvulnerabletohumanactivities.SomeofthebroadergoalsthatmustbepursuedtosupporthealthyandstablefishcommunitiesareRestorationandprotectionofnearshorehabitatsAchievementandmaintenanceofwaterandairqualitystandardsRehabilitationofindigenousaquaticspeciesInthisrespectachievementofourfishcommunityandhabitatobjectiveswillserveasanimportantmeasureofourprogresstowardrehabilitatingandprotectingthisuniqueandfragileecosystem.ToachieveourcommongoalofahealthyLakeSuperiorcooperativeactionamonggovernmentsinterestgroupsandconcernedcitizensfrommanydisciplineswillberequired.Ifwearesuccessfulfuturerevi-sionsoffishcommunityobjectivesforLakeSuperiorwilllargelyreflectadesiretosimplymaintainandpreservetheexistingfishcommunityandtheenvironmentonwhichitdepends.StatusofthesheryNamegoslaketroutadikameglakewhitefishandkewisciscoa.k.a.lakeherringareindigenousnativespecieswhosepopulationsarerehabilitatedinGichigami.Otherspecieswhosestatusisuncertainorstillbeingrehabilitatedarenamlakesturgeonogaawalleyeandnamegosbrooktrout.Allofthelakesfishpopulationsdeclinedbetweentheturnofthelastcen-turyandtheearly1960s.Thiswasduetoacombinationofexcessivesealampreymortalityandfishing.Aftersealampreycontrolbegantobesuccessfulwildlaketroutwereprotectedthroughtighterfishingregulationsandhatcherylaketroutwerestocked.In1996muchofthestockingwasdiscontinuedaswildfishwerereproducingwellonmanyofthehistoricspawningreefs.Lakewhitefishrecoverymatchedandthenexceededthatoflaketroutby2000.Ciscorecoveryhasbeenmoremod-estmainlyduetopredationbylaketroutandsporadicsuccessfulrecruitmentyoungfishsurvivingtobecaught.Alsotherearenegativeinteractionsbetweentheinvasivebiijimaagazehnsrainbowsmeltandyoungciscowhichaffectstheciscopopulations.AllinallsincetheturnofthelastcenturyfishingandfishpopulationsinthenearshorewatersofLakeSuperiorhavebeenthebestsincetheturnofthe19thByBillMattesGLIFWCGreatLakesBiologistBimiiziisealampreyarenativetotheAtlanticcoastoftheUnitedStates.TheyinvadedGichigamiLakeSuperiorinthelate1930saftershippingcanalswerebuiltconnectingtheGreatLakestotheocean.Parasiticsealampreysgrowfromsixinchestonearlytwofeetlongineighteenmonthsandinthistimetheykillnearlyfortypoundsoffishbyattachingtothemandsuckingouttheirbodyfluids.IntheproductiveAtlanticOceantheireffectisminimalbutinthelessproductivewatersofLakeSuperiortheireffectcanbedevastatingifpopulationsareleftuncontrolled.Lampreypeakabundanceoccurredinthemid1950spriortothefirstapplica-tionofthelampricideTFM3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenolwhichtargetsandkillslarvallampreysbeforetheybecomeparasiticandstartkillingfish.Inadditiontolampricidebarrierswereconstructedonseveralstreams.Thesebarrierdamsalongwithmanydamsbuiltforlogginghydropowerandotherreasonskeeplampreysfromreachingupstreamspawningareas.LampricideandbarriersarethebackboneofanIntegratedPestManagementIPMapproachtobattlelampreyswhichisledbytheGreatLakesFisheryCommis-sion.Underthisapproachnewtechniquesarebeingdevelopedandoldtechniquesarebeingrevisited.Newtechniquesincludeusingpheromonestoattractorrepelsealampreysinriverstomoreeffectivelytrapthem..OntheBadRiveraGLIFWCcrewisrevisitinganoldtechniquewalkingtheriverhuntingforsealampreyneststodestroy.ThisworkisinadditiontoadultpopulationassessmentworkthatGLIFWChasconductedannuallysince1986incooperationwiththeUSFWSMarquetteSeaLampreyControlBadRiverNaturalResourcesDepartmentandKeweenawBayNaturalResourcesDepartment.Theadultassessmentinadditiontoremovingaportionoftheadultpopulationisusedasameasureoftheeffectivenessofthecontrolprogramandthedamagetothefisherythatcanbeattributedtosealampreys.ThreatstothecontinuanceofeffectivesealampreycontrolinLakeSuperiorinclude1.ApathyAlackofconcernorinterestinthecontrolofsealampreybecauseyearsofeffectivecontrolhaveledtotheirnegativeeffectsnotbeingnoticeable.2.BarrierremovalFreeflowingriversandconnectivityaresoughtafterattributesinwatershedmanagement.HowevertheremovalofthelowermostbarriersinriversystemsopensthemuptoinvasivespeciesfromLakeSuperiori.e.sealampreyriverrufferoundgoby.3.ReducedlampricideeffectivenessEffectivenessisreducedduetolampri-cideusebeingreducedinLakeSuperiortobeusedelsewhereinthebasinandlenticlarvalpopulationsexpandingthosepopulationsnotintheriverswheretheycanbetreatedorbehavioraladaptationstothelampricide.ByBillMattesGLIFWCGreatLakesBiologistJalynLaBineemptiesaportableassessmenttrapofsealampreyintheBadRiverwhileMarissaNeitzkerecordsthedata.PhotobyMikePlucinskiAsealampreyreceivesnclipspriortoreleaseinanefforttodeterminethenumberofspawningsealampreysascendingtheBadRiver.PhotoM.PlucinskiSeeSealampreypage19SeeLakeSuperiorfishpage23Sealampreyremainacriticalissue