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MAZINAIGANPAGE4FALL2012GREATLAKESOnFebruary102015theHonorableDianaE.MurphywritingforathreejudgepaneloftheUnitedStatesCourtofAppealsfortheEighthCircuitissuedanopinionbarringtheprosecutionoffourtribalmembersoftheMinnesotaChippewaTribeforviolationsoftheLaceyAct.ThecourtfoundthattheTreatyof1837protectedMichaelBrownJerryReyesMarcLyonsandFrederickBudTibbitsfromtheimpositionoffederaljurisdictionbyaLaceyActprosecutionbecausetheactofharvestingandsellingharvestedfishwasprotectedbytheTreatyof1837.Thiscasebeganin2010whentheMinnesotaDepartmentofNaturalResourcesbegananinvestigationintoillicitsalesofwalleyeandothergamefishinnorthernMinnesota.Theinvestigatorsdiscoveredthatseveraltribalmembersweregill-nettingwalleyeontheLeechLakeReservationandsellingthefishtonon-Indians.ThisactivityviolatedtriballawasLeechLakeBandofOjibweprohibitsthetakingofgamefishbygillnetsforcommercialusesandrequirespermitsfromthebandsconservationcommitteetocommerciallysellfish.Manyoftheindividualsinvestigatedwerechargedwithcriminaloffensesinstateandfederalcourts.ThefederalchargeswereforviolationsoftheLaceyActwhichmakesitafederalof-fensetosellanyfishtakenpossessedtransportedorsoldinviolationofanyIndiantriballaw.16U.S.C.3372a1.Brownandhisco-defendantsraisedatreaty-rightsdefenseattrialinthefederaldistrictcourt.TheyarguedthattheTreatyof1837whichcededlandsinwhatisnownorthernWisconsinandeasternMinnesotaguaranteedLeechLaketribalmemberstherighttoharvestandsellfishfromlakesontheLeechLakeReservationandnearbytheirtribesnineteenthcenturysettlements.UsingtheMinnesotav.MilleLacsdecisionasprecedentthecourtsfoundthatthe1837Treatyguaranteedtribalmembersrightstoharvestandselltheirharvestandthatthetreatyhadnotbeenabrogatedbylatertreatiesoranythingelse.ThecourtsalsodeterminedthattheLaceyActhadnoeffectonIndiantreatyrightsandcouldnotbereadtoabrogatetreatyrights.Ultimatelythecircuitcourtdeterminedthatregardlessofwhetherthetribemadecommercialfishsalesil-legaltheUnitedStateshadnopowertoprosecutetribalmembersexercisingarightguaranteedbyavalidtreaty.LeechLakeBandauthoritiesinformedMazinaiganthattheyplanonpros-ecutingthiscaseintribalcourt.EighthCircuitrulesthat1837TreatyprecludesLaceyActOdanahWis.IntheApostleIslandsareaofLakeSuperiorthenum-berofadultlaketroutage7andolderincreasedthrough2004butnumbershavesincedeclinedtolevelsnotseensincetheearly1980ssolidlineinthegraph.Theresponsetothishasbeenareducedbaglimitforrecreationalfish-ersandareducedallowablecatchforcommercialfishersintheareasoliddashedline.Since2000harvesthasincreasedevenwithreductionstoallowablecatchdottedline.Howevertheharvesthasremainedbelowthesetlimit.Thedeclineinthenumberoflaketroutcoupledwiththeincreaseinharvestleadstoincreasedestimatesofmortalityattributedtothefisherysolidbars.Notethatnaturalandlamprey-inducedmortalitystayedlowalthoughthelatterdidincreaseslightlyduring2007to2009.Lampreymortalityisdirectlyrelatedtocontroleffortsofthesealampreycontrolprogramseerelatedarticlebelow.Theharvestlimitsoliddashedlinewashighfrom2006to2009becausetherewerelargenumbersoflaketroutintheareasolidline.Fisheriesmanag-ersalsoknewthepreybaseintheentirelakewasdeclininggrayshadedareasoitmadesensetoallowharvestofthetoppredator.NotethepreydataaretakenfromtheUSGSlakewidebottomtrawlingdatasetpresentedannuallyattheGreatLakesFisheryCommissionsLakeCommitteeMeetingsallotherdataisfromtheWisconsinState-TribalTechnicalCommittee.InadditionwhenstocksizeofadultlaketroutwashighthenumberLookingatLakeSuperiorlaketroutdynamicsWhyreducedbaglimitsandquotasByPhilomenaKebecGLIFWCPolicyAnalystByBillMattesGLIFWCGreatLakesSectionLeaderWorkshopexploreslampricideresistanceAnnArborMich.TheGreatLakesFisheryCommissionGLFCconvenedafirst-of-its-kindworkshoprecentlytoexplorethequestionAresealampreysbecominglesssusceptibletothelampricidesthatserveastheprimarymethodofcontrolforthisdestructiveinvaderParticipantsincludedexpertsinternalandexternaltotheGreatLakesinthefieldsofmicrobiologyentomologyevolution-arybiologyecotoxicologyanimalphysiologypopulationbiologyandfisheriesmanagement.SinceenteringLakeOntariointhemid-1800sandtheupperGreatLakesbeginningin1921sealampreysparasiticjawlessvertebratesthatfeedonthebloodandbodyfluidsofotherfishhavehadanenormousnegativeimpactontheGreatLakesfisheryandecosystemcausedsignificanteconomicdamageandchangedthewayoflifeintheregion.AfterextensiveresearchtolearnaboutthesealampreylifecycleandidentifycontrolmechanismstheGLFCdevelopedanintegratedsealampreycontrolprogramthatcombineslampricidesbarriersandtrapstocontrolsealampreypopulationsandprotectGreatLakesfish.TodaythecontrolprogramimplementedinpartnershipwiththeU.S.FishandWildlifeServiceFisheriesandOceansCanadaU.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineersandU.S.GeologicalSurveyisremarkablysuccessfulsealampreypopulationsinmostareasoftheGreatLakeshavebeenreducedby90oftheirhistoricalhighsThetwolampricidesTFMandBayluscidealsocalledniclosamidearetheprimaryweaponsinthesealampreycontrolarsenal.Discoveredinthe1950sandearly1960safterscientistsatHammondBayBiologicalStationinnorthernMichigantestedmorethan6000differentcompoundstheyhavebeensuccess-fullyappliedtotheGreatLakeseversince.UsedtotargetlarvalsealampreysinastreambeforethelarvaemetamorphoseintoparasiticjuvenilesealampreysTFMandBayluscideareincrediblyeffectiveselectivetosealampreyandsafetouseintheenvironment.ToachievetheseobjectivestheworkshopwasdesignedaroundfourthemesLampricidesintheGreatLakesWhatWeKnowEvolutionofPesticideResistanceLessonsforSeaLampreyControlStrategiestoPreventandOffsetPesticideandAntibioticResistanceandNext-GenerationLampricides.Eachthemeconsistedofinvitedsymposiapresentationsfromsubject-matterexpertsandwasfollowedbysmallbreakoutgroupsessionsinwhichparticipantswereaskedtodiscussspecificquestionsrelatedtothetheme.Thesealampreycontrolprogramiscomposedofhighlymotivatedintel-ligentforward-thinkingindividualssaidSeaLampreyControlBoardChairandGLFCCommissionerDonPereira.DuringthelampricideresistanceworkshopIwasremindedagainofwhatanoutstandingteamwehaveworkingtoprotectourlakes.WatchingthecrewinteractwiththeparticipantsfrommanyotherfieldsofstudyfromallaroundNorthAmericawasinspiringthesynergythedepthofdiscussionandthemyriadideasforfuturecollaborationconfirmedthatthisworkshopwasasuccessfulstarttoaddressingamajorunknowninourprogram.Thecommentsanddiscussionfromthebreakoutsessionswererecordedandwillbeusedtodeveloptwosynthesispapersforpublication.Thefirstsynthesispaperwillfocusonthelikelihoodoflampricideresistancedevelopmentandstrat-egiestoreducetheriskwhilethesecondsynthesispaperwillexamineresearchstrategiestoinformthedevelopmentofnext-generationlampricides.Publicationinformationwillbeupdatedhereasitbecomesavailable.ByBillMattesGLIFWCGreatLakesSectionLeaderofyounglaketrout4yearsoldwasverylownotpictured.Thiscanbepartiallyattributedtoadultlaketroutfeedinguponyounglaketroutintheabsenceofotherprey.Howeverinthepasttwoyearsthenumbersofyounglaketroutintheareahaveincreased.Itisimportanttoprotectaportionoftheseyounglaketroutsothattheycangrowtoreproduceandspawn.Nowthattheadultlaketroutpopulationislowthereisareducedbaglimitforrecreationalfishersandareducedallow-ablecatchforcommercialfishersintheApostleIslandsareaofLakeSuperior.Commercialharvestlimitsdroppedfromthehighestquotasin2006-2009of134000lbs.tothe2014-2015harvestquotaof48000lbs.Similarlythesportharvesthasbeenadjusteddownfroma3-baglimitwithasizelimitof15inchesandoneover25inchestoa2-baglimitonewhichmustbe20to25inchesandonemustbelongerthan35inches.graphbyBillMattesHarvestAllowableCatchStockSizeAge7Mortalitiesnaturallampreycommercialsport