Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24• NEWS BRIEFS/TEK • Ceded Territory news briefs LdF Council protects moose after on-rez shooting Days after a tribal member killed a young moose cow on the Lac du Flambeau (LdF) reservation, the governing council passed an emergency order protecting moose and a host of other species. Resolution No.203(16) makes it unlawful to wound or intentionally take moose, elk, cougar, albino deer, wolf, badger,wolverine,marten,flyingsquirrel,orlynxwithintheexteriorboundaries of the reservation. Off-reservation tribal codes already protect these animals in the Wisconsin Ceded Territory. ShortlyaftermidnightJuly6,aLdFmembershotthefemalemoosesparking aninvestigationbytriballawenforcementofficers.Thecowhadreportedlybeen seen with some regularity in the reservation’s woods and wetlands for several months. —CO Rasmussen High water thwarts sea lamprey trap This past spring GLIFWC and the Bad River Natural Resources Depart- ment worked with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Sea Lamprey Control Program to assess the viability of capturing and removing sea lamprey on the Marengo River using a specially built weir. The weir is designed to block and trap sea lamprey as they move upstream to spawn during the spring. Sea lam- prey are then removed from the trap and destroyed while non-target fish are released upstream of the trap. Frequent heavy rains and high water, however, hindered the weir’s effec- tiveness at catching pre-spawn lamprey. Project partners are looking to spring 2017 to potentially redeploy the weir and learn how effective the structure is under normal conditions. If the weir and trap prove successful, it will be added intoanintegratedapproachtosuppressingsealampreyintheGreatLakesBasin. The invasive sea lamprey decimated lake trout populations in the 1960’s. Since that time, agency partners have reduced lamprey numbers to about ten percent of its pre-control population. . —Bill Mattes Red Cliff Treaty Education Day Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa hosted Treaty Education Day on June 22, 2016. Over 180 people attended the morning session, held at Leg- endary Waters Casino, which included the telling of the Migration Story, an interactive treaty rights game presented by GLIFWC, and an elder/youth panel. For the afternoon, participants headed to LaPointe, where they toured the Madeline Island Museum, visited the site of Treaty Hall, and viewed copies of theoriginal1837,1842,and1854treatiesbroughttoRedCliffbyTribalCouncil members who had visited the National Archives in Washington, D.C. The day concluded with a ceremony with Chief Buffalo’s pipe at St. Joseph Mission Cemetery. —Paula Maday Bad River Honorable Mention for climate change award Bad River Band of Lake Superior Chippewa received honorable mention for the First ClimateAdaptation LeadershipAward for Natural Resources, pre- sented by the U.S. Department of the Interior.The award honors individuals and organizations working to reduce climate-related threats by raising awareness and addressing the impacts of climate change. The DOI received 47 nominations, selecting seven honorees and seven honorablementionsbasedoncriteriaofeffectiveness,innovativeapproach,poten- tial for replication, promotion of preparation and response, and collaboration. Bad River was recognized for their Seventh Generation Climate Change Monitoring Plan, a holistic strategy that addresses water resources, forestry, and wildlife on the reservation. The framework will help Bad River to establish priorities for climate change management and to secure additional funding. —Paula Maday Biologists recruiting alligator gar in carp control effort River running, high-flyingAsian carp are on the CededTerritory doorstep. Fisheries managers—and virtually all fishers in the region—want to keep them there. A proposal to encourage the expansion of the native predator, alligator gar, might help check the expansion of voracious silver and bighead carp, which reproduce quickly and eat the food supply that native fish species rely upon. Biologists in southern reaches of the Mississippi River system have noted that gar—which can reach eight feet long and weigh more than 300 pounds— have a taste for the exotic Asian carp species. Since escaping from aquaculture facilities in the southern United States decades ago, carp have steadily moved north, reaching waterways near the Great Lakes including the Illinois River and St. Croix River. InseveralMississippiRiverstates,theUSFish&WildlifeServiceisassist- ing programs to rebuild alligator gar numbers through hatchery propagation. Like lake sturgeon in the Lake Superior region, gar were considered a throw- away fish by anglers and commercial fishermen—a nuisance that destroyed nets and occupied habitat best suited for more desirable fish. According to Bill Mattes, GLIFWC’s Great Lakes Biologist, gar live in warm,brackishwaterandarenotknowntobeinLakeSuperior’srelativelycold, fresh water. Like the lake sturgeon, gar are covered with bony plates and hard scalesor‘scutes.’Unlikethelakesturgeon,gararepredators,preyinguponother fish for food, whereas lake sturgeon diets are more diverse.—CO Rasmussen Early returns on TEK interviews Treaty resources focus of GLIFWC’s climate change program By Melonee Montano, GLIFWC TEK Outreach Specialist TraditionalEcologicalKnowledge (also known as TEK) can be defined in manyways,suchastheaccumulationof cultural tradition, practical experience, andadaptationtoenvironmentalchanges over time. Gathering TEK by interviewing knowledge holders, elders, and harvest- ersisanintegralpartofassessingclimate change impacts on treaty rights. All interviews carried out at Mazina’igan press time are still being transcribed, but the following is a small sample of what interviewers have been hearing. An Elder from the Lac Courte Oreilles(LCO)reservationinWisconsin mentionedseeinglessbirchandblueber- ries these days along with a decrease in other fruits. She noted how blueberries have been much smaller compared to years ago when she gathered as a girl. She discussed how the decreased use of fire might be part of the reason but climate change may also be a factor. Another Elder interviewed at LCO talked about how our language holds meaning that aids in cultural concepts; languageexplainsacompletelydifferent way of looking at our world. A couple from Fond du Lac who has been doing maple syrup with their family for about 30-35 years stated they tap140-150sugarmaplesperyear.They carvetheirowntapsoutofmaple,know- ing that when they get wet they expand (allowing for a tighter seal). These Elders also described how theyburytheirkettleinthefallbutleave about 2” of it above ground and are then abletoprocesstheirriceinthesamespot. When the kettle is pulled up out of the ground, the hole that remains is used as a fire pit. To know when to carry out their activities, they utilize traditional knowledge and also a combination of environmental observations, including the weather. Due to the number of years theyhavebeenharvesting,theywereable to say with certainty that they have seen climate changes over time. AfamilyfromtheBadRiverreser- vation utilizes ash for traditional crafts. They mentioned one particular swamp near their home used to have a lot more trees approximately 13 years ago. At that time, there was also a lot more standing water but unfortunately now it seems to be dryer and trees are dying. Thefamilyalsonoticedanincrease in mold growing after a short period of time on ash splints used for traditional crafts. They also felt that rice and syrup showing early signs of mold seemed to be an indicator of a high humidity level. A harvester from the Mille Lacs reservation in Minnesota has seen a large decrease in the rabbit population, an observation noted in many other interviews. He has also seen a large increaseincoyotebutfeelsthismightbe duetofewerpersonshuntingortrapping them. The majority of other furbear- ers, however, seem to be significantly decreased. Another change seen by the harvesteristhatopossum,whicharenew to the Mille Lacs area, are now seen on a regular basis. He also feels there is a consistent warming trend in the area. The person spoke of how his grandma used to make maple taffy at the same time the ice on the lake was breaking up into shards. Alongwiththat,thesugarmapleswould be done running before ice out. These days the events no longer occur at the same time. With the interviews carried out so far, some consistent environmental observations have come out: biting flies indicate that the rain is going to come, while the song of cicadas indicate that the blueberries are beginning to ripen, andseeingfirefliesforthefirsttimeeach season signals the opportunity to begin hunting deer. Beonthelookoutforsimilarobser- vations. The climate change program plans on sharing more information in the near future. Miinan (blueberries). PAGE 3 MAZINA’IGAN FALL 2016