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PAGE1MAZINAIGANFALL2014CollegestudentstracemanoominlifehistoryatFondduLacCloquetMinn.Afterthelastfragmentsofplantmatterdissolvefromlake-bottommuckanimportantclueremainstohelpresearchersunderstandaquaticnaturalhistoryphytoliths.ForagroupofcollegestudentsthehuntformicroscopicphytolithsformthelinchpinofasummerprogramtohelpanswerquestionsaboutmanoomininMinnesotaandimportantlytolearnscientificapproachestonaturalresourcesesteemedbyAmericanIndiancultures.TribalpeopleinthiscountrywillalwayshavelandandnaturalresourcestomanagesaidFondduLacNaturalResourcesProgramManagerThomasHowes.Trainingthenextgenerationcantstartsoonenough.ManoominprojectstudentshailfromallovertheUnitedStatesCali-forniaSouthDakotaTexasOklahomaplusMinnesota.Whilemostarenativeotheryoungpeoplewhoareunderrep-resentedinscienceincludingwomenroundoutthegroup.Untilnowwildriceletalonephytolithsoccupiedavaguedisconnectedcornerofmoststudentsminds.Ourprojectfocusesonwildrice.ItsimportanttousinOjibweCountryHowessaid.Weareexposingstudentsfromacrossthecountrytoresearchprob-lemschallengingthemwithresourcesandconceptsthatareforeign.WildriceormanoominisreveredasasacredgiftfromtheCreatortoupperGreatLakestribes.Fromthepre-contacterathroughtodaymanoominremainsaprimarystaplefoodpartofalow-fathealthydiet.Anaquaticgrainwildriceissensitivetowatershedalterationsandpollutionfromtoxicminerunoff.Asthesummerinternshipnearscomple-tionstudentsaredetailingreportsthathighlighthowhumanactionsaffectwildriceinformationthatmayhelpnaturalresourcesofficialsmakebetter-informedmanagementdecisionsinthefuture.FocusinginPhytolithsfeaturetinysilicathinkglassdepositsandaccumulateoveraplantslifetime.Theycanonlybeviewedunderamicroscopeappearinginanaliencombinationofglobularandgeometricshapes.PaleoresearcherChadYostexplainedthatscientistswhostudyhistoricplantdistributionhaveonlyidentifiedphytolithsignaturesforashortlistofplantscornbeansandofcoursewildrice.ThesesilicastonesareallthatsleftforustofindaftertheplantisgonesaidYostaUniversityofMinnesotaUMexpertworkingwithstudentsandtribalstaff.Themanoominprojectisascien-tificmarriageoftheFondduLacBandNaturalResourcesProgramandUMsCollegeofScienceEngineering.WithfundingfromtheNationalScienceFoun-dationstudentsandprofessionalmen-torsarecollaboratingtodescribewildriceabundanceandfirst-occurrenceonapairofon-reservationlakes.AtathirdlocationBigSandyLakelocatednexttoMinnTacsmassiveironminenorthofMountainIronaresearchteamisstudyingtheimpactsofsulfatemineseepageonwildricegrowth.OdanahWis.WithlastyearsdiscoveryofemeraldashborerinSuperiorWisconsinanditsrecentappearanceinDoorCountytheemeraldashborerEABcontinuestospreadintothewesternGreatLakesregion.UnfortunatelyitsrapidspreadisduetoanunlikelyallyusEmeraldashborerinfestationsusuallyonlyspreadamileortwoayearontheirown.ThatmeansforexamplethatitwouldtaketheEAB40yearstotraveltoAshlandWisconsinfromthenearestknowninfestationinSuperiorWis.60milesaway.ButitgladlyacceptsridesfrompeoplehaulingfirewoodandlogsmeaningthatEABfromSuperiorcouldreachAshlandinundertwohours.ThecityofSuperiorestimatesthatitwillcost2.2milliontoremoveandreplacealltheirashstreettrees.Andthatdoesntincludetreesinpeoplesyards.WhenyouconsidertheeventuallossofmillionsofashtreesacrossnorthernWisconsinandnortheastMinnesotatheenvironmentalandfinancialcosttotheLakeSuperiorregionalonewillbeenormous.Thelossofblackashbaapaagimaakinparticularisamajorcon-cerntotraditionalbasketmakers.Theyworrythatashwillnolongerbeavailablesomeday.Buttheirconcernsgomuchfartherfromthelossofanimportantforesttreetothepotentiallossofthestoriesandtraditionsthathavebeenpasseddownforcenturiesseesidebarpage19.FederalandstatequarantinesareinplacetopreventinfestedashfirewoodlogsornurserytreesfrombeingtransportedtouninfestedStudentinternMaKoquahJonesrightlinesupacoresampletothebladeofacastcuttingsawattheLacCoreLaboratoryinMinneapolis.LacCoresRyanOGradyandmanoominprojectinternIdaClarkelookon.PhotobyThomasHowesByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffWriterSeeFdLBandpage2PublishedbytheGreatLakesIndianFishWildlifeCommissionFall2014EmeraldashborertightensitsgriponLakeSuperiorregionBySteveGarskeANAForestPestEnv.GrantCoord.SeeInvasivespeciesthreatenlifewayspage19Emeraldashborerquarantineareas.ThereddotsindicatetherstEABinfestationfoundineachcounty.Keepinmindthatevenwithinthequarantinedareastherearemanycommunitiesandwoodlotsthatarestillnotyetinfested.Forafull-sizedversionofthismapgotohttpwww.emeraldashborer.infolesMultiState_EABpos.pdf. MAZINAIGANPAGE2FALL2014LeafyspurgephragmitestargetedbyGLIFWCOdanahWis.GLIFWCsinvasivespeciesprogramstaffarebusythissum-mer.StaffhavebeendistributingbiologicalcontrolsforleafyspurgesurveyingcededterritorylakesforaquaticinvasivespeciesAISconfirmingphragmitesreportsandfollowinguponlastfallsphragmitescontrolefforts.GLIFWCscontrolcrewstartedearlythisyearcollectinganddistributingAphthonabeetles.ThesefleabeetleseatnothingbutleafyspurgeaperennialherbnativetoEurasia.Leafyspurgedisplacesnativevegetationinopenhabitatsincludingprairiespinebarrensandpastures.Itisespeciallydominantondryornutrientpoorsiteswhereitsextensiverootsystemandlackofnaturalenemiesgiveitasubstantialadvantageovernativevegetation.Becauseleafyspurgeisunpalatabletocattleanddeeritcancausesignificanteconomicandecologicalimpacts.PinebarrenshabitatsinnorthwesternWiscon-sinareuniquehabitatsthatareespeciallyvulnerabletothethreatsposedbyleafyspurge.Theseareasprovidehabitatforawiderangeofwildlifeaswellasgather-ingandhuntingopportunitiesfortribalmembers.Theuseofbiologicalcontrolscomplementsherbicideapplicationsconductedinthefallandreducestheamountofherbicideneededtoachieveeffectivecontrol.LastfallGLIFWCconductedrapidresponsecontroleffortsonsmallpioneerstandsofnon-nativephragmiteswhichweredetectedalongthewesternshoreofChequamegonBay.Thenon-nativesubspeciesofphragmitesPhragmitesaus-tralisssp.australisisextremelyinvasivegrowinginmoisthabitatsandwatersuptoonemeterdeepaswellasfloatingmatsindeeperwater.PhragmitescanquicklyestablishdenseclonalstandsandposesaseriousenvironmentalthreattothefreshwaterestuariesofChequamegonBayaswellasinlandmanoominwildricewaters.PhragmitesarealreadycommonandwidespreadalongtheLakeMichiganshorelinehoweverithasonlyrecentlybeenintroducedtotheWisconsinandMichiganportionoftheLakeSuperiorwatershedwhereonlysmallscatteredphragmitespopulationsexist.Acoordinatedfollow-upeffortamongRedCliffNaturalResourcesDepart-mentBayfieldandAshlandCountyAISCoordinatorsNorthwoodsCooperativeWeedManagementAreaandGLIFWChasdeterminedthatlastyearsphragmitescontroleffortswereover90successful.Follow-uptreatmentswillbeappliedtothefewareaswhereregrowthhasbeenobserved.OnenewphragmitessitewasdetectednearFishCreekSloughsinAshlandandwillalsobetreatedthissummer.ThisyearsannualAISsurveyeffortsincludeverificationofphragmitesreportsinthecededterritoryespeciallythoseinornearmanoominwaters.AsofpresstimeoveradozenreportedsiteshavebeenvisitedandallhaveturnedouttobethenativesubspeciesofphragmitesPhragmitesaustralisssp.americanus.ByMilesFalckGLIFWCWildlifeBiologistTheinvestigationsutilizelongcylindricaltubesdrivenintothelakebedtoextractsedimentcoresamples.Researchersareabletoestimatemanoominabundanceoverthepast10000yearsbycountingsilicaphytolithsinrefinedcorecross-sectionswhichactliketimecap-sules.Withtheexceptionofopen-watercoredrillingatSandyLakemostofsampleswereretrievedinthewintertimeHowessaid.UnitedunderthebynameTeamZaagaiganLakestudentsandmentorspreparedtheirstudy-coresattheUMLacCoreLaboratoryinMinneapolis.Usingprecisioncuttingequipmenttheteambisectedcoresfromthethreestudylakes.UMlaboratorystafflabeledandarchivedone-halfofeachsedimentcoreleavingtheremainingsectionformicroscopicexaminationbackattheFondduLacResourceManagementCenter.ForTeamZaagaigantheworkisoftenintensiverequiringstudentstoengageinfieldworkconducteye-straininglaboratoryanalysisandorganizedataoncomputerspreadsheets.Despitebeingimmersedinmathandscienceinternsunderstandthebroadersignificancethattheirresearchrepresents.Ididntknowwhatwildricewasbeforecominghere.ButthemoreIlearnabouttheculturalaspectsthemoreIseehowimportantitissaidRicardoMunozUniversityofCalifornia-SantaCruzundergraduate.Wecanhelpverifyoralstoriesaboutwildriceabun-dance.Wecanseehowtheditchsystemhadanimpactonwildriceonthereservation.IdaClarkPineRidgeOglalaSiouxsaidherMin-nesotaexperienceisbecomingacatalystforworkshehopestodobackhomeinsouthwesternSouthDakotadevelopmentofauraniummineismovingforwardjust40milesawayfromthereservation.ImtryingtoseehowminingaffectsnaturalresourcessaidClarkanundergraduatestudentatBlackHillsStateUniversityinSpearfishSD.IwanttogobackhomeandusewhatIlearntohelpthecommunity.ExpandingmanoominikericingopportunitiesEvenasthemanoomininternshipwrapsupthehuntforwildricephytolithsandotherancientcluesisjustgainingmomentumatFondduLac.ThroughpartnershipswithcooperatinginstitutionstheBandhasbeenbuildingitsscientificcapacitytostudymanoo-minoverthepastfiveyears.Howesandanumberoftribalnaturalresourcestechniciansarepreparingforamorethoroughcorestudyofwildricelakesonthereservation.WhataretheidealconditionswhenwildricehasflourishedatacertaintimeinhistoryHowessaid.Weultimatelywanttohaveadetailedstudyofallourwildricelakes.Overthepastcenturywildriceproductiononthe101000-acrereservationhasexperienceddramaticchanges.Hopingtoboostthevolumeoftillablefarm-landstateauthoritiesconstructedanetworkofditchesacenturyagopartiallydrainingareawetlandsconnectedtomanoominlakes.Theditchesproducedlittlebenefittoagricultureandhundredsofacresofvaluablewildricewerelostfromlowwaterlevels.Colonizationandcompetitionfromotheraquaticplantshasfurthercomplicatedconditionsforwildricerecovery.Continuedfrompage1BisectedcoresamplesfromFondduLacReservationsMudLake.PhotobyT.HowesSeeFdLBandpage3INVASIVESPECIESGLIFWCWildlifeLTERonParisienJr.bundlesarecentlydiscoveredphragmitespatchinFishCreekSlough.GLIFWCtechniciansusebundlingpriortoherbicidetreatmentstoavoidnon-targetplants.PhotobyJakeParisienFdLBandUMcollaborateinscienceprogramAttheFondduLacResourceManagementLaboratorystudentsfromaroundtheUnitedStatesscanformicroscopicwildricephytoliths.FdLProgramManagerThomasHowesbackgroundandapairUniversityofMinnesotaresearchersserveasmentorsforthesummerinternship.CORPhytolithsGete-manoominaneniwiseginancientwildriceremainsOjibwemowininScience PAGE3MAZINAIGANFALL2014MinehaulroadsandtheirpotentialenvironmentalimpactsNowwithfourwatercontrolstructuresinplacetheacquisitionofaquaticvegetationcuttingequipmentandaggressivecontrolofbeaverdamstribalnaturalresourcesstaffareaddingscientificdatafromcoresamplestofine-tunemanage-mentschemes.Inthecomingyearstribalharvestersandwildlifearepoisedtobenefitwithmoreabundantmoreconsistentstandsofmanoomin.FdLBandUMcollaborateContinuedfrompage2OnthecoverTheregaliaofdancersRenaBelleandBiancaWhitecloudcatchtheeyewiththecolorfulandintricatebeadworkandapplique.Renasregaliainfusesgeometricsandorals.Theinspirationforthephotostemsfromthiscontrastofwoodlandandplainstribesandthekinshiptiesmaintainedissheerbeauty.PhotobyDylanJenningsMINEHAULROADSMadisonWis.Minehaulroadsareintegralpartsofamineoperation.Theseroadscanvaryinsizefromsinglelanedirtroadslocatedwithinthefootprintofaminetomulti-lanepavedhighwaysusedtotransportmaterialstoandfromaminesite.Roadslocatedwithintheminefootprintareusuallyincludedintheanalysisofpotentialenvironmentalimpactsofamine.Howeverroadsthatleadawayfromtheprojectsitetoprocessingareasorregionalshippinghubsareoftenoverlookedandtheimpactsthatoccuralongthesetransportationroutesmaybediscounted.TheRedDogmineinAlaskaisoneofthemorenotableexamplesofaprojectthathasimpactedtheenvironmentalongitshaulroad.Thisopenpitzincleadandsilverminetransportscrushedrockfromtheopenminepitstoaconcentrat-ingfacility.Fromtheretheconcentrateistransportedviaa50-milehaulroadtoaportfacility.Samplingalongthehaulroadconductedintheearly1990sshowedelevatedconcentrationsofmetalsontheroadsurfaceandontheroadshoulder.Thisfindingledtoadditionalstudieswhichindicatedthatmetaldepositionhasoccurredalongtheroadandconcentrationsdecreasewithdistancefromtheroadright-of-way.Elevatedmetalconcentrationsinseveralplantspeciesaredetectableupto1600metersapproximately1milefromtheroadADEC2002.ThesourceofthemetalsisconcentratedustthatadherestothetrucktiresaswellastraceamountsofconcentratedustonthesurfaceofthetrucksADEC2002.Itisimportanttonotethatthetruckshavehydraulicallysealeddoorsthatcompletelyenclosetheconcentrateinside.Evenwiththisprecautioncontamina-tionhasstilloccurred.HereintheLakeSuperiorregionthereareongoingconcernsaboutimpactsalongminehaulroadsinMinnesotaandMichigancededterritories.TheproposedPolyMetmineinMinnesotaisverysimilartoRedDoginitsoperationsanddesign.AlthoughinthecaseofPolyMetthecrushedorewouldbetransportedbyrailandnotbytruckGLIFWCstaffareconcernedaboutthepotentialforenvi-ronmentalimpactsalongtherailline.PolyMetproposestouseopenrailcarsthathavegapsalongthesidedoorhingestotransportorefromthepittotheprocess-ingfacility.Thereisnoquestionthatoredustwillescapethecarsthroughtheseopenings.InresponsetoGLIFWCcommentstheleadagenciesforthePolyMetEnvironmentalImpactStatementEIShaverequiredwaterqualitymonitoringalongtherailcorridorbetweenthepitsandtheprocessingfacility.GLIFWCstaffwillcontinuetoadvocatefortheuseofsealedrailcarstoreducethepossibilityofcontaminationalongtherailline.Theconstructionofaminehaulroadalsoimpactstheenvironment.TheEaglemineinMichiganiscurrentlyrebuildingsectionsofacountyroadtoaccommodatelargeoretrucksPhoto1and2.Theconstructionofthisroadthrougharemoteareainvolvesfillingofwetlandsandnumerousstreamcrossings.ThisareawhichisincludedintheLakeSuperiorBinationalProgramImportantHabitatListasanareaofhighbiodiversityhassufferedhabitatfragmentationduetothisconstruction.Itispossiblethattheuseofsaltinthewinterwillleadtowaterqualityimpactsintheareassmallcreeksandunintendedoredustdepositionalongtherouteislikely.Additionalimpactsmayresultfrompumpingwateroutoflocalcreekstouseindustsuppressionactivitiesduringconstructionphoto3.Toourknowledgetheeffectsofpumpingoncreekwaterlevelsandbiotahavenotbeencharacterized.Inadditiondustsuppressionofteninvolvesmixingthewaterwithchemicalsandtheeffectsofthesechemicalshavenotbeenidentified.GLIFWCstaffhaveandwillcontinuetoadvocateforinclusionofminehaulroadsintheanalysisofenvironmentalimpactsofproposedmineprojects.InthecaseoftheroadconstructionattheEagleminetheenvironmentalimpactsoftheroadwerenotevaluatedwhenthepermitsfortheminewereconsidered.TheEaglemineshaulroadispermittedundergeneralstatepermitsthatareissuedforroadconstruction.Thesegeneralpermitswhileoftenadequatefornormalroadsdonotrequirethedataandanalysisneededforaroadthatwillbeusedtotransportmineconcentrateandormetallicores.ThesematerialsareoftenreactivewhenexposedtoairandwaterandasexemplifiedbytheRedDoghaulroadcancreateenvironmentalimpactsinverysmallquantities.Thefailuretoevaluateinfrastructureassociatedwithminingactivitiesappearstounderminethegoalofclearlydisclosingallimpactsassociatedwithmineraldevelopmentprojects.Minehaulroadsshouldalsobeincludedinanyanalysisofthecumulativeimpactsofmultiplemineprojectsonthecededterritories.SourcesCitedAlaskaDepartmentofEnvironmentalConservationADEC2002FugitiveDustBackgroundDocumentDraftReport.ByEstebanChiribogaGLIFWCGISMappingSpecialistPhoto1Eagleminehaulroadunderconstruction.Noevidenceofsiltfencingorerosioncontrolbestmanagementpracticesarevisible.PhotosbyEstebanChiribogaPhoto2Eagleminehaulroadhascausedhabitatfragmentationinthisbiologicallyricharea.Photo3TankersprayingwaterfordustcontrolalongtheEagleminehaulroadconstructionsite. MAZINAIGANPAGE4FALL2014OdanahWis.Ahumblegatheringconsistingof25peopleasmallfeastofberriesandafewlocalsingerswelcomedmigizibaldeaglehomeafterspendingmonthsinarehabilitationcenter.ThismalenamedMashkawiziwasoriginallybandedinCornucopiaWisconsinasachickin1996whichwouldmakehimapproximately18yearsold.ThebirdwasstruckbyavehicleandsurvivedonthegroundfortwoweeksbeforehewasfoundbytheBadRiverNaturalResourcesDepartment.ItwasdeemedthatMashkawiziwouldnotflyagain.HoweverafterspendingrehabtimeatWildInstinctsWildlifeRehabilita-tionCenterinRhinelanderWisconsinMashkawizimadenoticeableprogress.OnThursdayJuly24thpositivethoughtsandpowerfulsongsweresungforthemigiziashetookflightandlandedinanearbytree.WildlifespecialistswillkeepclosewatchonMashkawizitomakesurehecannotonlysurvivebutthriveonceagain.DylanJenningsMashkawizireturnshomeRehabilitatedeaglereleasedWILDLIFEFondduLacBandlauncheselkrestorationstudyCloquetMinn.Woodlandcari-bouaregonefromMinnesotaalongwithwildbison.Ofthelargefour-leggedserasedfromthewesterncededterritorylandscapeduringthesettlementeraonlyoneseemslikelytomakeacomebackomashkoozoogelk.ThehabitatappearstobethereandtriballeadersendorsetheideaofbringingbackelksaidMikeSchrageFondduLacBandwildlifebiologist.ElkareknownasomashkoozintheOjibwelanguage.Elkaretoughandadaptable.Iftheyhadntbeenshotout100yearsagotheywouldprobablybelivingacrossmostoftheforestsofMinnesotatoday.Statecountytribalandprivate-landforestsdominatetheregioninandaroundtheFondduLacChippewaReservation.Schragesaidactivetim-bermanagementisapriorityfortheselandownersresultinginthecontinu-ousavailabilityofyoungaspenwood-landshabitatpreferredbyelkaswellasothernativespeciesincludingdeerandruffedgrouse.Networksoffailedcentury-olddrainageditchescarveupthelandscapeareminderthatsettlerslostthebidtocultivatefarmsonthemostlylowflatground.Leftwithalargelyscatteredcollectionofhayfieldsservingsmalllivestockoperationsagriculturalconflictsposeaminimalthreat.MappingtheareaquantifyinghabitattypesgettingthenumbersdownwilltaketimesaidSchrage.Itsalong-termprocessyearsdowntheroadtopotentiallyseeanelkrelease.Rightnowweregoingthroughtheprocessofgaugingsupportfromthepublicandvariousgovernmentlandholdersalongwithassemblingmoredataonhabitatsuitability.OverthepastfewdecadesomashoozooghavereclaimedportionsoftheirformerrangeintheeasternUnitedStatesthroughtrap-and-transferprograms.Despitethecreepingeffectsofclimatechangerisingannualtempera-turesandnativehabitatdegradationelkarefairingquitewellinsouthernlocaleslikeVirginiaandKentucky.FondduLacChairwomanKarenDiversaidthatkindofresiliencyiscrucialasimportantresourceslikemoosedeclineandclimatechangeadvances.BringingelkbackwillhelprestoretraditionalbiodiversityandassistinfoodsecuritysaidDiverwhoalsoservesonPresidentObamasClimateAdvisoryTaskForce.Some250milesfromtheFondduLacReservationtwosmallelkherdssurviveinthenorthwestcornerofMin-nesota.OnegroupresultedprimarilyfromthenaturaldispersalofCanadianelktheotherfroma1930sefforttoestablishafree-rangepopulationusingamixofwildandgamefarmanimals.Neitherherdhasbeenparticularlyvalued.FarmercomplaintsofcropandfencedamagebytheroamingungulatesbrandednorthwesternelkaslittlemorethanpestsandunderdirectionfromtheMinnesotaLegislaturestatewildlifemanagershavesuppressedherdgrowth.SofarattitudesinOjibweCountryaremuchmoreinspired.AtFondduLacmosttribalmembersareexcitedaboutpossibilitiesSchragesaid.Poten-tialreleaseareasincludeforestsinthesouthern1854andnorthern1837cededterritoriesofMinnesota.ByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffWriterMissingfromtheMinnesotacededterritoryformorethanacenturyelkmaybeonthetrailbackhome.PhotobyCharlieOttoRasmussenTribaldeerhunttofollowtribalrulesincludingharvestofantlerlessdeerOdanahWis.Tribaldeerhunt-ingwillproceedin2014justlikeitdidin2013.UnfortunatelytheSawyerCountyRecordpublishedanarticleonJune4entitledNoDoesAllowedin2014NorthernDeerHunt.Whatthisarticlefailedtomentionisthatthezeroquotasestablishedforallcountiesandreservationunitsinthenorthonlyappliestostate-licensedgunandbowhunters.Itdoesnotapplytotribalmembershuntingeitheronoroffthereservations.Therearenolimitsontheharvestofantlerlessdeerbytribalmembersduringthe2014huntingseason.SomemayaskWhyisthisWhydostate-licensedhuntershavetoforgoshootingantlerlessdeerwhiletribalhuntersarepermittedanunlim-itednumberTheanswerisrelativelysimple.Despitewhathasbeensaidinthemediastatehunterswillnotbeprohibitedfromshootingantlerlessdeer.Antlerlessdeerharvestwillbepermittedforyouthhunterswithnolimitsdis-abledhunterswithnolimitsmilitaryhunterswithnolimitspeoplewhosepropertyisenrolledintheDeerMan-agementAssistanceProgramprogramwithnolimitsandfinallyfarmersexperiencingagriculturaldamagewillbeabletoshootantlerlessdeerwithnolimits.Allofthisunlimitedantlerlessdeerharvestwillcontinuetotakeplacedespitezeroquotas.TheWisconsinDepartmentofNaturalResourcesDNRintheirpressreleasehascharacterizedthisantlerlessdeerharvestbyyouthetal.aslimited.Theysaythisdespitethefactthattherearenolimitsplacedontheseharvests.ButtheDNRmaycallthesehuntslimitedbecausefewpeoplearepar-ticipatingrelativetothenumberofdeerhuntersandtheywillharvestrelativelyfewantlerlessdeerduringthesehunts.SobecausefewpeoplewillparticipateandtheywillharvestfewdeertheDNRcallsthehuntslimited.Thissamelogicappliestotribalhunting.Onlyasmallnumberoftribalmembershuntdeercomparedtothe750000deerhuntersinWisconsin.Andtribaloff-reservationantlerlessdeerharvesthasbeenlessthan1000formanyyears.Sofewtribalhunterswillharvestasmallnumberofantlerlessdeerthusthetribalhuntcouldbecalledlimitedaswell.Thetribestakeseriouslytheirmanagementresponsibilitiesthatflowfromtheirtreatyreservedrightsandhavesteadfastlymaintainedtheirrespon-sibilitytomanagetheresourcesofthereservationandthecededterritoriesincludingwaawaaskeshideer.Advicetotribalhuntersfollowyourtribesrulesfordeerhuntingwhetheritisonoroffreservation.IfyouhavequestionsabouttherulesyoumaycontactyourtribesconservationdepartmentortheGreatLakesIndianFishWildlifeCommissionat715682-6619.ByJonGilbertPhDGLIFWCWildlifeBiologistAdamOjaaaBadRivertribalmemberjoinedtheGLIFWCcrewinlateMarchasthenewwildlifetechnician.PriortoGLIFWCAdamworkedfortheBadRiverCasinomechanicalmain-tenancedepartmentforover13years.HoweverthisisntthefirsttimeOjaasexperienceshaveledhimtoGLIFWC.In1998heinternedforGLIFWCandnowheishumbledtobeback.OjaaresidesontheBadRiverres-ervationanddevotesmuchofhisfreetimetohuntingfishingandtrapping.InadditionheisaBadRivervolunteerfirefighterandmedicalfirstresponderwhichkeepshimverybusy.MostimportantlyAdamisafamilyguyandenjoyscampingintheoutdoorswithhiswifeandtwosons.WearedelightedAdamsjourneyshaveledhimtoGLIFWConcemore.DylanJenningsOjaajoinsGLIFWCWildlifeSection PAGE5MAZINAIGANFALL2014INLANDFISHERIESByMarkLuehringGLIFWCInlandFisheriesBiologistTheLacCourteOreillesBandhostedthe2014PartnersinFishingeventontheChippewaFlowageJune4.Theannualeventshaveddowntoonedaythisyearbringstogetherstatefederalandtribalrepresentativesinvolvedincededterritoryfsheriesmanagement.BrandonTomsleftLacduFlambeauwithaChippewaFlowagelargemouthbass.OnanexcellentdayofanglingTomsalsoboatedamuskiewalleyenorthernpikeandbluegill.PhotosbyCharlieOttoRasmussen2014PartnersinFishingMilleLacsLakeMinn.MinnesotaDNRGLIFWCFondduLacandU.S.FishandWildlifeServicefisheriesassessmentcrewscollaboratedtoconductwalleyeandnorthernpiketaggingpopula-tionestimatesonMilleLacsLakethisspring.Con-cernsabouttherecentwalleyepopulationdeclinepromptedbiologiststoorganizetaggingeffortsonthe132500-acrelakeforthesecondstraightyear.Surveycrewsfromthepartneragenciessprangintoactionjustasthelakefinallyescapedfromtheicygripofthemuch-hypedpolarvortexthatruledtheweatherpatterninmidwesternstatesthislastwinter.Northernpikespawnalittlebitearlierthanwalleyessothesewerethefirsttargetfortagging.Mostnorthernsweretaggedafterbeingcapturedinfykenetsintributarystreamswheretheicerecededfirst.Intotalcrewstaggedover3600northernpike.AssoonasthestubbornMilleLacsLakeicebegantomeltbackfromtheshoreelectrofishingcrewsbeganprowlingtheshallowsduringthenightshiftforspawningwalleyes.Thesesurveyboatssentjustenoughelectricalcurrentoutintothewatertostunthefish.Crewmembersthennettedthefishandputtheminarecoverytank.Whenenoughwalleyeswereinthetankthecrewwouldstopelectrofishingtotagmeasureanddeterminethesexofeachwalleyebeforereleasingthembackintothelake.Atotalofover14000walleyesweretaggedbeforethespawningrundiminishedinmid-May.Acoupleofweeksafterthetaggingphaseoftheestimatewhenthefishhadbecomemoremixedrecapturecrewstooktothelaketofinishthelastpartoftheestimates.Thesecrewssetmulti-panelgillnetstocatchawidevarietyofsizesofbothnorthernpikeandwalleyes.Thesenetsweresetonlyforshorttimeperiodstominimizemortalityofthefishcaught.Walleyesandnorthernpikeweremeasuredcheckedfortagsandreleased.Almost4000walleyeand1300northernpikewereexaminedfortagsduringtherecaptureportionofthesurvey.Thetotalnumbersoffishmarkedandtheproportionthatwerefoundtobetaggedduringtherecaptureportioncanthenbeusedtoestimatethefishpopula-tionsinthebiglake.Overallbiologistswerepleasedwiththesurveyeffortthisspring.Asaresultofthecooperationbetweenpartneragenciesenoughfishwereobservedduringthemarkingandrecapturephasesforusefulestimatesofwalleyeandnorthernpikeabundancetobecalculated.PartneragenciesfnishMilleLacsLakepopulationestimatesDatacollectedonwalleyeandnorthernpikeButchMieloszykGLIFWCfsheriestech-nicianpullsinanassessmentnetduringpopulationsurveysonMilleLacsLake.NoahArbuckleGLIFWCfsheriesaidmeasuresacapturedwalleyewhileMieloszykrecordsdata.DatafromassessmentsaresharedwiththeMinnesotaDepartmentofNaturalResources.PhotosbyEdWhiteNewgenerationoflakesturgeonmaturingatLdFLacduFlambeauWis.NearlyadecadeaftertribalhatcheryofficialsslippedthefirsttinylakesturgeonintotheBearRiverandLacduFlambeauLdFChainofLakestheancientfishappeartobemountingasuccessfulcomeback.Reportsofsturgeoncatcheshavecomeinfromareaicefisher-mensaidLarryWawronowiczLdFnaturalresourcesdirector.Ivebeenimpressedbythegrowthratesweveseen.Sturgeoncaughtbyhook-and-lineinrecentwintersmeasuredbetween38-48incheshesaid.Beginninginthe1930saseriesofdamsintheBearRiverwatershedincludingalowheaddamattheconfluenceoftheChainsFlambeauLakecreatedisolatedlakesturgeonpopulations.Throughtheremainderofthe20thCenturybreedingagefishlivedonbutlargelyfailedtoreproduceunabletoreachsuitablespawninggrounds.AdozenyearsagotheLdFTribedrewupplanswiththeWisconsinDepartmentofNaturalResourcesU.S.FishWildlifeServiceandUniversityofWisconsin-Milwaukeetoinjectanewgenerationofthelong-livedfishintothewatersheds.SeeLdFlakesturgeonpage7 MAZINAIGANPAGE6FALL2014MilleLacsReservationMinn.Launchingatwo-threeyearwildricestudythissummertheMilleLacsBandsgoalistopreserveitsmanoominwildricebygatheringscientificinformationaboutvaluedricebedsandbymorecompletelyengagingBandmembersinthetraditionofmanoominikericing.Weareveryproudofourricebeds.Weknowourricebedsareinpeakcon-ditionintheregionandareluckyandgratefulforthisbountysaysMilleLacsWildlifeFisheriesBiologistKellyApplegate.Hisintentthroughthestudyistoprotectthatbountywellintothefuturebeginningbygatheringbaselinedataontheirnowhealthyandprolificbeds.WithfundingfromtheBureauofIndianAffairsCircleofFlightprogramtheBandhasinitiatedintensivesurveysoffavoredwildricebedsincludingbutnotlimitedtoLakeOnamiaRiceLakeandMallardLakeallexceptionalmanoominlakes.Thescientificaspectofthestudyrelatestodatacollectionontheexistingbeds.Foronedataonnumbersandspeciesofbirdswillberecorded.ForinstanceMilleLacsricebedscurrentlyhostnumerousspeciesofbirdsandwaterfowlApplegatesays.RiceLakeintheBandsDistrictIIareaisanimportantmigra-tionstopforring-neckedduckswithuptoonemillionducksrecordedinrecentyearsInformationonbirdsandotherwildlifeisimportantbecausetheyareoftenearlyindicatorsofenvironmentalchanges.MilleLacsisworkingcloselywithUniversityofMinnesota-DuluthgraduatestudentTanyaKjerlandwhoisstudyingunderDr.JohnPastorwell-knownforhiswildriceresearch.Kjerlandhopestodevelopaunifiedsamplingprotocolformonitoringwildriceabundance.AccordingtoGLIFWCWildlifeBiologistPeterDavidtheprotocolfocusesonseedabundanceandwillbetestedthisfall.Itmaythenbeadoptedbyvariouswildriceresearchersinordertoinsurethattheirresultsarebasedonauniformstandard.AtMilleLacswaterqualitysamplingisalsoanimportantaspectofthestudy.TheBandwillrecordcurrentwatercompositionandthusbeabletodetectchangesinthefuture.AccordingtoApplegatetheBandisparticularlyconcernedaboutincreasedlevelsofsulfatesinthelakeswhichcouldresultfromminingintheregion.WhilesulfatesinthewaterdonotcontaminatethericeasfoodsulfideanoxygenatedformofsulfateslimitstheplantsabilitytogrowandatcertainlevelscouldeliminateabedentirelysaysDavid.Anotherconcernforthefutureisgeneticmanipulationofriceandpreserv-ingtheintegrityoftheBandsricestands.UniversitiesandplanthybridizershaveexpressedinterestingeneticallymodifyingwildriceApplegateexplainssimilartothewayotherplantssuchascornhavebeengeneticallyaltered.Ifthatoccursthereisariskthatmodifiedwildricecouldpropagatewithtraditionalwildricealteringthecenturies-oldplantthattheOjibwehavelongdependedupon.ThesecondprongofthestudyaimsatgeneratingmoreinterestandpersonalconnectiontothemanoominbyyouthandallBandmembersApplegatesays.ThoughtheMilleLacsBandhasmanywell-seasonedricersthereisaneedtoinvolveyoungerfolksandcreatealastingconnectionwithmorepersonalinterest.ForastarttheBandwillhostaWildRiceFestivalthisfallwhenthericeisready.Thefestivalwillfeaturestationseachwithsomethinguniqueaboutwildriceorricing.Applegatesintentisnotonlytoeducateaboutthebiologyofmanoominanditsculturalhistorybutalsoabouthowtoharvestandprocesstherice.Importantlytheopportunityforhands-onpracticewillbethere.Folkswillgetachancetoknockrice.SometimespeopleareafraidtotryricingbecausetheyareunsureonhowtodoitApplegatesays.Theexperientialaspectofthefestivalwilldemonstrateharvestproceduresandletpeopletryitout.ExperiencingricingasatraditionalculturalactivitywillpromotethatpersonalconnectiontomanoominthathastypifiedtheOjibwepeopleforcenturiesfromthetimetheyfirstmigratedtotheGichigamiregioninsearchofthefoodthatgrowsonthewater.Applegatebelievesthatcultivationofthispersonalconnectionandcaringwillinsurefuturegenerationswillcontinuetoprotectandenjoymanoomin.MilleLacscultivatesapersonalconnectiontomanoominAlushlayerofoatingleafmanoomincoversLakeOnamiainMinnesotaabovepromisingabountifulfallharvestseason.Manoominintheoatingleafstagetotheleftisvulnerabletoheavywindsorboatingactivity.PhotosbySueEricksonBySueEricksonStaffWriterOdanahWis.Despitethelateappearanceofwarmweatherandtheabundantraineventsitseemsthatmanoominwildriceismakingeveryefforttoonceagainprovideforusall.The2014growingseasonisprogress-ingnicely.Ourinternshavebeeninthefieldonlyafewweeksatpresstimesurveyingricebedsinthecededterritorybuttheirreportsarebringingsomeencouragment.Inmanycaseswherethericeisstandingitappearsrobust.Ofcoursewearestillsomeweeksawayfromgettingouttheknockersandpush-polesandalotcanhappenbetweennowandharvestingtime.Unfortunatelyheavyraineventswindydaysandotherfactorshavethepowertochangethestatusofbeds.Yetstillwecontinuetogatherricingdata.Onceplantsareabitmoredevel-opedGLIFWCstaffwillbeginaerialsurveystofurtherassessthisyearsricecrop.Thisinformationalongwiththeon-the-groundfieldworkcanultimatelybeusedtohelpdirectyoutothisseasonsmostproductivestands.EverwonderhowtousethisinfotohelpyouscoutgoodricebedsDontworryitsactuallyquiteeasytofindanduse.SimplyfollowthesestepsandinafewclicksyouwillhaveawealthofmanoomininfoavailabletoyouonGLIFWCswebsite.OnGLIFWCshomepageatwww.glifwc.orgclickHarvestRegu-lationsonthetoptitlebar.NextscrolldowntheRegulationSummariesintheleft-sidecolumnandclickonthetextunderRicing.NowbeforeyouistheSummaryofOff-ReservationManoominWildRiceHarvestRegulationswithregu-latoryinfoforeachstateindrop-downformatandamapwithmanoominwatershighlightedwithcolorfulbubbles.Morewaterbodyinformationisalsolaidoutinanexpandedtablejustbelowthismap.Thewildricecropforeachwater-bodyinthetablewillbelistedaseitherPoorFairAverageGoodorVeryGood.Thesetermscomparethisyearscroptothatofrecentyearsforthatindividualwater.ThereforeaFaircroponalakethatgenerallysupportslargebedsmayrepresentmorericethanaGoodcroponasmallerwater.Werecommendusingthisinformationasyourinitialguideitsalwaysbesttodoyourownscoutingbeforetheseasonbegins.Besuretocheckthesiteperiodi-callybecausetheindicatorbubblesforeachofthedate-regulatedwaterswillchangecolorastheopeningdatesforthelakesaredeterminedbythelocalriceauthorities.Andremembersomelakesmaynotopenatallasaresultofcropfailuresothesewaterswillretaintheirredclosedbubble.Ifthewateryouareinterestedinisnotonthelistofdate-regulatedwatersyoumayharvestitwheneverthericeisripe.Ofcourseallotherricingregula-tionssuchashoursandboatlengthstillapply.Finallyforthoseofyourelativelynewtoricingrememberitisimportanttoscoutaricebedtocheckiftheseedisripeforharvesting.Bepatientandlettheseedsfilloutandripen.IfthericeisnotfallingwellandstillhasemptyhullsormilkyseedsPLEASEdonotattempttoriceinsteadgivethebedmoretimetomature.Wehopethatthisinformationisuseful.BesuretoletusknowwhatyouthinkaboutGLIFWCsricewebsitebycalling715-682-6619oremaillisaglifwc.organdasalwayshappyricingPreparingformanoominseasonChecklakeinfoonGLIFWCwebsiteByLisaDavidGLIFWCManoominBiologistMANOOMIN PAGE7MAZINAIGANFALL2014LacCourteOreillesReserva-tionWis.CornbeansandsquashhavelongbeengrownbyAmericanIndiansgenerationaftergenerationtohelpmaintainahealthydiet.OftencalledtheThreeSisterscornbeansandsquashthriveharmoniouslyandeachplantworkstogethertohelponeanothergrow.OnJuly25aThreeSistersseedsavingworkshopwasheldontheLacCourteOreillesOjibwaCommunityCollegeLCOOCCFarmheldcoop-erativelybytheIntertribalAgricultureCouncilIACandLCOOCC.LeaZeiseRaineLampertandBruceSavageledtheworkshop.Participantsgatheredfromsur-roundingareastodiscusstheimpor-tanceoftheThreeSisterstoindigenouspeoples.Themainfocusoftheworkshopwashowtosavetheseedsofnativecornbeansandsquashtoplantinthefuture.SlideshowpresentationsshortvideosandrealplantsandseedsaidedLeaandRaineintheireffortstoeducateaboutseedsaving.Theprimaryconcernispreservingseedsthathavenotbeengeneticallymodifiedorhybridizedliketheseedsfoundinmostcataloguesandretailers.Therewasalsoahands-onpor-tionoftheworkshopwheretomatoseedsavingwasdemonstratedandSavagediscussedtheuseofhightunnels.Thereweremanyquestionsdiscus-sionsandalotoflaughter.Participantswereeagertolearnandsharetheirownknowledgeaboutseedsavingandevery-oneoftenchimedinwithinterestingstoriesaboutseedsandplanting.Empha-siswasalsoplacedontheimportanceofrevitalizingtraditionalgardeningintribalcommunities.Inordertoaddressthelackofhealthynaturalfoodsonmanyreser-vationsandhelpstrengthenthenativefoodeconomytheIACMobileFamersMarketwasalsopresentattheseedsav-ingworkshopwhereparticipantswereabletopurchasenative-grownfood.ByEmilyNelisGLIFWCSummerInternSEEDSAVINGGrowingandlearningtogetherThreeSistersatLCOOCCFarmHealthylifestylestakingrootthroughgardenprogramPreservationofnativecornandwildricetwostaplefoodsintheOjibwedietwasdiscussedattheseed-savingworkshop.PhotobyEmilyNelisOdanahWis.AssummereasestowardfallrootvegetablesswellwithinthereservationsoilvineshanglowwithredtomatoesandaneworchardistakingrootintheancientplantinggroundsofOldOdanah.WithgrowingcommunityinterestandanewgrantawardtheBadRiver4-HYouthDevelopmentprogramismakinghealthystrides.WereencouragingkidstogobacktoatraditionaldietsaidJeremyMcClainUWExtension4-Hyouthcoordinator.Itsreallyaparadigmshift.AlotofkidshavebeenacculturatedtogettingfoodfrommodernsourcesWal-MartandMcDonalds.Thisisabouthomeandcommunitygardeningandincreasingphysicalactivitythroughharvesting.TheBadRiver4-Hinitiativedrawsyouthages5-18yearsoldfromon-reser-vationprogramsincludingtheMashkisibiBoysandGirlsClubTrailsProgramandtheBirchHillCommunityHome.ThroughnetworkingwithareayouthleadersandthenearbyAshlandSchoolDistrictparticipationhasdoubledoverthelastyearto280youthsinsummer2014McLainsaid.While4-HisnotedfordevelopingfarmandrurallivingskillstheBadRiverprogramtakesdirectaimatreducingobesityanddiabetesdiseasesoftenassoci-atedwitheachotherandnegativelyimpactmanyAmericanIndians.AccordingtotheCentersforDiseaseControlandPreventiondiabetesisthenumberfourkillerofnativepeopleandapproximatelyone-in-fivechildrenareobeseafigurethatnearlydoublesintoadulthood.KidsaregoingtobephysicallyandmentallystrongermoreresilientthroughthisprogramMcLainsaid.Signsoftheprogramatworkhasliterallypopped-upalloverthereservation.UsingvegetableplantsseededandtendedattheBadRiverCommunityCenterwhiledeepsnowstillcoveredthelandscapeprojectparticipantsestablishedgardensinOnaperfectlywetovercastJuly9BadRiveryouthplanted30fruittreesadjacenttotheOldOdanahpowwowgrounds.TheyouthgroupincludedfromleftMishkaNewagoLaceyAdamsandDestinyHoule.CORByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffwriternearly30yardsprovidingtillingservicesandinstallingwildlifefencing.Raisedgardenbedsbasedonhugelkulturablanketofplantingsoilcoveringdecompos-inglogsarefeaturedattheWakeHouseandyardoftheElderHouse.Childrenandteenagersalsogetvaluabletimeinteractingwitholdertribalmemberswhoshareaninterestingardeningandhealthyliving.ForsomefamiliestherearegapsintheteachingoftraditionalvaluesandbehaviorsMcClainsaid.Thisisonewaywehopewillimproveculturalidentity.OnJuly9whengardenvegetablegrowthseemedtoidleinthecoolsoggyweather4-Hersplanted30fruittreesatasiteutilizedbynativesforcenturies.ToalleviateconcernsaboutdisturbingculturalresourceshousedintheredclaysoilofOldOdanahplannersbroughtin80loadsofblackdirtthatweretransformedintosmallvolcanoshapedplantingmounds.Thetreemixiscomprisedofheartynorthernvarietiesofapplepearandcherryandshouldbeginproducingfruitinafewyears.Assistancefromagreatmanypartnersismakingthe4-HprogramasuccessMcClainsaidincludingBadRivertribalstaffandlocalhorticulturalexperts.FormoreinformationcontactMcClainat715.682.7111ext.1630.Beginningin2005biologistscol-lectedmiltandeggsfromspawn-ingsturgeonbelowadamontheTurtle-FlambeauFlowageandtribalfisheriesstaffculturedfertilespawnattheWilliamJ.PoupartSr.TribalFishHatcheryinLacduFlambeau.Tribalstaffultimatelyhatched-outandreared4000five-to-seveninchsturgeonfrom2005-2009.EachyoungsturgeonreceivedaPITpersonalidentificationtagimplantbeforereleaseallowingfisheriessurveycrewstotracktheirprogressoverthecomingyears.IntheOjibwelanguagestur-geonarecalledname.CORLdFlakesturgeonContinuedfrompage5LakesturgeonfngerlingslikethisoneattheWilliamJ.PoupartSr.TribalFishHatcheryhavegrownbrisklysinceaseriesofreleasesinthelatter2000s.COR MAZINAIGANPAGE8FALL2014TrumpeterTundraSwansTrumpeterSwanLength64in.Weight28lbs.TrumpeterswansarethelargestbirdsnativetoNorthAmerica.Thenon-nativemuteswanisnearlyaslargebuthasadistinctiveorangeknobonthetopofthebillwhichmakesidentificationeasy.Trumpeterswanshavealargestoutblackbill.Largemaletrumpeterscanhaveawingspanofnearlytenfeet.Trumpetersfeedmostlyonaquaticplantsalthoughinwintertheymayforageonwastegrainandgrassesinfarmfields.TundraSwanLength59in.Weight16lbs.TruetotheirnametundraswansbreedintheArcticandsubarctictundra.ThisspeciesissometimessplitintotwosubspeciesBewicksswanandwhis-tlingswan.Bothareallwhitewithvariable-sizedyellowpatchesonthebaseofthebill.Theyeatmostlyaquaticvegetationalthoughinsomeareastheymayfeedheavilyonwastegrainandotherlandplants.WATERFOWLLargeWaterBirdsAnIdenticationGuideWhoopingCraneadultWhoopingCranejuvenileSandhillCraneWhitePelicanSwanHeronandEgretSnowGooseTolearnmoreaboutcranesandwetlandsvisitwww.bringbackthecranes.org654321123456FlieswithneckstraightBlackwingtipsRedmaskRedcrownBrownorgraybodyWhitewingsandbodyIDbandsonlegsMayhaveIDbandonneckShortlegsFlieswithneckbentBlackwingtipsShortlegsLongorangebillBlackmid-wingandwingtipsBrownandwhitebodyPanelandillustrationsdevelopedbytheInternationalCraneFoundationwww.savingcranes.orgLonglegsLonglegsOdanahWis.WhileregulationchangeshavenotyetbeenfinalizedbyfederallawtheU.S.FishandWildlifeServicesUSFWSproposalforanearlystatetealseasonislikelytobeapprovedforblueandgreenwingedtealinMichiganandWisconsin.Thismaybringwildriceharvestersandstatetealhuntersintothesameareasnearthepeakofthericingseason.ScheduledtoopenSeptember1throughSeptember7thisstatehuntispartofathree-yearexperimentsaysGLIFWCWildlifeBiologistPeterDavidinwhichbothMichiganandWisconsinintendtotakepart.TheUSFWSdeterminedgrowthinthecontinentaltealpopulationwarrantsexpandedopportunitiesforhunters.WhileearlyseasonsarealreadyinplaceinsouthernstatesthiswillbeafirstopportunityinnorthernbreedingstateslikeMichiganandWisconsin.Minnesotaoptednottopursuethisopportunityin2014.Severalconcernscomewiththeearlyseasoninthesestatesincludingthepotentialforconfusingtealnotyetinfullplumagewithwoodducksandmallards.Managersplantomanspyblindsduringtheseasonsasameansofgatheringdataontheharvestofnon-targetspecies.Iftoomanynon-targetducksareharvestedduetomistakenidentitymanagersmayneedtorethinktheseasonDavidsays.Anotherconcernabouttheearlyseasonispotentialconflictwithricersandinterruptioninricebeds.Soitisbesttobeawareandcautious.Davidalsomentionsthatduckboatsaremorelikelytocausedamageinricebedsthantheslimcanoesusedbyriceharvesters.WeencouragericerstobelookingforhuntersandhunterstowatchoutforricersduringthisseasonDavidsays.Hopefullytheproblemswillbefew.ProposedswanseasonThetribesmayhavetheirfirstopportunitytohuntswanthisfallunderaseasonproposalthathasbeensubmittedtotheUSFWS.TheseasonproposedtobeginNovember1isdesignedtotargettundraswanswhileminimizingimpactontrumpeterpopulationsbuthasnotbeenapprovedasofyet.Thecededterritorieshoststwospeciesofnativeswansthetrumpeterandtundraswans.Thelessabundanttrumpeterswanwhichbreedslocallyisdifficulttotellapartfromthemoreabundantmigranttundraswan.Forthisreasonswanharvestwillbemoni-toredandallswansharvestedmustberegisteredduringthetreatyseason.Thedailybaglimitistwobutiftentrumpeterswansaretakentheseasonwillbeclosed.Byclosingtheseasonwhententrumpetersareharvestedsomeoppor-tunityforswanharvestisofferedwhilecontinuingtoprotectthetrumpeterpopulation.Settingtheseasonlaterintheyearwillallowformoretundraswanstomigrateintotheregionspopulationwhichwillhelpmitigatetheimpactonthetrumpeters.Iftheproposedseasonisnotapprovedtherewillbenotreatyswanseasonin2014.NewstatetealseasonmayimpactricersUSFWSreportshowshealthywaterfowlpopulationsThepreliminaryestimateforthetotalduckpopulationis49.2millionbirdsaneightpercentincreaseoverlastyearsestimateof45.6millionbirdsand43percentabovethelong-termaverage.ThereportprovidesabundanceestimatesforindividualduckspeciesincludingthefollowingEstimatedmallardabundanceis10.9millionbirdssimilartolastyearsestimateof10.4millionbirdsand42percentabovethelong-termaverage.Blue-wingedtealestimatedabundanceis8.5millionwhichis10percentabovethe2013estimateof7.7millionand75percentabovethelong-termaverage.Thenorthernpintailestimateof3.2millionwassimilartolastyearsesti-mateof3.3millionandremains20percentbelowthelong-termaverage.Americanwigeonwere18percentabovethe2013estimateand20percentabovethelong-termaverage.Thecombinedlesserandgreaterscaupestimateof4.6millionwassimilarto2013and8percentbelowthelong-termaverageof5million.Thecanvasbackestimateof685000wasslightlylowerthanthe2013estimateof787000but18percentabovethelong-termaverage.Habitatconditionsassessedduringthesurveyweremostlyimprovedorsimilartolastyearasaresultofaveragetoabove-averageannualprecipitation.The2014WaterfowlBreedingPopulationandHabitatSurveyconductedbytheU.S.FishandWildlifeServiceandCanadianWildlifeServiceencompassesmorethan2millionsquaremilesofwaterfowlhabitatacrossAlaskanorth-centralandnortheasternUnitedStatesandsouth-centraleasternandnorthernCanada.TheannualWaterfowlBreedingPopulationandHabitatSurveyguidestheSer-viceswaterfowlconservationprogramsunderauthorityofthe1918MigratoryBirdTreatyAct.WaterfowlpopulationsurveysandmonitoringprogramsarecriticalcomponentsofsuccessfulwaterfowlmanagementandareflectionoftheServicescommitmenttogeneratinghigh-qualityscientificdatatoinformcon-servationplanning.USFWSMigratoryBirdProgramreleaseontheTrendsinDuckBreedingPopulations2014www.fws.govmigratorybirdsBySueEricksonStaffWriter PAGE9MAZINAIGANFALL2014GREATLAKESFISHERYCaringforGichigamiHabitatprotectioncriticalTheSacredShellroseupoutofthewaterandtoldthepeoplethatthiswastheplacetheyhadbeensearchingfor.HeretheWaterdrummadeitsseventhandfinalstoponthemigration.TheSacredFirewascarriedhereandhereitburnedbrightly.TheMishomisBookEdwardBenton-BanaiOjibweteachingstellofthelongmigrationthattheOjibwepeopleundertookguidedbytheSacredMegisShelltotheirultimatedestinationMadelineIslandinGichigamiLakeSuperior.ItwasalongtheshoreofLakeSuperiorthattheyfoundthepreciousfoodmanoominwildriceandalandofbeautyandabundance.Itbecametheirhomeland.Todayitistheresponsibilityofallpeopletoprotectthisgreatgiftandresourcewhichnourishesusbothspirituallyandphysically.Thoseofuswhoworkday-to-dayonissuesrelatedtoLakeSuperiorprobablydonotreflectoftenenoughonthisuniqueandmagnificentresource.ByvirtueofitsgreatsizeandgeographicpositionLakeSuperiorcreatesitsownmicroclimatethatdistinctlyinfluencesthefloraandfaunathatfallwithinitsreach.InthecontextofnaturesbeautydiversitypowerandvalueLakeSuperiorstandsalone.Asyoulearnoftheculturalheritageandtravelitsruggedmostlyundevelopedshorelineitiseasytobecomecaptivated.ItisalsoeasytoimaginewhynativepeopleandearlyEuropeanexplorersalikesoreveredandrespectedthisGreatLake.AlthoughmanagingLakeSuperiorfisherieshasbeenandwillcontinuetobeachallengingendeavortheultimatechallengemayrestinourabilitytopreservetheenvironmentonwhichthefisheriesdepend.Fordespiteitsrelativeisolationthelakesgreatsizeandpristinenaturemakeitexceptionallyvulnerabletohumanactivities.SomeofthebroadergoalsthatmustbepursuedtosupporthealthyandstablefishcommunitiesareRestorationandprotectionofnearshorehabitatsAchievementandmaintenanceofwaterandairqualitystandardsRehabilitationofindigenousaquaticspeciesInthisrespectachievementofourfishcommunityandhabitatobjectiveswillserveasanimportantmeasureofourprogresstowardrehabilitatingandprotectingthisuniqueandfragileecosystem.ToachieveourcommongoalofahealthyLakeSuperiorcooperativeactionamonggovernmentsinterestgroupsandconcernedcitizensfrommanydisciplineswillberequired.Ifwearesuccessfulfuturerevi-sionsoffishcommunityobjectivesforLakeSuperiorwilllargelyreflectadesiretosimplymaintainandpreservetheexistingfishcommunityandtheenvironmentonwhichitdepends.StatusofthesheryNamegoslaketroutadikameglakewhitefishandkewisciscoa.k.a.lakeherringareindigenousnativespecieswhosepopulationsarerehabilitatedinGichigami.Otherspecieswhosestatusisuncertainorstillbeingrehabilitatedarenamlakesturgeonogaawalleyeandnamegosbrooktrout.Allofthelakesfishpopulationsdeclinedbetweentheturnofthelastcen-turyandtheearly1960s.Thiswasduetoacombinationofexcessivesealampreymortalityandfishing.Aftersealampreycontrolbegantobesuccessfulwildlaketroutwereprotectedthroughtighterfishingregulationsandhatcherylaketroutwerestocked.In1996muchofthestockingwasdiscontinuedaswildfishwerereproducingwellonmanyofthehistoricspawningreefs.Lakewhitefishrecoverymatchedandthenexceededthatoflaketroutby2000.Ciscorecoveryhasbeenmoremod-estmainlyduetopredationbylaketroutandsporadicsuccessfulrecruitmentyoungfishsurvivingtobecaught.Alsotherearenegativeinteractionsbetweentheinvasivebiijimaagazehnsrainbowsmeltandyoungciscowhichaffectstheciscopopulations.AllinallsincetheturnofthelastcenturyfishingandfishpopulationsinthenearshorewatersofLakeSuperiorhavebeenthebestsincetheturnofthe19thByBillMattesGLIFWCGreatLakesBiologistBimiiziisealampreyarenativetotheAtlanticcoastoftheUnitedStates.TheyinvadedGichigamiLakeSuperiorinthelate1930saftershippingcanalswerebuiltconnectingtheGreatLakestotheocean.Parasiticsealampreysgrowfromsixinchestonearlytwofeetlongineighteenmonthsandinthistimetheykillnearlyfortypoundsoffishbyattachingtothemandsuckingouttheirbodyfluids.IntheproductiveAtlanticOceantheireffectisminimalbutinthelessproductivewatersofLakeSuperiortheireffectcanbedevastatingifpopulationsareleftuncontrolled.Lampreypeakabundanceoccurredinthemid1950spriortothefirstapplica-tionofthelampricideTFM3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenolwhichtargetsandkillslarvallampreysbeforetheybecomeparasiticandstartkillingfish.Inadditiontolampricidebarrierswereconstructedonseveralstreams.Thesebarrierdamsalongwithmanydamsbuiltforlogginghydropowerandotherreasonskeeplampreysfromreachingupstreamspawningareas.LampricideandbarriersarethebackboneofanIntegratedPestManagementIPMapproachtobattlelampreyswhichisledbytheGreatLakesFisheryCommis-sion.Underthisapproachnewtechniquesarebeingdevelopedandoldtechniquesarebeingrevisited.Newtechniquesincludeusingpheromonestoattractorrepelsealampreysinriverstomoreeffectivelytrapthem..OntheBadRiveraGLIFWCcrewisrevisitinganoldtechniquewalkingtheriverhuntingforsealampreyneststodestroy.ThisworkisinadditiontoadultpopulationassessmentworkthatGLIFWChasconductedannuallysince1986incooperationwiththeUSFWSMarquetteSeaLampreyControlBadRiverNaturalResourcesDepartmentandKeweenawBayNaturalResourcesDepartment.Theadultassessmentinadditiontoremovingaportionoftheadultpopulationisusedasameasureoftheeffectivenessofthecontrolprogramandthedamagetothefisherythatcanbeattributedtosealampreys.ThreatstothecontinuanceofeffectivesealampreycontrolinLakeSuperiorinclude1.ApathyAlackofconcernorinterestinthecontrolofsealampreybecauseyearsofeffectivecontrolhaveledtotheirnegativeeffectsnotbeingnoticeable.2.BarrierremovalFreeflowingriversandconnectivityaresoughtafterattributesinwatershedmanagement.HowevertheremovalofthelowermostbarriersinriversystemsopensthemuptoinvasivespeciesfromLakeSuperiori.e.sealampreyriverrufferoundgoby.3.ReducedlampricideeffectivenessEffectivenessisreducedduetolampri-cideusebeingreducedinLakeSuperiortobeusedelsewhereinthebasinandlenticlarvalpopulationsexpandingthosepopulationsnotintheriverswheretheycanbetreatedorbehavioraladaptationstothelampricide.ByBillMattesGLIFWCGreatLakesBiologistJalynLaBineemptiesaportableassessmenttrapofsealampreyintheBadRiverwhileMarissaNeitzkerecordsthedata.PhotobyMikePlucinskiAsealampreyreceivesnclipspriortoreleaseinanefforttodeterminethenumberofspawningsealampreysascendingtheBadRiver.PhotoM.PlucinskiSeeSealampreypage19SeeLakeSuperiorfishpage23Sealampreyremainacriticalissue MAZINAIGANPAGE10FALL2014ENVIRONMENTALFindusonfacebookhttpswww.facebook.comGLIFWCNewzebramusselbiopesticidetobetestedinKeyesLakeBySaraMosesGLIFWCEnvironmentalBiologistScientistsfromtheU.S.Geo-logicalSurveyUSGSarehopefulthatanewexperimentalpesticidemaybeapowerfulweaponinthebattleagainstatroublesomeinvaderinourlakesthezebramussel.TheeffectivenessofthepesticidewillbetestedthissummerinKeyesLakeinthe1842cededterritoryofWisconsin.Zebramusselswerefirstintro-ducedtothelowerGreatLakesinthemid-1980saftertinylarvalmus-selswerereleasedfromtheballastwaterofacommercialcargoshipthatarrivedfromEuropesBlackSea.Bythe1990szebramusselsspreadtoalloftheGreatLakesandnumerousinlandlakesincludingmanylakeswithinthecededterritories.Theyareoftencarriedfromlaketolakeinboatsandbaitbuckets.AccordingtotheWisconsinDepartmentofNaturalResourcesWDNRzebramusselshavebeenfoundin163lakesandriversinthestate.FirstthebadnewsAnarrayofenvironmentalandotherissuesarisefromzebramusselinfestations.Theyclogwaterintakesystemsdisruptecosystemsbyalteringthenaturalfoodwebcontributetoharmfulalgalbloomsoutcompetenativespeciesandlitterbeacheswiththeirsharpshells.ButthegoodnewsisthatZequanoxanewbiopesticidemadefromcellsofacommonbacteriamayprovideanewwaytocombatthisaquaticinvasivespecies.Zequanoxishighlyspecificmeaningitisonlytoxictozebramusselsandtherelatedquaggamusselanotherinvasivespeciesthatisnotyetwellestablishedwithinthecededterritory.Itishighlytoxictothesespecieskillingupto90oftheindividualsinatreatmentarea.Ithasnotbeenfoundtohaveanynegativeimpactonotherspeciesincludingnativemussels.Zebramusselsconsumethebiopesticidealongwithphytoplanktontheirmainfoodsource.ComponentsofthebacterialcellsinZequanoxthendeterioratetheliningofthemusselsdiges-tivetractsresultingindeath.Anypesticideleftintheenvironmentbreaksdownafter18-24hours.Zequanoxisalreadybeingusedtoeradicatezebramusselsfromisolatedindus-trialwaterintakesystemsbutisonlyrecentlybeinginvestigatedforpotentialusedirectlyinlakesandrivers.ThefirstopenwatertestingofthisbiopesticidewithinthecededterritoryisscheduledtotakeplacebetweenJuly15andAugust15inthe194-acreKeyesLakeinFlorenceCounty.Zebramusselswerefirstidentifiedinthelakein2010.Thelakealsohasahealthynativemusselpopulation.TheUSGSincollaborationwithWDNRwillcreateandtreat6enclosuresinthelakefor8hoursobservingthepercentageofzebramusselssuccessfullykilledandassuringthereisnoeffectonthenativemussels.Thebiopesticideisnotanticipatedtobeasilverbulletforeradicatingzebramusselsfromourwaters.Butitmayproveeffectiveforgreatlyreducingthenumberofmusselsintreatedareashelpingalleviatethenegativeimpactsthatarisewhenthepopulationsarehigh.ToseewhereinvasivezebramusselshavebeenfoundinWisconsinMichiganandMinnesotaandtolearnmoreabouthowyoucanhelpstopthespreadoftheseaquatichitchhikersvisithttpinvasives.glifwc.orgais.KeweenawyBayMich.HowmanyyearswillittakebeforethemostsensitivepopulationsinKeweenawBayareabletosafelyconsumetheamountoffishthattheydesireThisistheguid-ingquestionfortheteamofresearchersconductinga1.45millionstudybasedatMichiganTechnologicalUniversityMTUalongwithscientistsfromtheMassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyMITtheDesertResearchInstituteinRenoandBostonUniversity.The3-yearprojectwhichbeganinSeptemberof2013isfundedbytheNationalScienceFoundationNSFandistitledManagingImpactsofGlobalTransportofatmosphere-surfaceexchangeablepollutantsASEPsintheContextofGlobalChange.Thestudyisacollaborationbetween18investigatorswithexpertiseinawiderangeofsubjectsincludingnaturalandsocialsciencesaswellaseducationandoutreach.Theprojectalsoincludes11localregionalnationalandinternationalpartnersincludingKeweenawBayKBIndianCommunityNaturalResourcesandForestryDepartmentsKBOjibwaCommunityCollegeGLIFWCtheNationalParksServiceandtheInter-nationalJointCommissionIJC.ThestudyfocusesonmercurypolychlorinatedbiphenylsPCBsandpolycyclicaromatichydrocarbonsPAHs.Thesecontaminantsarereleasedlargelyasaresultofhumanactivitiesandhaveatendencytoconcentrateinnorthernregionscarriednorthwardbyairandwatercurrents.TheycanbefoundinremoteregionsfarfromtheirsourcessuchastheupperGreatLakesandtheArctic.Oncepresentintheenvironmenttheycanaccumulateinfishandultimatelypeopleresultinginharmtohumanandecosystemhealth.Theirpresencehastriggeredwidespreadfishconsumptionadvisoriesandrestrictionssincetheearly1970s.Theresearchteamisinvestigat-ingseveralcomponentsoftheguidingquestion.FirsttheyareexploringhowmercuryPCBsandPAHsarearrivingintheGreatLakesregionandendupinthefishweeat.Thefocuswillbeontwolocallyimportantspecieswalleyeandlaketrout.Nexttheyarelookingtothefuturewheretheyaimtopredicthowglobalchangewillimpacttheseprocesses.Aspectsofglobalchangetheyareexploringincludeclimatechangepopulationincreaseandchangesinlanduse.Inadditiontheywilllookattheimpactthatexistingandpotentialfutureregulatoryactionsstatefederaltribalandinternationalmayhaveontheemis-sionsandultimatelytheconcentrationsinfishofthesethreecontaminants.Theresearchersalsorecognizeandwillcon-sidertheuniquephysicalsocio-culturalandspiritualimpactsthepresenceofthesecontaminantsinfishhasontribalfishingcommunities.Theprojectwilltakethreeyearstocomplete.AlthoughthestudyisrootedintheKeweenawBayregionanditspeopletheresearchersarescaling-uptolargerareasofconcernsuchasLakeSuperiorandthewiderGreatLakesbasin.Theresearchteamhasengagedthelocalcommunityinhelpingframeandanswertheguidingresearchquestion.Ledbycommunityconcernstheresearchteamiskeepingtheseventhgenerationinmindthroughoutthedurationofthestudyanditsactivities.Foradditionalinformationyoucanvisittheprojectwebsiteatwww.asep.mtu.edu.NewstudylooksatthefutureofsafefishconsumptioninKeweenawBayDenverCo.SeveraltribalstaffincludingGLIFWCsDawnWhiteminingspecialistbenefittedfromaUSGeologicalSurveyUSGStrainingonwatersam-plingtechniquesthissummer.ThetrainingentitledFieldWater-QualityMethodsforGroundWaterandSurfaceWaterincreasedtribalcapacitytoconducteffectivesamplingaswellasprovidecriticalreviewsofsamplingplansproposedbyagenciesandcontractorssaysWhite.ThefocuswasonsurfaceandgroundwatersamplecollectionandsampleprocessingmethodsbasedonUSGSestablishedprotocols.Thetwo-weektrainingwascomprehensiveaccordingtoNaomiTillisonBadRiverWaterResourceSpecialistwhoattendedthetrainingalongwithBadRiverEnvironmentalSpecialistCyrusHester.ItcoveredeveryaspectofwaterqualitymonitoringfromselectingamonitoringsitetoshippingwaterqualitysamplesTillisonstates.Amixoflectureswithlaboratoryandfieldexperiencesallowedparticipantstoactuallypracticeconceptspresentedinlectures.Tillisonwasparticularlyinterestedinreceivingtrainingonmonitoringtracemetalinorganicconstituentsinsurfacewaters.Sheplanstoincorporatelessonslearnedintothetribesmonitoringprojectsandtoultimatelyexpandmonitoringtoincludelow-levelmercury.Shesaidthetrainingalsogavehersomenewper-spectivesonmonitoringthatwillallowhertocontinueimprovingthequalityandeffectivenessofBadRiversexistingprotocols.AsecondtrainingsessionwasattendedbystafffromRedLakeandLacduFlambeau.ThetrainingswerefundedthroughagrantfromtheCharlesStewartMottFoundation.SueEricksonBySaraMosesGLIFWCEnvironmentalBiologistValoreeGagnonKBOCCMTUTribalstaffimprovewatersamplingskillsLaketroutandwalleyelivinginLakeSuperiorspicturesqueKeweenawBayinMichiganarethesubjectofathree-yearstudyofcontaminantlevelsinthesh.Researcherswilllookathowthecontaminantsarrivedthereandwhatimpactclimaticchangemayhaveinthefuture.PhotobyJimSt.Arnold PAGE11MAZINAIGANFALL2014GLRICLIMATECHANGEByJenVanatorGLIFWCGreatLakesProgramCoordinatorSecondGLRIplanlooksat4-yearfundingprioritiesOdanahWis.TheGreatLakesRestorationInitiativeGLRIwasoriginallylaunchedin2010toprovideaninfluxoffundingtoaccelerateeffortstoprotectandrestoretheGreatLakes.GLRIfund-ingdecisionsweredirectedbytheGLRIActionPlanwhichcoveredfiscalyears2010-2014.Nowwithsomefine-tuningfederalofficialsarepreparingforasecondround.TheUnitedStatesEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyEPAreleasedadraftoftheGLRIActionPlanIIPlanIIonMay30whichwilldirectfundingdecisionsunderGLRIforfiscalyears2015-2019.PlanIIwillwhenfinaldirectfundingdecisionsinmuchthesamewayastheinitialActionPlanunliketheoriginalplanhoweverPlanIIdoesnotaddressnewsourcesoftoxicsoutsideofAreasofConcern.PlanIIincorporatesascience-basedadaptivemanagementframe-workthatwillprioritizetheissuestobetargetedwithGLRIresourcesandtoassesstheeffectivenessofGLRIprojects.TobeadaptiveSpecificMeasuresofProgressareincludedinPlanIItotrackandassessallactionsimplementedwithGLRIfunding.FivefocusareasarefeaturedinthenewproposalcleaningupAreasofConcernpreventingandcontrollinginvasivespeciesreducingnutrientrunoffthatcontributestoharmfulornuisancealgalbloomsandrestoringhabitattoprotectnativespeciesandscience-basedadaptivemanagement.Eachoneofthesefocusareasincludesfederalfundingcommitmentsforspecificactivities.UnderPlanIIfundingcontinuesforcleaningupAreasofConcernspecificallytargetingremediationrestorationanddelistingAreasofConcernaswellasincreasingknowledgeaboutcontaminantsinGreatLakesfishandwildlife.UnderthisfocusareathefederalgovernmentcommitstofundingactivitiesthatwillimplementmanagementactionsnecessarytoremoveBeneficialUseImpairmentsandtodelistAreasofConcernreducehumanexpo-suretocontaminantsfromGreatLakesfishconsumptionandidentifyemergingcontaminantsandassesstheirimpactsonGreatLakesfishandwildlife.Tohelpreign-ininvasivespeciesprojectfundingaimstopreventnewinfesta-tionsandtohelpcontrolalready-existinginvasivespecies.UnderthisfocusareaPlanIIcommitstofundingactivitiesthatwillblockpathwaysthroughwhichaquaticinvasivespeciescanbeintroducedtotheGreatLakesecosystemconductearlydetectionandmonitoringactivitiesandrapidresponseactionsorexercises.PlanIIalsocommitstofundingactivitiesthatdevelopandenhancetechnologiesandmethodstopreventtheintroductionandcontrolofinvasivespecies.Italsodevelopsandenhancesinvasivespeciesspecificcollaborativestosupportrapidresponsesandcommunicatethelatestcontrolandmanagementtechniques.Toreducenutrientloadingfederalauthoritieslooktofundactivitiesthatimplementagriculturalorothernutrient-reductionpracticesinGLRI-targetedwatershedswhichwillreduceuntreatedrunofffromurbanwatershedsbyimple-mentingwatershedmanagementpracticesinurbanareasthathaveadoptedawater-shedstrategy.ToprotectrestoreandenhancenativehabitatsPlanIIcommitstofundingactivitiesthatwillremoveorbypassbarriersonGreatLakestributariestofacilitatefishpassageprotectrestoreandenhanceGreatLakescoastalwetlandsandprotectrestoreandenhanceGLRI-targetedhabitatsintheGreatLakesbasin.ThenextphaseoftheGLRIalsokeepsaneyetospecificclimatechangeresiliencycriteriawhichwasdevelopedandincorporatedintoprojectselectionprocesses.PlanIIalsoencouragesactivitiesdesignedtoeducatechildrenabouttheGreatLakesecosystembyfundingactivitiesthatpromoteGreatLakes-basedenvironmentaleducationandstewardshipwithafocusoneducatortraining.WhilePlanIIdoesnothaveaformalpubliccommentperiodtheEPAisacceptingpubliccommentonthenewdraftActionPlanwhileitisbeingedited.GreatLakesIndianFishandWildlifeCommissionstaffsubmittedcommentsthatrecommendedthattheGLRIActionPlanIIalignbetterwithpriorityactivi-tiesdevelopedundertheGreatLakesWaterQualityAgreementandthroughtheLakewideManagementPlanningprocess.ThedraftActionPlancanbefoundandcommentssubmittedontheEPAsGLRIPublicEngagementwebsiteathttpgreatlakesrestoration.uspublic.html.ByAshleyDuffyGLIFWCInternFedsactontriballeadersrecommendationsWashingtonDCAspartoftheClimateActionPlanunveiledlastyearPresidentObamaestablishedtheStateLocalandTribalLeadersTaskForceonClimatePreparednessResilienceinNovember2013.TheTaskForcewaschargedwithprovidingthePresidentwithrecommendationsonhowthefederalgovernmentcanassisttriballocalandstategovernmentsinprepar-ingforandrecoveringfromtheeffectsofclimatechangesuchasincreasedsevereweatherevents.TheTaskForceismadeupofgovernorsmayorsandtriballeadersincludingKarenDiverChairwomanoftheFondduLacBandofLakeSuperiorChippewaMinnesotaandReggieJouleMayoroftheNorth-westArticBoroughAlaska.FromJanuary2014untilMay2014TaskForcemembersgatheredinfor-mationtodeveloprecommendations.DuringthattimeChairwomanDiverandMayorJouleundertookextensiveoutreachtoIndianCountrytogatherasmuchinformationaspossiblefromtribalcommunitiesaboutthebarrierstoaccessingfederalprogramsandsugges-tionsonhowthefederalgovernmentcanbestassisttribalcommunitiespreparefortheeffectsofclimatechange.TaskForcemembersworkedwiththeCoun-cilonEnvironmentalQualityCEQtodevelopthisinformationintousefulrecommendationsthatcanbepresentedtotheWhiteHouse.OnJuly16theTaskForcemetforafinalin-personmeetinginWashingtonD.C.todiscusstherecommendationsthathavebeenidentifiedasprioritiesbymembersoftheTaskForce.IntheafternoonPresidentObamametwiththeTaskForceandusedthatopportunitytopubliclyannounceasetofactionsbasedonearlyrecommendationsprovidedbytheTaskForce.IncludedintheseearlyactionsisanewprogrambytheBureauofIndianAffairstodevelopaFederal-TribalClimateResiliencePartnershipandTechnicalAssistanceProgramthatwillhelptribesprepareforclimatechangebydevelopinganddeliveringadapta-tionplanning.TheannouncementalsoincludesfiveClimateExtensionSupportLiaisonstotheDepartmentofInteriorsClimateScienceCenterstoworkwithtribesattheregionallevelidentifyingbasicinformationandscienceneedsandtoworkwithotherfederalagenciestoaddressthoseneeds.TheseactionscamedirectlyfromrecommendationsprovidedbyChairwomanDiverandMayorJoulethroughtheiroutreachtoIndianCountry.TheTaskForcememberswiththehelpofCEQareplanningtocompileafulldraftreportsometimeinAugust2014whichtheTaskForcememberswillreview.LaterinSeptembertheWhiteHouseandvariousagencieswillbeconsultedonthefinaldraftoftheClimatePreparednessResilienceReportwhichwillthenbesubmittedtothePresidentandreleasedpubliclybylateSeptember.EssentialOjibwemowingichigamiLakeSuperiorgiigoonhfishadikamiglakewhitefishgidagaaginoozhinorthernpikechinamekoslaketroutLocationswithintheGreatLakesidentiedashavingexperiencedhighlevelsofenvironmentalharm.Reprintedfromhttpwww.ec.gc.caraps-pas MAZINAIGANPAGE12ByDylanJenningsGLIFWCLTETrimmingandcuttingabuffalohidetoformthedrumshead.AnotherstepintheprocessJoeSyretteandBadRiveryouthassemblethedrumframe.BadRiveryouthcompleteconstructionandlaceupthedeweigan.GatheringsupplAnishinaabeartistsBadRiverReservationWis.Onebuffalohidesomescrewsafewplywoodboardsandalittleelbowgreasefromouryoutharejustwhatthedrumdoctorordered.DuringthefirstweekinJulyBadRiversummeryouthworkershadtheopportunitytobuildadrumfromframeupfortheircommunity.Actuallytheybuiltnotonebuttwodrums.JoeSyretteadrummakerfromtheBatchewanaFirstNationsinSaultSte.MariearrivedonMondayandputtheyouthtoworkimmediately.JoeisAnishinaabefromOntarioCanadaandrecognizestheimportanceofkeep-ingouryouthconnectedtothecultureandtraditionalteachings.Theprocessofdrummakingalsocomeswithasetofteachingsthatarerarelywritteninbooks.Joewasraisedaroundthedeweigandruminatraditionalmannerandhassungwithsomeofpow-wowcountrysbestdrumgroupsfromBearCreektoNorthernCree.IcameupthiswaytowardsMilleLacsforBigDrumserviceslastspring.IcanremembersomeoftheoldmentellingmethatBadRiverusedtohavedrumslikethatintheircommunity.Itelltheyoungonesheretodaythattheyaremakinghistory.Thesedrumswillbearoundforalongtimeandthegenerationstocomewillseethisandrecognizethewonderfulthingsouryoutharecapableof.Onedrumisdesignatedfortheyouthandtheotherdesignatedforthecom-munity.Thecommunitydrumcanbeusedatfuneralscelebrationsandanythingthecommunitymaywishtouseitfor.Thedrumwillbefeastedandabriefceremonywillbeconductedshortlyafterthedryingprocess.TribalChairmanMikeWigginsrecallsOureldersrememberthattherewasatimewhenBadRiverhadBigDrumsandthattheyhadaroleinthegoodlifeofourpeople.AcoupleofyearsagotherewasasmallgroupofBadRivermemberswhojourneyedWesttoattendceremonieswiththetribewhostilltakescareoftheBigDrumsthatusedtobeinBadRiver.OurBadRiverpeoplewouldliketoseeaBigDrumreturnsomeday.ThemessagethatcamebacktoBadRiverwasthattherewasalotofworkthatstillneedstobedonehereandthatwewerentreadyyet.ItakethatmessageasapositivenotethatimpliesgoodpossibilitiesforthefuturehereinBadRiver.WatchingouryouthreceiveteachingsaboutdrumsandalsohowtheyaremadeissomethingthatIdefinitelyregisterasthetypeofworkandprepthatgoesintoacommunitygettingreadyforadaywhenaBigDrumcomeshome.Ofcoursethereisstillalotmoreworkandceremonythatneedstobedonetoo.DeweiganagreturnstoBadRiverJoeSyretteBatchewanaFirstNationsinstructsBadRiveryouthonhowtoconstructadrumframe.PhotosbyDylanJenningsCULTURAL PAGE13MAZINAIGANRedCliffReservationWis.Gaagtheporcupineisacommonsightinthenorthwoods.Heismostoftenseeninthetreeseatinghisfavoritespringtimebudsorwaddlingslowlyalongthesideoftheroadandinsomeunfortunatecaseshebecomesroadkill.TheroadkillgaagwaghoweverareimportanttomanyNativeAmericanstodayforacquiringquillswhicharenaturalitemsthathavebeenusedfortraditionalcraftsandregaliaadornmentlongbeforetheintroductionofglassbeadsintribalcom-munities.QuillworkisaformofartthatisstillpracticedtodayandonJune6RedCliffcommunitymembersgotachancetolearnhowtodoplaitedquillworkundertheinstructionofKathyKaeinterimprogrammingassistantNorthlandCollegesNativeAmericanandIndigenousCulturalCenter.AfterlearningfromanelderinMichiganKathyKaehasbeenquillingforovertenyearsandhasbeendoingplaitstylequillworkforaboutfouryears.RedCliffwelcomedherintoaclassroomattheEarlyChildhoodDevelopmentCenterwhereKaeexplainedhowtogetquillsfromroadkillgaagwaghowtoproperlycleananddyethemandhowtostartquillwork.Shechoosestoquillonbirchbarkandshebroughtallotheritemsnecessarytotheclassroomtoteacheagercommunitymembershowtoquill.Theclassroomwasbuzzingwithexcitedquestionsjokeslaughterandcom-parisonsbetweenquillworkandbeadwork.Accordingtosomestudentsstartingquill-workisthehardestpart.Theonlywaytolearnitistodoitanotherstudentnoted.KathyKaewasbroughttoRedCliffthroughtheNativeAmericanandIndig-enousCulturalCenteratNorthlandCollege.OneofthemainfocusesoftheCulturalCenteristribalcommunityoutreachtosupportNativestudentsbyprovidingasenseofcommunityoncampus.TheCulturalCenteralsoservesasaneducationalresourceofOjibweculturalknowledgeforpeoplebothonandoffcampus.AccordingtotheprogramsdirectorKatrinaWerchouskithecommunityoutreachisanefforttoshowthatNorthlandCollegegenuinelycaresaboutcommittingtotribalcommunitiesandNativeeducation.PlaitedquillingintriguesnovicequillersatRedCliffByEmilyNelisGLIFWCSummerInternFondduLacReservationMinn.ItsadifferentworldatFondduLacsKiwenzCampgroundduringtheannualLanguageCamp.YouhearasmuchOjibwemowinspokenasEnglishsignageisinOjibwemowinandlikemostplaceswherelotsofshinabesgatherthereisalsoalotoflaughter.The6thAnnualKiwenzOjibweLanguageCampwasheldJune19-June22attheKiwenzCampgroundinSawyerMinnesota.OnJune20threeGLIFWCinternstraveledtotheFondduLacreservationtofindthecampbustlingwithfluentOjibwemowinspeakerstraditionalcraftboothsandmanypeoplefromaroundthecountryandeventheworldjoiningtogethertolearntheOjibwelanguageandgetahands-onexperiencewithOjibweculture.TheOjibweLanguageCamphostsdifferentactivi-tieseveryyear.Thecraftstaughtthisyearincludedbirchbarkbasketmakingbeadingquillingmoccasinsewingriceknockercarvingleatherpouchesandrattles.Therewerealsomanyothercommunity-buildingeventssuchasfeastscanoeracesatalentshowarounddanceasmallpowwowandatalkingcircleasthecampfinalized.TheOjibweLanguageCampwascreatedbyFondduLacmembersJimandPatNorthrupandRickGresc-zyk.AccordingtoJimandPatthecampwasinitiallystartedtoactivelyusetheOjibwelanguageteachothersthelanguageandprovideanonthreateningrespectfulandfunatmosphereforthosewhowishtolearnaboutOjibweculture.EveryyearthecampsattendanceseemstogrowdespitenotbeingadvertisedotherthanbywordofmouthandFacebook.LastyearsKiwenzOjibweLanguageCampattracted1215people.WithsomanyactiveparticipantsandavidlearnersattendingthecamptheKiwenzCampdefinitelyhasapositiveimpactontheFondduLaccommunityandhasalsocreatedarippleeffectthatcontinuouslydrawsinpeoplefromsurroundingcommunitiesandevenplacessuchastheNavajoNationAlaskaJapanandNewZealandCampersreturnedtotheirvarioushomestiredbutenrichedfromexperiencesthataffirmedandstrengthenedallthatisOjibwecarryingwiththemnotonlyitemstheyhadcraftedbutalsoagoodspiritandbetterfeelforthelanguageanditsmeaning.ByEmilyNelisGLIFWCSummerInternKathyKaeNorthlandCollegesNativeAmericanandIndigenousCulturalCentercoachedonthetechniquesofplaitedquill-workonbirchbarkatRedCliffthissummer.Participantscouldselectfromahostofdyedquillsorusethenaturalquill.E.NelisKiwenzparticipantswereguidedbymasterbirchbarkcrafterJimNorthrupinconstructingtheultimatewinnowingbasket.Aboveacampparticipantputsinthefnishingstitches.PhotobyDarienneNezesfromnatureharetraditionalskillsOjibweskillslanguageatKiwenzORKSHOPS MAZINAIGANPAGE14FALL2014GLIFWCNEWSGLIFWCcookbookfeaturesAnishinaabefavoritesRecipeshighlighttraditionalfoodshealthyeatingGLIFWCsnewcookbookMinoWiisinidaLetsEatGoodwillbereadyfordistributionbytheendofAugust2014.The200-pagebookplusDVDincludesrecipesfeaturingtraditionalAnishinaabefoodswhichsupportahealthylifestyleharvestingreferencesandresourcesaswellaskitchensafetyandcross-contaminationtips.Aculminationofthethree-yearprojectMinoWiisinidaLetsEatGoodTraditionalFoodsforHealthyLivingthecookbookistheresultofnumerousinterviewswithtribalcommunitymembersandeldersforinformationonfavoriterecipesaswellasgatheringandprocessingtips.Colorphotosaswellasnutritionalinformationenhancethecookbook.ThisprojectwasfundedthroughagrantfromtheAdministrationforNativeAmericans.Moreinformationonavailabilityandpricingwillbeinthewinteredi-tionofMazinaiganaswellaspostedonGLIFWCsFacebookpageandwebsiteearlythisfall.SueEricksonGLIFWCs2014posterfeaturesmaiinganwolf.MilleLacsartistWesleyBallingersucceedsinillustratingthespecialkinshipfeltbetweentheAnishinaabeOjibwepeopleandmaiingan.MaiinganandOriginalMantraveledtheworldtogetheraccordingtoateachingintheMishomisBookbyEddieBenton-Banai.AsMaiinganandOriginalMantraveledtheybecamelikebrothersbuttheirpathseventuallyparted.18x24postersareavailablethroughGLIFWCatPOBox9OdanahWI54861byphone715-685-2150oremaillynnglifwc.org.Theycanbeorderedonlineatwww.glifwc.orgpublicationsindex.htmlPosters.Therstposterisfreeandthereisachargeof2.50pluspostageforeachadditionalposter.812x11postersareavailablefor30eachpluspostage.WitharstrunhotoffthepressalimitednumberofGLIFWCsnewcookbooksweredistributedattheJulyBoardofCommissionersmeetingbyprogramcoordinatorLaTishaCofnanddieticianOwenMaroney.AbovereceivingtheircopiesareFredAckleyandFranVanZilefromMoleLakewhoserecipeforMoleLakelobsterisinthenewbook.PhotobySueEricksonGidinawemaaganinaanOurRelativeJordanMcKellipsOdanahWis.ForMosineeWisconsinnativeJordanMcKellipsthetimespenttaggingalongwithhisdadonfishingandhuntingexcur-sionshelpedcreatealovefortheoutdoorsandthedesiretoprotectit.AtaroundeightornineyearsoldIstartedgoingwithmydadonhuntsinaduckblindMcKellipssaid.Duringdeerseasonwedsitinoneofthoseboxblindsthatacoupleofguyscanfitinto.OfficerMcKellipsanewwardenintheEnforcementDivisioncomestoGLIFWCwithaBachelorofScienceinNaturalResourcesLawEnforcementfromUW-StevensPoint.AtnearbyMid-StateTechnicalCollegehecompletedthe520-hourBasicRecruittraining.McKellipsbeganhisconservationenforcementcareerin2013asarangerintheNorthernHighlandsStateForest.AtGLIFWCMcKellipshasbeenbusywithadvancedtrainingaccompanyingveteranwardensinthefieldtoacquireabroadrangeofexperiences.HellsoontaketoLakeSuperiortolearntheGichigamibeatwhichincludesmonitoringthecommercialfisheryandassistingboatersinemergencysituations.Withtheseasonaldemandsofthejobopportunitiesforwardenstohuntandfishforthemselvesarelimited.McKellipsdoesntseeaproblem.Thetrade-offisspendingsomuchtimeoutdoorshesaid.Yourepatrol-lingonasnowmobileaboatanATVallthesethingsyoudliketodoanyway.NewofficerslaunchGLIFWCEnforcementcareersDanPerraultSportsandfitnesshaveplayedabigroleinthelifeofGLIFWCsnewwardenDanPerraultaKeweenawBayIndianCommunityKBICmember.PerraultrecentlycompletedbasictrainingattheWisconsinStatePatrolAcademyatFortMcCoyandwillbestationedinGLIFWCsEasternDistrict.PerraultisjustshyofabachelorsdegreeinfitnessandsportsmanagementfromMichiganTechnicalUniversityMarquetteMichiganwherehewasrecruitedtoplayfootballandplayedasalinebackerforfiveseasons.HiscollegefootballwasanextensionofahighschoolcareerplayingbothfootballandhockeyinLAnseMichigan.TheabilitytoworkoutdoorsiswhatattractedPerraulttoapositionwiththeGLIFWCEnforce-mentDivision.Thatswherehewantstobe.Hewasbroughtupinthehuntingandfishingtraditionwithhisdadandbrother.IhavebeenhuntingandfishingsinceIcouldwalkhesaysandlearnedthetraditionalwayslikeputtingdowntobaccofrommydadandgrandpa.PriortocomingtoGLIFWCPerraultworkedasatechnicianfortheKBICDepartmentofNaturalResources.Healsoparticipatesinotheroutdoorsportslikegolfandbiking.S.EricksonTherearealotofinteractionswithpeopletoowhichIlike.McKellipswillreceiveacededterritorydutystationsometimethiswinter.C.RasmussenJordanandDanassistedparticipantspriortotheceremonialcanoetripatSandyLake.PhotobyCOR PAGE15MAZINAIGANFALL2014RECOLLECTIONSOFTHEPASTThetreaty-makingperiodbetweentheOjibweNationandtheUnitedStatesGovernmenthadcometoanend.LandwascededtotheUnitedStatesbytheOjibweNationinexchangeforcertainprotectedrightsagreeduponinthetreaties.StatehoodisgrantedtoWisconsinin1848.SoonthereafterenrolledmembersoftheOjibweNationbecomesubjectedtofederalandstatelawsregardlessofwhatwasagreeduponinthetreaties.WhatfollowsaremymemoriesofthingsthathappenedtoourpeopleMr.KenBasinaandhisfamilyliveddownattheOldHouseatthetimewhenforsomereasonthegamewardenstoppedbyhishouseandnoticedanolddeerhidelayingintheshed.Mr.Basinawaschargedandhadtospendthirty30daysinjail.Itwasinthewintersometimeago.IwanttosayduringthemonthofMarch.OneSaturdaymorningwegottogetherDonaldDuckLivingstonEarlButchLivingstonandmyselfandheadedouttotheSandRiverareatohuntdeer.Idontbelieveourfamilieswerestarvingorifourparentsjustwantedsomegoodoldvenisononthetable.Whateverthecasemaybeweweregoinghunting.UponarrivingonthenorthsideofSandRiverdownintheareawhereallthedeerwerereportedtohavebeenseenwewereabouttobeginourhunt.Allofsuddenwenoticedthataloggerwaswavingusovertohissideandhebegantotellusthatthegamewardenswerejustdownhereinthisarea.AndsowiththatinformationwedecidedtogoovertotheSugarBushareatodoourhunting.UponleavingtheSugarBushareawithourgunscasedandinthetrunkofthecarwestartedbackhome.JustafewfeetpastthePointDetourroadthegamewardenMr.Dahlstedstoppedus.HefirstorderedDucktoopenthetrunkofhiscarandatthesametimeheorderedButchandItostandoutsidethevehicle.HethenorderedDucktogetbackintohisvehicleandbegantoquestionhim.HetoldDuckthattheboottracksinthesnowoutinSandRivermatchedupwithhisboots.ButchandIlaughedatthatcommentandtoldDucknottotellhimanything.Bythistimeabout15to20minuteshadgonebyandhewasstillquestioningDuckinsidethecar.ItwastimeforasmokesoButchlitupacigaretteandIlitupmypipewithgoodoldPrinceAlberttobacco.UpontellingMr.DahlstedtoeitherarrestusorletusgoMr.DahlstedimmediatelygotoutofhisvehicleandstoodwithininchesofmyfacechesttochestandsaidKeepyourmouthshutDePerryorIlltakethatpipeofyoursandshoveitdownyourf---inthroat.HethenturnedtogetbackintohisvehiclebutnotbeforeButchtoldhimtomysurpriseIfyoufeelfroggiewhydontyougoaheadandleapWithinafewmoreminutesheletDuckoutofhiscaranddroveaway.Afterthatepisodeweputourhuntingoffforafewdays.InthefalloftheyearwhenthelaketroutandthebrownscomeinclosetoshoretospawnHenryBuf-faloSr.andMikeDipDePerrywouldgodownbythewatersedgeandsetagillnet.Theywouldhavetowaituntilafterdarktosettheirnet.AftergettingtheircoffeeandalittlesnackreadyathometheywouldheaddownthetrailbehindthechurchthatledthemneartoChicagoCreek.Itwasinthisareaofftheshoretheywouldsettheirgillnet.Aftersettingtheirnettheirlittlewoodenboatwaspulleduponshoreandplacedbackinthewoodsoutofsight.Theretheywouldsitlateatnightholdingontotheinsidelinethatwastiedtothenet.Byholdingthelinetheycouldtellwhenafishhadhitthenettobecaughtandiftheyhadtopullthenetinoutofthewaterinahurrytheycoulddothataswell.Thegamewardenswouldpatrolthisareafromtimetotimeanditwasreportedtheywouldliftthenetsiftheywouldcomeuponthem.TherearemanystorieslikethisthroughoutIndianCountryandmanyofourIndianfamilieshadtosuffertheloss.WhiletheTreatyof1854withtheOjibweclearlystatedthatwehadtherightofhuntingfishingandgatheringmanyofourfamilymembershadtopaythepriceofeitherbeingsenttojailandorpayafine.RecollectionsofeventsatRedCliffpriortotheLCODecisionByRonDePerryForMazinaiganRonDePerry.PhotosubmittedItwasduringthesummerof1969uponreturninghomeafterathree-yearhitchintheU.S.Armyandbeingdischarged.TherewasmuchtalkaroundtheRezanditseemedthroughoutIndianCountrythatthetreatyrightswerenotbeingupheldbytheUnitedStatesGovernmentandarrestsofIndianscontinuedtobemadebystategamewardensforhuntingandfishing.Weheldoneofseveralmeet-ingsorgatheringstodiscusswhatwethoughtneededtohappenhereontheRedCliffReservationtoprotectourtreatyrights.WhileitwasfinallyagreeduponthatsixofuswouldsetagillnetinLakeSuperioritwasalsoagreeduponthattribalmembersfromtheSt.CroixBandwouldgooutthenightbeforeandgetarrestedforhunting.Ourinitialplanwastogetarrestedandtobringboththehuntingandfishingrightsintothecourtsystems.DaysbeforetheactualarrestallthelocalTVstationsintheareaandthelocalnewspaperswerenotifiedthattribalmembersfromtheRedCliffBandandtheSt.CroixBandweregoingtotestthehuntingandfishingrightsoftheTreatyof1854.Itwasafterdarkthenightbeforethatweagreedtosetthegillnetofftheshoresinthelocationoftheboatlanding.TheareatodayistheplaceofourTribescampgroundandthelocationoftheLegendaryWatersHotelandCasino.Aswegotdowntotheboatlandingwecouldhearaboatsmotorrunningandtheboathaditsrunninglightsturnedoff.KnowingthesoundoftheboatsmotorweknewitwasthegamewardensboatthatwasanchoredofftheshoresofRoysPoint.AquicktelephonecalltotheCoastGuardStationinBayfieldnotifiedthemthataboatwasanchoredofftheshoresinRedCliffwithitsrunninglightsoffwasindistress.MinuteslateraswewatchedfromtheshoretheboatsrunninglightscameonandtheboatheadedtowardBayfield.Thegillnetwasthenset.Thedaythegillnetwastobeliftedorraisedoutofthewaterpeoplebegantoarriveattheboatlanding.ThereweremanylocaltribalmembersfromRedClifftheretoincludewomenelderswhocarriedsignsandbannersthatreadIndianPowerandProtectTreatyRights.Themediafromthelocaltelevisionstationsandnewspaperalsoarrived.Therewerealsolocalnon-nativefishermenandtheirfamiliestheretogivesupport.TherewasalsoagroupofstudentsfromtheUni-versityofWisconsin-SuperiorthatheardtherewasgoingtobeaFishInandtheywerethereaswell.Itwasnowtimetogetaboardthetwoflatbottomboatsthatweremadeavail-abletousforthisoccasionbyaRedClifftribalelderMr.FranklynBasina.InoneboattherewasMr.PhilipGordonMr.RichardGurnoeandMr.LouisButtsPetersonandintheotherboatwereMr.AllenBearMr.RogerBasinaandMr.RonDePerry.Aswepushedofftheshoretoheadtowardthegillnetthegamewardensboatwasmakingitswayrighttowardus.AsthenetwasbeingliftedMr.Gordonhelduptheonlycatchofthedaywhichwasabigsucker.Whilethiscatchdrewmanyloudcheersfromtheshorethegamewardenatthistimeorderedusunderarrestandtocomeaboardtheirboatimmediately.Hethenturnedtothethreeofusandsaidthatwewerearrestedtooandtoldustoclimbaboardaswellbeforewesink.WiththecrowdstillcheeringfromtheRedCliffshoreswewerethentakenbyboattothegamewardenstationinBayfield.UponarrivingatthedockinBayfieldwewerethenorderedtogetinthetwowaitingvehiclesthattransportedustotheBayfieldCountyCourthousetobearraigned.Thecourtroomwasfilledwithstandingroomonly.WhenthejudgeenteredtheroomheimmediatelyturnedtothetribalelderwomenthatwerecarryingtheirsignsandsaidLadiesIwillhavenoneofthatinmycourtroom.WillyouhavethosesignsremovedandplacethemoutsideChargeswerethenenteredintothecourtrecordsandallsixofusenteredapleaofnotguilty.Acourtdatewassetalongwithafinethathadtobepaidinsomanydays.Uponarrivinghomethatdaywewerequicktofindoutthatthetribalmem-bersfromSt.Croixdidnotgetarrestedforhunting.Althoughadeerwasshotandplacedontheirvehicleupondrivingthroughthevarioustownsthegamewardenswouldnotarrestthem.InRedCliffwewerelatertoldthatourfinesweregoingtobepaidbytheTribe.ThatthelocalbankhadreportedtotheTribethattherewasanoldaccountthatstillhadsomemoneyinitfromtheTreatyCelebrationof1954Thingswerelookingup.HowitcametobeSomewhereinthewholeprocessitwasunderourlegalcouncilsadvicethatwewereaskedtoarriveatasinglepersonsnametobeenteredintotheargumentsofourcase.UponthesixofusinvolvedMr.PetersonandMr.Gurnoeweretheonlytwothatweremakingalivingfortheirfamiliesasfishermen.WeweretoldthatithadtobeunanimousamongthesixofusandsoaftersomediscussionwehadagreedthatMr.Gurnoeshouldbenamed.AsoftodayfiveofthesixRedClifftribalmembershaveWalkedOnandcontinuetheirJourneyintheOtherWorld.FornootherreasonsIthoughtitwasimportanttoallconcernedthatthetimehascometotellTheStorybehindtheStory.Miigwitch.Gurnoe-vs-theStateTheStorybehindtheStoryByRonDePerryforMazinaigan MAZINAIGANPAGE16FALL2014GLIFWCINTERNSOdanahWis.Rigoroushomeworkandexamsmicrowaveablefoodfinancialstressesandmeetingnewpeoplesumsupthecollegeexperience.Whilebalancingresponsibilitiesthatgoalongwithpost-secondaryeducationmaybeatoughtaskforsomeGLIFWCreachesouttocollegestudentsforanopportunitythatmoststudentsdesireaninternship.ForanumberofyearsGLIFWCsLakeSuperiorfisherieswildlifeandwildricedivisionshavehiredNorthlandCollegestudentstoworkalongsideGLIFWCexpertsintheirrespectivefields.SomehavebeenNativeAmericans.NowunderthedirectionoftheBoardofCommissionersGLIFWChasbroadeneditshorizonsandextendedinternshipopportunitiesexclusivelytotribalmembercollegestudents.HowevernotallinternshipsatGLIFWCareGLIFWC-sponsored.Thenewinternshipprogramwasplannedwellaheadin2013andGLIFWCsoondevelopedapaid-internshipopportunityposterthatwasdistributedamongstallelevenmembertribeshighereducationdepartmentsandregionalcollegesanduniversities.AccordingtoGLIFWCsPlanningDevelopmentProgramSpecial-istJimSt.Arnoldthemaingoalofimplementingtribal-membercollegestudentsintotheinternshipprogramistopresentopportunitiesforyoungergenerationsofGLIFWCmembertribestobecomefamiliarwithGLIFWCwhatGLIFWCdoeslearnaboutthedifferentdivisionsworkinspecificfieldenvironmentsandgainmoreknowledgealongtheway.CurrentlyGLIFWCinternshipqualificationsincludebeingenrolledasafull-timeundergraduateorgraduatestudentandalthoughinternshipsareopentoeveryonetribalmembersfromGLIFWCsmembertribesreceivepreference.StudentsmustalsohaveaninterestinafieldinvolvedwithnaturalresourcesandmusthaveadesiretoworkwithNativeAmericantribes.SpecificGLIFWCdivisionsarelistedontheapplicationandinternsareplacedintocertainfieldsbasedontheirinterests.GLIFWCwantstogiveeveryinternanexcitinglearningexperience.Currentinternsarealsoencouragedtoapplyforasecondtimeiftheychoosetodoso.AlthoughthereisnocurrentevaluationprocessforinternsGLIFWCisplan-ningonworkingwithsomecollegesanduniversitiestopossiblyturninternshipsintoaworkstudyprogramtoallowstudentstoreceivecollegecredit.GLIFWCisplanningtoprovidemanymorefunandexcitingopportunitiesinthefutureforstudentstoreceivejobskillstheywouldnotnormallygetinacollegelecturehall.MeetGLIFWCinternsDarienneNezComingfromtheNavajoNationinArizonaDarienneNezisinterningwithGLIFWCsIntergovernmentalAffairsDivisionthissummer.ShecameherethroughtheInstituteforTribalEnvironmentalProfessionalsITEPwhichisaprogramthatGLIFWCparticipatesinasahostsiteforinterns.AsasenioratNorthernArizonaUniversitysheismajoringinbiologicalsci-enceswithminorsinmath-ematicsandchemistry.HermainfocuswhileworkingatGLIFWCisclimatechangeandsheisworkingonareportRecommendationsforClimatePreparednessandResilience.DarienneenjoysworkingatGLIFWCandshesaysherfavoritepartoftheinternshipistheabilitytorelateherworkexperiencetoherbiologydegree.DariennealsolikeslearningaboutOjibwetreatyrightsandissuestheOjibweareexperiencingwithcli-matechange.ShewasinitiallydrawntoworkatGLIFWCbecauseWisconsinhassuchadifferentenvironmentcomparedtoArizonaandshealsowantedtocompareandcontrasttribalissuesbetweentheNavajosandtheOjibweg.AftergraduationDariennewishestoworkfortheNavajoNationDepartmentofFishandWildlifeduetoherpositiveexperiencesatGLIFWC.OtherplansmayincludegradschoolatUniversityofColoradoortheUniversityofArizonatostudyequinescienceoranimalscience.Dariennehashighhopesforadoctoratedegree.AsidefromstudyingandworkingDarienneenjoystrainingandridinghorseswhichareherpassionandsheisalsoteachingherselftoplaytheguitarsingandspeakhernativelanguage.CharlesWigginsCharlesWigginsisfromBadRiverandheinhisjunioryearatNorthlandCollege.Charlesisdoublemajoringinwaterandecologywithaminoringeology.HeisabiologicalscienceinternatGLIFWCandhedoesvariousthingswithalldifferentdivisionswithinGLIFWC.Heenjoysworkingwithdifferentdepart-mentsinsteadoffocusingononesingletaskespeciallybecausethisgiveshimamorebroadenedworkexperience.CharlesappliedtoGLIFWCtohelpbuilduphisrsumgainmoreworkexperi-encenetworkandlearnmoreaboutdifferentresourcesforhimtouse.Afterhegraduateshehopestofindsustainableemployment.MeanwhileCharlesenjoystakingcareofhisdaughterandplayingguitarinhisfreetime.PaulSoulierAsasenioratUW-EauClaireRedClifftribalmemberPaulSou-lierismajoringinAmericanIndianstudiesandpoliticalscience.HeworkswithGLIFWCsPlanningandDevelopmentDivisionwherehedoesnumerousjobssuchashelpingeditacookbookassistingwithinformationalboothsgettingsuppliesfromstoragehelpingoutontraditionalecologicalknowledgeandharvestingwildplants.PaulenjoysworkingatGLIFWCduetotheflexibilityofhispositionandthevarietyofworkexperienceitoffers.HeisespeciallyinterestedinintertribalorganizationssuchasGLIFWCandsincehisfatherisaGLIFWCgamewardenPaulisinterestedtoseewhatGLIFWCisabletodoandwhatithasdoneinthepast.AftergraduatingfromUW-EauClairePaulhopestofindajobpossiblyintribalgovernmentGLIFWCortheBureauofIndianAffairs.InhisfreetimePaullikestoplaytheguitarhesinabandathiscollegewatchsportsfishandhangoutwithpoliticians.AshleyDuffyAshleyDuffyisalsofromRedCliffandsheisinherfifthyearatUW-EauClairemajor-inginAmericanIndianStudies.SheisworkingwithGLIFWCsIntergovernmentalAffairsDivi-sionandsheisfocusingonglobalclimatechangeandtheeffectithasonindigenousspeciestheOjibwetraditionallyused.Ashleyenjoysherpositionbecausesheisinterestedinglobalwarmingandsheisabletodoresearchandfindhowglobalwarmingdirectlyaffectsaculture.WithherfatheralongtimerepresentativetotheVoigtInter-tribalTaskForceAshleysaysshehasalwaysknownaboutGLIFWC.WhensheappliedasaninternsheknewherpositionwouldbeagreatfitforherandsheknewshewouldenjoyworkingatGLIFWC.AftershegraduatesAshleyplansonattendinglawschool.WhensheisnotworkingandstudyingAshleyenjoysreadingbeadingtravelinglearningtheOjibwelanguageandgoingtothebeachwhenitswarm.JaylynLaBineAnotherOjibweinternfromadifferentreservationisJalynLaBinewhoisfromMoleLake.JalynisasophomoreatUW-StevensPointandsheismajor-inginmarinebiology.SheisaGLIFWCLakeSuperiorFisheriesinternandherpositionallowshertousegillnetstocapturejuvenilesturgeontakegirthlengthforklengthaddfloytagsaddtransmitterscollectandreleasesealampreyfordataandcollectotolithssamplesfromwhitefish.Jalynlikesgoingoutsideinthefieldtogetdownanddirtyinsteadofbeinginanoffice.Afterherfatherandthechairmanofhertribetoldheraboutinternshippossibili-tiesJalynappliedatGLIFWCtoexperiencenewthingsonadifferentreservationFromlecturehallstoLakeSuperiorGLIFWCsummerinternsof2014ByEmilyNelisGLIFWCInternDarienneNez.PhotobyEmilyNelisCharlesWiggins.PhotobySueEricksonPaulSoulier.PhotobyEmilyNelisAshleyDuffy.PhotobyEmilyNelisSeeInternsandLTEspage22ThroughtheinternshipprogramatGLIFWCwehopetogivecollegestudentsespeciallytribalcollegestudentsreallifeexperiencesandknowledgethattheycantakewiththemthroughouttheircareerwhethertheycomebacktoworkforusoneofthetribesorsomewhereelse.JimSt.ArnoldProgramCoordinator PAGE17MAZINAIGANFALL2014PURPLEMARTINMilleLacsReservationMinn.TheMilleLacsDepartmentofNaturalResourcesandEnvironmentMLNREisembarkingonitsthirdyearofpurplemartinresearchthisyearusingGPStrackingonthebirdstogetmorefinitereadingsonmigrationlocations.InpartnershipwithYorkUniversityTorontoCanadatheMilleLacsBandhasbeenworkingtoidentifytheprecisemigrationpatternsofpurplemartinsandpossiblyidentifyatwhatpointthebirdsarerunningintoproblems.Intheprevioustwoyearsoftrackingresearchersusedgeo-locatorsthatrelyonlightlevelstoindicatewhereabirdisonthemap.Accuracywiththegeo-locatorsiswithin50milesaccordingtoKellyApplegateMilleLacsFishandWildlifebiologistwhereasthenewGPSunitswilltrackthebirdwithin30feetofthebirdslocationgivingresearchersamuchmorepreciseideaofthebirdspath.Thisisground-breakingscienceexplainsApplegate.ThisisafirstusingGPStotrackthesebirds.Thepurplemartinhasevolvedtobetotallydependentonmanforitshabitatwithitsnaturalnestinggroundssuchaswoodysnagsmostlycleanedout.Thisisonereasonwhyfolksinterestedinthesurvivalofthepurplemartinputuppurplemartincondominiumsfornestingpurposesandencourageotherlandlordstodosoaswell.ThePurpleMartinConservationAssociationprovidesgreatadviceandsupportfornewmartinlandlordstohelpthemalong.ManytimesthecondossimulateadriedgourdbecausemartinsfirstadaptedtheirnestingsitestogourdshungouttodrybyNativepeopleinthesoutheast.ThepeoplewelcomedthebirdswhowerenotonlyentertainingtowatchbutalsoassistedwithinsectcontrolandoftenwardedoffpredatorsthatmightbeeyeinggardengoodiesApplegaterelates.Themartinsareveryprotectiveoftheirhomeareaandtheybomb-diveintruders.TheMilleLacsreservationhostsmultiplepurplemartincondosandtheareaseemstobesupportingahealthynestingpopulationofpurplemartins.HoweverinthelargerpicturethenumbersintheGreatLakesregionhavedecreased80since1965hesaysgivingreasonforconcern.ThissummertheMilleLacsBandwilloutfit23purplemartinswithtinyGPSlocatorswornasminibackpackstoavoidanyconflictwithwingmovementaccordingtoJeffMauwildlifeinternfromBemidjiStateUniversity.ThroughoutthesummerMauhasassistedApplegateinthecapturetaggingandGPSoutfittingofthepurplemartinatseveralsitesmaintainedbytheBand.OneofthecondoslocatedattheKathioStateParkisriggedsothecondocanbeloweredforeasyaccess.Thisdoneasmallcardboarddoorcontrolledbyathinfishinglineissetintothecondounitusedbythemartinselectedfortagging.Thenitsawaitinggamewait-ingforthebirdtoenteritsnestingbox.Oncethathappensagentletugonthefishinglinebringsthecardboarddoorintoplaceandthebirdcannotexit.Afterthatitsamatterofunlatchingthehookthatopensthefaceofeachcondoandgentlysnatchingthebird.Thenextprocessisslowandcareful.DataisrecordedoneachbirdincludingwingandtailmeasurementsexageandweightpriortolegbandsbeinginstalledforidentificationandfinallythetinyGPSunitputinplaceandgentlysecured.DotsofSuperGluearecarefullyplacedontopoftheknotsontheGPSunittie-downinordertopreventthemfromcomingundone.Priortobeingappliedthelegbandsarealsoturnedbrightpinkwithnailpolishtomakethemmorevisibletoobservers.Threatstothepurplemartinaremultiple.BesideslackofsuitablenestinghabitatApplegatecitescoldweatherandexcessiverainthatdepletetheinsectsmartinsfeedoninvasivespeciesliketheEnglishsparroworEuropeanstarlingswhotakeovernestingsitesandfinallyexplosionsofnestparasitesthatcansickenandkillfledgingbirds.Themartincondosmain-tainedbytheMilleLacsBandarewellmaintainedwithnest-ingareascleanedperiodicallytoremovedebrisandespeciallyparasitesfromthenests.Apurplemartincondomin-iumisahubofbirdactivity.Eachbirdseemstoknowwhichunitisitsowneventhoughtheyalllookthesame.Withaboutfourorfivegrowinghungrybabiesinsidemomandpopmartinarebusycarryingfreshlycaughtfoodtothewaitingfamilysothereareconstantdeparturesandarrivalsmuchlikeabusyairportterminal.MartinhabitatextendsfromCanadasouthasfarasFloridaandTexasandfromtheMidwesteasttothecoast.OnebirdwastrackedmigratingasfarsouthasBolivaaccordingtoApplegateandtrackersalsoobservedamigratingmartinavoidahurricanethatwasarrivingintheGulf.Formoreinformationonthepurplemartinorifinterestedinbecomingamartinlandlordgothewww.purplemartin.orgthewebsiteforthePurpleMartinConservationAssociation.Useofground-breakingscienceatMilleLacsAimstohelpbineshiinhyagbirdsatriskBySueEricksonStaffWriterApurplemartincondoatKathioStateParkOnamiaMinnesotahousesabout14martinfamilies.Thestructureisriggedtobeloweredforpurposesofcheckingandcleaningnestsandresearchactivities.AhealthypatchofchickswastypicalofthisyearsbreedingseasonintheMilleLacsarea.KellyApplegateMilleLacsshandwildlifebiologistandinternJeffMowepreparetoinstallalegbandandGPSunitonacapturedmartin.PhotosbySueEricksonBiologistKellyApplegatecarefullyinstallsalegbandonapurplemartin.Thebandhasbeenpaintedbrightpinksoitcanbeseeneasily.TakingafeatherclipforDNAanalysis.OncetheunitisinstalledonthebirdmuchlikeaminibackpackdotsofSuperGlueareusedtosecuretheknot.InsetAtinyGPSunitreadyforinstallationonapurplemartin. MAZINAIGANPAGE18FALL2014ENFORCEMENT2014GLIFWCEnforcementyouthactivitieseducationAlldatesaretentativeandsubjecttochange.Forupdatedinformationontheseeventsandotherspleasebesuretocheckourwebsiteatwww.glifwc.orgvisitusonFacebookorcallyourlocalGLIFWCwarden.ClipSaveClassDatePlaceContactHunterSafetyAugust182526LacduFlambeauJonasMoermond715.562.0026RileyBrooks715.562.0300HunterSafetyAugust3031MoleLakeRogerMcGeshick715.889-3200AdamMcGeshick715.209-7217HunterSafetySeptember5-6MilleLacsRobinArunagiri715.889.0734HunterSafetySeptember81012151719StCroixBradKacizak715.562.0030HunterSafetySept.27-28LacCourteOreillesMikePopovich715.292.7535LaurenTuori715.292.8343ATVSnowmobileOctober68910St.CroixBradKacizak715.562.0030TrapperEducationOctober1819MoleLakeRogerMcGeshick715.889-3200AdamMcGeshick715.209-7217ATVSnowmobileNovember89MoleLakeRogerMcGeshick715.889-3200AdamMcGeshick715.209-7217ATVSnowmobileDecember6-7LacCourteOreillesMikePopovich715.292.7535LaurenTuori715.292.8343EditorsnoteOnji-AkiingisajointGLIFWCUSForestServiceeducationalprogramheldeachJulyatCampNesbitinUpperMichigan.NikkiCroweisthe13MoonsProgramCoordinatorfortheFDLTCCExtensionProgram.BoozhooOnji-AkiingDirectorHeatherNaigusaskedmetoshareafewthoughtsonCampOnji-Akiing.LastyearafterhearingaboutthecampfromtheGLIFWCwebsiteIcontactedHeatherandfoundtherewasaplaceformetocomeinandlearnmoreaboutthecampandanopportunitytosharemoreaboutthe13MoonsFondDuLacTribalandCommunityCollegeExtensionprogram.Ijoinedthecamptohelpteachaboutnaturalplantremediesandwiththatmadeabugrepel-lantwhichturnedouttobeinhighdemandbyallparticipantsatcamp.IowetherepellantsuccesstotheneverendingshortageofmosquitoesatanycampinJuly.ThisismysecondyearattheOnji-AkiingcampandagainIamimpressedwiththeleadershipandorganizationofthiscamp.Beinganewcomertothe2013campIdidntknowwhattoexpect.IhadnotbeentoanovernightcampletsjustsayformanymanymanymoonsandthatwasaGirlScoutcampwiththeusualcanoeingsmorescampsongsandlongingforhome.TheuniquenessofthiscampistheAnishinaabecultureandteachingsincorporatedintoCampOnji-Akiing.Oneoftheactivitiesatcampisthemorningspiritrunandreflection.Everymorningat700amthecampparticipantsstretchandrunalmostamileandthenreceiveasemaaforashortmeditationandreflectionalongawoodedpathbacktocamp.Asthegroupwalksquietlyintocampforbreakfasttheyarerelaxedandreadytostarttheirdayinagoodway.Thispartofthedayisagreatmeasureofsuccessforthiscampwithnearly505th-8thgradechildrentrulyengagedinthisquietpurpose.MynephewAustinSmithfromOneidaWisconsinisonhis2ndyearatcamp.Icanseehisnew-foundconfidenceisinpartfromhisexperiencesatthe2013camp.Watchinghimattemptthehighropeswasnailbitingformyselfandittookeverythingtonotclimbupthereandbringhimdown.Ithankthestaffandparticipantsforcontinuouslycheeringhimontothezip-lineandsafelytotheground.Austinhaspatientlywaitedtoattendthe2014campcarefullywritinghisletterofintent.Althoughthecampisfreetheparticipantsarerequiredtowritealetterintheirownwordsonwhytheywanttoattendcamp.Thishelpstocreateparticipantbuy-intothecampandgivesthemownershipoftheirexperiences.ThecampissetuptoteachaboutnaturalresourcesandtheirimportancetotheOjibwecultureandtreaties.OtheractivitiesincludemakingrattlesOjibweastronomyandacareerfairinnaturalresourcesandintroductiontoservicelearningopportunities.Thereisnoshortageofcanoeingarcheryswimmingstorytellingandsongsasparticipantsarebusylearningandstrengtheningtheirskills.Thisyearscampstartedwithawaterceremony.FollowingthepurposeofthecamptheteachingsofthestoriesandsongsisculturallyspecificinthewaytheyaretohonortheniibiwaterandAnishinaabeakiingEarth.Miigwechforanotheropportunitytojointhe2014camphopetoseeyounextyear.BaamaPii.ReportfromCampOnji-Akiing2014AmixofculturesciencereflectionandfunByNikkiCroweForMazinaiganMazinaigandigitalflipbookDoyoureceiveMazinaiganinthemailWouldyouratherreaditonlineYounowhavethisoption.Theonlineeditionisafull-colorflipbookthatcanbereadordownloadedtoaPDF.Flipbooksareenvironmentallyfriendlyandtheysavepostageandprintingcosts.IfyouchoosetheonlineeditionyouwillbenotifiedviaemailapproximatelyoneweekbeforetheMazinaiganismailedwhenitisavailableforviewingTheemailwillcontainalinktoGLIFWCswebsitewhereyoucanviewtheflipbook.TosignuptoreceivetheMazinaiganeitherelectronicallyoramailedsubscriptiongotowww.glifwc.orgpublicationsmazinaiganMazinaigan.htmlandchooseeithernewsubscriptionorE-editionnotification.BillMattesGLIFWCsheriesbiologistleftmadeavailableinvasivesealampreyspecimenstoOnji-Akiingcampersduringanafternoonsessionaboutnaturalresourcescareers.PhotobyCharlieOttoRasmussenFrederickMaulsonJr.leftandColeChapmanbalanceonlow-ropesateambuildingexercise.GLIFWCstaffphotoCamperswaittheirturnonthehighropescourseatCampNesbitinUpperMichigan.GLIFWCstaffphoto PAGE19MAZINAIGANFALL2014areas.Thesequarantinesmakeitillegaltotransportuntreatedfirewoodorashlogsoutofcountiesincludedinthequarantine.Butquarantinesareonlyasgoodaspeoplesawarenessofthemandtheirwillingnesstofollowtherules.Itonlytakesonecarelesspersontostartanewinfestation.DontbetheweaklinkinthechainYoucanhelpbywatchingforthesymptomsinthesephotoswhenyoureoutgettingfirewoodorjustwalkingaroundtown.YoucanhelpPleasedontmovefirewoodTree-killingforestpestssuchasEABandtheAsianlonghornedbeetlewhichdestroysmapleandbirchareeasilytransportedonfirewood.HarvestorbuyfirewoodclosetohomeandburnitwhereyoubuyitIfyouseeanyofthesesignsinashtreespleasereportitYoucancalltheUSDANationalEABHotlineat1-866-322-4512orcontactGLIFWCat715-682-6619ext.2126.FormoreinformationontheEABseehttpemeraldashborer.info.TraditionscultureatriskKathyKaeKathyKaeisanEasternChero-keefromMichiganwholiveswithherhusbandinnorthernWisconsin.Sheiswell-knownintheAshlandareaforherhigh-qualityutilitariananddecorativebaskets.KayvoicesherconcernsaboutthefutureofashThetraditionalknowledgeofharvestingandweavingblackashhasbeenhandeddownforgenerationsandgenerationsandisagiftfromthosewhocamebeforeus.Sharingthisknowledgeisanobligationwetakeonwhenwelearnitourselves.IvesharedthisknowledgewithmygranddaughterbutwillshebeabletoshareitwithhersWecandocumenthowweharvestandweavesoifwelosetheashtreeswewillstillhavethatknowledgeincaseonedaytheEABiseradi-catedandthetreesgrowagain.Myfearthoughisthatduringthatgapofhowmanygenerationsthatitmighttakeifevertobringtheashtreebacktheinter-generationalactofsharingthatknowledgefromgrandmothertogranddaughterandalltheintimateheartfeltclosenessandSpiritualitythatgoeswithsharingthatknowledgecouldbelost.AprilStone-DahlBadRivertribalmemberAprilStone-Dahlisamakerofblackashbaskets.SheandherhusbandJarrodcreatedtheirbusinessWOODSPIRITin2000andhavesharedtheirskillsbothfarandwidecraftingblackashbasketsbirchbarkcanoesbarkbasketsspoonsbowlsandotherutilitarianobjects.Learningaboutthenaturalworldandhowourancestorswereabletoliveinbalancewiththeearthisvitalforhumankindtoday.Iwishtopickupthoseskillsandteachingsleftalongsidethepathlongago...andworkingwithblackashisbutasmallpartofitsaysStone-Dahl.Letusmakethefutureofblackashbasket-makingpossibleandhelppreventthespreadoftheemeraldashborer.Pleasedontmovefirewood.InvasivespeciesthreatenlifewaysContinuedfrompage1AdultEABbeetlesareonlyaroundfromJunethroughearlySeptember.Theytendtostayinthetreetopswheretheyoftenescapedetection.PhotobyDanielHermsOhioStateUniversitywww.bugwood.orgTheemeraldashborerkillsashtreesfromthetopdown.Asthebranchesdieinfestedtreesshootoutfromthetrunkinastruggletosurvive.PhotosbySteveGarskeThelarvaetunnelunderthebarkdestroyingthetreesfood-transportingtissue.EmergingadultsleaveD-shapedexitholesinthebark.InsetThesezig-zagtunnelscarvedintoashfrewoodareasuresignofEABPhotobyTroyKimotoCanadianFoodInspectionAgencywww.bugwood.orgEMERALDASHBORERWhilepastandcurrentlampreycontrolmeasureshavepreventedthedevasta-tionofLakeSuperiorslaketrouttheyaretosomeextenttheproverbialfingerinthedam.Continuedsurveillanceandcontroleffortsarenecessarytoprotectthefisherybecausethefightagainstpredatorlampreysisfarfromwon.Formoreinformationonsealampreygotohttpglfc.orgsealamp.SealampreycontinuedContinuedfrompage9 MAZINAIGANPAGE20FALL2014KIDSPAGEhttpojibwe.lib.umn.edu PAGE21MAZINAIGANFALL2014Down1.moonmonth2.Itiswarmingup.3.Thewinditshiftsdirection.4.yes5.Sheisnamedso.Across6.ItishalfwayWednesday.7.Itiswindy.8.water9.NonowayIKIDOWINODAMINOWINwordplayTranslationsNiizh2A.Itisveyears.FiveIamsomanywintersyearsoldnow.YesB.ItisfourmonthsIhaveworkedattheparkwalkingplacethere.C.ItistwoweeksSundaysPrayingdays.IntheeldgardenhereIhaveworked.D.Thecupitlooksdirty.Theplateitlooksclean.E.Thesockitsmellsdirty.Theshirtitsmellsclean.F.Thecanoeitisclean.Atthelakethewateritliquidisclean.G.Theooritisdirty.Thewateroverthereitisdirtypolluted.NowaycantdothatNiswi3Down1.Giizis2.Abaate.3.Ondaanimad.4.Eya.5.Izhinikaazo.Across6.Aabitose.7.Noodin.8.Nibi9.GawesaNiiwin-41.Iamgoingthere.Whenitisbefore-noonIwillreturnhome.Jibwaa2.LookFarooverthereintheskytheyythoseeagles.Inashke3.Itisearly-noon.AttheriverDoyouwanttogoshingIshpi4.Itismid-night.Iamtired.Iwanttosleep.Aabitaa5.Thebabyiscrying.Sheistired.Nowitisafternoon.Onthebedoverthereputhimhertosleepyes.IshkwaaTherearevariousOjibwedialectscheckforcorrectusageinyourarea.NotethattheEnglishtranslationwillloseitsnaturalflowasinanyworldlanguagetranslation.Thismaybereproducedforclassroomuseonly.Allotherusesbyauthorswrittenpermission.SomespellingsandtranslationsfromTheConciseDictionaryofMinnesotaOjibwebyJohnD.NicholsandEarlNyholm.AllinquiriescanbemadetoMAZINAIGANP.O.Box9OdanahWI54861lynnglifwc.org.Niswi3DoublevowelsystemofwritingOjibwemowin.LongvowelsAAEIIOOWaaboozasinfatherMiigwechasinjayAaniinasinseenMoozasinmoonShortVowelsAIODashasinaboutIngiwasintinNiizhoasinonlyAglottalstopisavoicelessnasalsoundasinaaw.Respectfullyenlistanelderforhelpinpronunciationanddialectdierences.Ishpi-Jibwaa-Aabitaa-Ishkwaa-InashkeWaabanItisdawn.Jibwaa-Gigizhebaawagad.Itismorning.Jibwaa-naawakwe.Itisbeforenoon.Naawaakwe.Itisnoon.Ishkwaa-naawakwe.Itisafternoon.Ishpi-naawakwe.Itisearlyafternoon.Onaagoshin.Itisevening.Dibikad.Itisnight.Aabitaa-dibikad.Itismidnight.Ishpi-dibikad.Itislateatnight.InashkeMino-giizhigad.LookItisagoodday.Daso-dibaiganed.Itisacertaintimeinhours.HowahMiiiw.Niizh2Bezhig1OJIBWEMOWINOjibweLanguageNiiwin421VII-VerbIntransitiveDagwaaginAnishinaabewakiing.Circlethe10underlinedOjibwewordsinthelettermaze.TranslationsbelowItisautumninIndianCountry.Endaso-giizhikodazhindaanaawaa.AaniinezhiwebakagwajiingDagwaagingdaakaayaa.Gwekaanimad.Ondaanimadwaabani-noodinningaabiianongzhaawani-noodinidashgiiwedinong.Nimanoominikemin.Manoominike-giizisizhinikaazowaawgiizis.Binaakwe-giizisizhinikaazogaye.Gashkidino-giizis.Biboongzoogiponidashgisinaa.Ziigwangabaate.Giminwan.Niibinggizhaate.Ganabajniwii-kiigooyikeminendaso-giizhik.IzhaadaaMiigwechEvery-daytheytalkaboutit.WhataretheeventsoutsideweatheroutsideWhenitisfallitiscoolweather.Thewinditshifts.Itblowsacertaindirectionthereisaneastwindawestwindasouthwindandanorthwind.Wegowildricing.Wildrice-moonSept.sheiscalledthismoon.Rakingleaves-moonOct.sheisnamedalso.Sheiscalledthefreezingup-moonNov..Whenitiswinteritissnowinganditiscold.WhenitisSpringitiswarmingup.Itrains.Whenitissummeritishotweather.Maybewewillgofshingeveryday.LetsallgoThank-youGWAYIONANOTMIHOAWIAZHIGANGAWESAANMAEINOADWONAKKOMIGIYAZNNJIDBIANAOAIBIININAAWADNJWBSEBSONIGIIZISWAGADBA.Naano-bidoonagad.Naano-nindaso-biboonenoongom.EyaB.Niiyo-giiziswagadningii-anokiigaa-izhi-babaamosengimaa.C.Niizho-anamae-giizhigad.Gitigaaningomaaningii-anokii.D.Onaagaanswiininaagwad.Desinaaganbiininaawad.E.Azhiganwiinimaagwad.Babagiwayaanbiinimaagwad.F.Jiimaanbiinad.EyaZaagaiganingnibibiinaagamin.G.Michisagwiinad.Nibiiwidiwiinaagamin.Gawesa451.Nindizhaaimaa._____-naawakwegniwii-kiiwe.2._____Waasaiwidiishpimingbimisewagingiwmigiziwag.3._____-naawakwe.Ziibiingnagiwii-giigooyike4._____-dibikad.Nindayekoz.Niwii-nibaa.5.Abinoojiyensmawi.Ayekozi.Noongom_____-naawakwe.Nibaaganingiwedinibeeya.6InanimateItis...verbs.Minwendaagwad.Itisfun.Minotaagwad.Itsoundsgood.Dagwaagin.Itisfall.Dagwaaginggisinaa.WhenitisFallitiscoldweather.Gaawiindagwaaginzinoon.Itsnotfall.Nitam-anokii-giizhigad.ItisMonday.Niizho-giizhgad.ItisTuesday2ndday.Aabitose.ItisWednesdayhalfway.Niiyo-giizhigad.ItisThursday4thday.Ishkwaa-anokii-giizhigad.ItisFriday.Giziibiigiisaginige-giizhigad.ItisSaturday.Anamae-giizhigad.ItisSunday8OnlineResourcesojibwe.lib.umn.eduwww.umich.eduojibwewww.glifwc.orgVIIInformalTimeItis...379OJIBWEMOWIN MAZINAIGANPAGE22FALL2014GLIFWCINTERNSLTEsandbuildupherrsum.AftershegraduatesJalynhopestobeamarinebiologistandtraveltheworldtoconductresearch.WhenshesnotdoingresearchhoweverJalynenjoysreadingplayingsportswatchingfootballbeingoutdoorsdrawinghangingoutwithfriendstravelingtopowwowsandhunting.MarissaNeitzkeMarissaNeitzkealsoworksasaLakeSuperiorFisheriesinternthissummer.SheisasophomoreatNorthlandCollegeandisdoublemajoringinbiologyandsustainablecommunitydevelopment.AssheisaverysociablepersonMarissalikesworkingatGLIFWCbecauseshecanmeetnewpeopleandsheishighlyinterestedinworkingforanindigenousorganizationtolearnabouttheAnishinaabepoint-of-viewregardingnaturalresourcemanagement.MarissasaysthatGLIFWCgivesherawholedifferentexperienceandshelovesbeingabletogooutonLakeSuperior.HersupervisorMikePlucinskiGLIFWCGreatLakesTechnicianhelpedreelinMarissaatNorthlandCollegesjobandinternshipfairandshewasimmediatelyinterestedinwhatGLIFWCdoesasanorganization.AftergraduatingfromNorthlandMarissahasmanyplanswhichincludeworkingasamarinebiologisttravelingtheworldjoiningthePeaceCorpsandeducatingothersaboutenvironmentalism.InherfreetimeMarissalovesrun-ningplayingthecellopaintinghangingoutwithfriendsandfamilyandbeingonthewater.PeterHouleBadRiversownPeterHouleisinhissecondyearatLacCourteOreillesOjibwaCommunityCollegeandheisstudyingnaturalresourcemanagement.PeteristhethirdLakeSuperiorFisheriesinternatGLIFWCandheenjoysbeingoutdoorswhileonthejob.LikemanyotherinternsPeterappliedatGLIFWCtolearnwhatGLIFWCisaboutandgethands-onexperienceinthefield.HehopestoworkfortheBadRiverNaturalResourcesDepartmentorGLIFWCafterhegraduates.Inthemeantimeheenjoyshangingoutwithhisfriendsandfamilyhuntingfishingandplayingbasketball.EmilyNelisGLIFWCsPublicInforma-tionOfficereceivedaboostwiththesummeroutreachprogramandMazinaiganarticlesfromEmilyNelisBadRivertribalmemberandGLIFWCsummerintern.EmilyisenteringhersophomoreyearatUW-MadisonmajoringinsocialworkandminoringinAmericanIndianstudies.EmilylikestotravelandtravelshedidtakingGLIFWCsinforma-tionboothtotheBayMillsPow-WowinthefarreachesoftheUPandtheLacCourteOreillesHonortheEarthPowWowthissummer.Herknowledgeofthepow-wowcircuitmadeheraneasyfitforthejob.InadditiontooutreachEmilycontributedseveralarticlestotheMazinaiganafterinterviewingotherinternsandshealsotraveledtoFondduLacsKiwenzLanguageandCultureCampforastory.Inbetweentimessheassistedwithmul-tiplein-officetasks.ShelearnedabouttheGLIFWCinternshipthroughword-of-mouthanddecidedtoapplybecauseitisclosetohomeandshewasinterestedinlearningmoreaboutGLIFWCsactivities.EmilyisalittleunsureofplansfollowinggraduationfromcollegebutmaypursueamastersdegreeandultimatelywouldliketoreturntotheBadRivercom-munityandworkwithtribalyouth.SueEricksonJasonBoltonAsaGLIFWCwildriceinternJasonBoltonenjoysgoingoutdoorsandsurveyingwildricebeds.HeattendsLacCourteOreillesOjibwaCommunityCol-legeandheisstudyingnaturalresourceslandandwater.JasonwasdrawntoapplyatGLIFWCafterseeinginternshippostingsaroundhisschoolandheimmediatelytookinterest.AfterhegraduatesJasonwantstoworkinafieldrelatedtonaturalresourceswhichsuitshimashishobbiesincludefishingandbowhunting.JohnMcCormickJohnMcCormickattendsNorth-landCollegeandheisGLIFWCssecondwildriceintern.Heisinhissophomoreyearandheisdoublemajor-inginnaturalresourcesandbiology.Johnenjoysthehands-onexperiencehegetswithhisinternshipandhelikesbeingoutdoors.Whenheappliedasaninternhesawawonderfulopportunitytofurtherunderstandwildriceandhewasalsoexcitedtogainmoreexperienceinafieldrelatedtohiscareerchoice.AfterhegraduatesfromNorthlandJohnwantstoworkinwildlifeconservationandecologymanagement.InhisfreetimeJohnlikestohuntfishtrapandmakeanassortmentofcrafts.TribalstudentsassistGLIFWCaslimitedtermemployeesDylanJenningsWorkingwithboththeBio-logicalServicesDivisionandthePublicInformationOfficeDylanJenningsBadRiverassistedindiverseprojectsthroughoutthespringandsummer.HeworkedcloselywithGLIFWCWildlifeSectionpro-ducingaposterrelatingtoresearchontheAmericanmartenforDr.JonathanGilbertspresentationataninternationalscientificforuminPoland.TheposteraswellasashortdocumentaryfeaturedtheculturalsignificanceoftheAmericanmar-ten.Inadditionhewasinvolvedinmanoominharvestdatacollectionandentry.JenningsprovidedseveralcontributionstothefallissueoftheMazinaiganandassistedwithediting.InadditionheproducedtheoriginalflyerandinvitationsfortheHealingCircleRunHCRanniversaryaswellasworkedextensivelyondesignandlayoutfortheHCRMemoryBook.Healsocontributedtothe12-pageHCRsupplementincludedinthespringsummereditionoftheMazinaigan.OutandaboutatvariousfunctionshehasmannedGLIFWCsinformationalboothaswellaspitchedinasaspeakerandorhand-drumsingeratGLIFWCevents.JenningsholdsabachelorsdegreeinanthropologyarchaeologyandNativeAmericanstudiesfromtheUniversityofWisconsin-Madison.Heplanstobeginpursuingadegreeinlawthisfall.InadditiontobeingastudentheisamemberoftheMidniteExpressDrumgroupandhasworkedextensivelywithNativeyouthinavarietyofculturalprograms.InternsandLTEsoutandaboutinthecededterritoriescontinuedfrompage16WorkingforGLIFWCsGreatLakesSectionthissummerarefromtheleftMarissaNeitzkePeterHouleandJalynLaBine.PhotobySueEricksonEmilyNelis.PhotobySueEricksonJasonBolton.PhotobyJohnMcCormickJohnMcCormick.PhotobyJasonBoltonDylanJennings.PhotobySueEricksonSeeGLIFWCLTEspage23 PAGE23MAZINAIGANFALL2014LakeSuperiorfishstablesomeslightlydecliningHEALINGCIRCLERUNLVDhonorscorerunnerscentury.Mostfishingtakesplacenearshoreinwaterslessthan260feetdeepabout23ofthelake.Currenttrendsinthesenearshorewatersincludeanincreasedfishharvestwhilefishpopulationsremainstableorslightlydeclining.Seventy-seven77ofGichigamiisgreaterthan260feetdeep.Currentlynotmuchfishingoccursintheseoffshorewaters.Fishincludesiscowetorfatlaketroutadeepwaterrelativetothelaketroutwithahigherbodyfatcontentbloaterchubskiyianddeepwatersculpin.Alloftheseoffshorefishpopulationsincreasedthroughtheturnofthecenturyandarepresentlystable.ReprintedfromPrefacefromHornsW.H.C.R.BronteT.R.BusiahnM.P.EbenerR.L.EshenroderT.GorenfloN.KmiecikW.MattesJ.W.PeckM.Pet-zoldD.R.Schreiner.2003.FishcommunityobjectivesforLakeSuperior.GreatLakesFish.Comm.Spec.Pub.03-01.78p.CheyenneWhiteGLIFWCalsohasareturninginternwhoisinhighschool.CheyenneWhiteLacCourteOreillesattendsWashburnHighSchoolandshewillgraduatein2015.Cheyenneworksasanofficeassistantwhereshehelpsorganizeandhelpsoutwhereitisneeded.ShereallyenjoystheworkenvironmentandthefriendlinessoftheGLIFWCstaff.CheyenneappliedforthepositionafterhermotherjoinedGLIFWCstaffandshetookadvantageofanLTEopportunitylastyear.AsshefinishesuphighschoolCheyenneplansontakingcollegecoursesnextyearandwillgraduateearly.AftergraduationshewantstojoinJobCorps.WhenshesnotworkinghardtograduateCheyennelikestoruncanoeswimbeadandplayguitar.KaylaPlucinskiThetitleforyoungestGLIFWCemployeegoestoKaylaPlucinskiBadRivertribalmemberwhoisgoingintohersophomoreyearatAshlandHighSchool.DaughterofPublicInformationOfficePIOAssistantDirectorLynnPlucinskiKaylareturnedforasecondyearatGLIFWCworkingwithPIOanddoesmanyin-officejobs.WhilesheworksKaylafavorsaskingquestionstolearnaboutthenumerousthingsGLIFWCdoes.KaylarecentlyreturnedfromherfirstyearwiththePre-CollegeEnrichmentOpportunityProgramforLearningExcellencePEOPLEatUW-Madisonwhichisaprogramthathelpsprovideenrichedacademiclearningopportunitiesforstudentsofcolorandlow-incomestudentsbybringingthemtotheUW-Madisoncampusduringthesummer.AftershegraduateshighschoolKaylaisplanningonbecomingafellowBadgeratUW-Madisonalthoughsheisnotsurewhatshewantstostudy.GLIFWCLTEsSeeGLIFWCLTEspage22Continuedfrompage9The2014HealingCircleRunWalkHCRwasspecialjustlikeeachoftherunwalksinprioryearsdatingbackto2001whentheHCRfirstpickedupthepathofits1989and1990predecessortheAnishinaabeSolidarityRelay.HCRsarealwaysspecialbecausetheycombinephysicalandspiritualexperiencesalongthe580-milepathlinkingeightOjibwereservations.Therunisafterallaprayer.Openingandclosingceremonieseachmorningandnightwhenasemaawithprayersfromtheheartaresentupasopwaaganagarelitandthearomaofsageandbearrootsmudgefillstheairprovideatimebothforintrospectionandsharing.Eachpersoninthecircleofrunnerswalkersandcommunitymembersbringshisorherownstoriesstruggleshumortearsandcaretothecircle.Thosethingsaresharedandcarriedasprayersdowntheroadtothenextdestination.Eachstepisaprayer.Thisisthewaythathealingispetitionedandreceivedbyindividualsfamiliesandcommunities.The2014HCRwasspecialthoughinseveralways.ForoneitpausedatLacVieuxDesertsLVDKetegitigaaningOjibweRoundHousetohonorcorerunnersfromthe1989and1990AnishinaabeSolidarityRelaysthosewhoranandcompletedtheentirejourneyinoneorbothofthosefirsttworuns.Fourteenofthirtycorerunnersfrom1989and1990joinedthegatheringtovisitrememberfeastandgivethanks.Twenty-twoofforty-onecorerunnersfromtheHealingCircleRunswerealsopresent.CorerunnerswerehonoredwithsongsfromthetwoinviteddrumsTomahawkCircleandLVDFourThundersandweregiftedjacketswiththeSolidarityRunlogo.OneoftheoriginalorganizersErnieSt.GermaineLacduFlambeaugaveanhistoricalaccountofthefirstrunandthesocialsettingthatgaveitbirth.Bundleswerealsopresentedtotribalcommunitiestoacknowledgeandthankthemfortheirsupportoftherunsoverthepast25years.OrganizergiiweMartinLVDandcorerunnernotedhowtherelaysandrunshavealwaysdependedonthehospitalityofthetribalcommunitiestheyvisited.Theyhavebeengivenhousingfoodandmostofallthehonorofmeetingwiththepeoplefromeachcommunity.The2014HealingCircleRunwasspecialbecauseitbroughttogetherthe23corerunnerswalkersandaround20-50peoplefromtheeachoftheeightcommu-nities.Around420peopleparticipatedintherunwalkandthegatheringatLVD.The2014HCRwasspecialbecausemiigwanagfeathersweretiedtomitiginabeastaffusedasatalkingstickinmemoryofTobasonakwutandNiigaanigaabowtwospiritualleaderswhohavewalkedonbutprovidedguidancetoGLIFWCandsomanyothers.The2014HCRendedatPipestoneCreekontheLacCourteOreillesreserva-tionleavingatrailofmemoriesbothpersonalandsharedofthanksofcaringandofhope.BySueEricksonStaffWriterBundlespreparedasgiftsforthetribalcommunitieswhosupportedtheHealingCircleRunthroughtheyearsincludedblanketsmedicinesandwildrice.PhotobyDylanJenningsThewell-traveled1989-1990AnishinaabeRelaystaffarrivedatthe25thcelebrationoftheRelayandHealingCircleRuns.RunnersErnieSt.GermaineLacduFlambeauTinaDanforthOneidachairwomangiiweMartinLacVieuxDesertandWesMartinMenomineeadmirethestaff.CorerunnerBethReedisinthebackground.PhotobyNeilKmiecikCorerunnersreceivedspeciallydesignedjacketsinappreciationoffortheircommitmentineithertheAnishinaabeSolidarityRelaysorHealingCircleRuns.PhotobyDylanJennings SusanErickson..............................EditorLynnPlucinski..............................AssistantEditorCharlieOttoRasmussen................WriterPhotographerMAZINAIGANTalkingPaperisapublicationoftheGreatLakesIndianFishWildlifeCommissionwhichrepresentselevenOjibwetribesinMichiganMinnesotaandWisconsin.SubscriptionstothepaperarefreetoUnitedStatesandCanadianresidents.Subscribeonlineatwww.glifwc.orgwriteMAZINAIGANP.O.Box9OdanahWI54861phone715682-6619ore-maillynnglifwc.org.Ifyouhavemovedorareplanningtomovepleasekeepusinformedsowecankeepourmailinglistcurrent.Ifyouplantobeawayforanextendedperiodoftimepleaseletusknowsowecansuspendyoursubscriptionuntilyoureturn.AlthoughMAZINAIGANenjoyshearingfromitsreadershipthereisnoLetterstotheEditorsectioninthepaperandopinionstobepublishedinthepaperarenotsolicited.Queriesastopotentialarticlesrelatingtooff-reservationtreatyrightsandorresourcemanagementorOjibweculturalinformationcanbedirectedtotheeditorattheaddressgivenabove.FormoreinformationseeGLIFWCswebsitewww.glifwc.organdourFacebookpage.MAZINAIGANSTAFFPronouncedMuhzinahigunNONPROFITORGPOSTAGEPAIDPERMIT203EAUCLAIREWIPrintedbyEAUCLAIREPRESSCOMPANYEAUCLAIREWI54701RETURNADDRESSGLIFWCP.O.BOX9ODANAHWI54861OjibweCededTerritoriesandMemberTribesofGLIFWCTreatyCededAreas1836183718421854CHANGESERVICEREQUESTEDDagwaagin2014