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PAGE11MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2013ACT31Act31IssuesoriginsByJPLearyFirstNationsStudiesAssociateProfessorUW-GreenBayforMazinaiganAmericanIndianStudiesProgramStatutesandRules115.2817dWisStats.Generalduties.Thestatesuperintendentshall17AMERICANINDIANLANGUAGEANDCULTUREEDUCATION.dDevelopacurriculumforgrades4to12ontheChippewaIndianstreaty-basedoff-reservationrightstohuntfishandgather.118.012c7.and8.WisStats.Educationalgoalsandexpectations.2EDUCATIONALGOALS...eachschoolboardshallprovideaninstruc-tionalprogramdesignedtogivepupils7.Anappreciationandunderstandingofdifferentvaluesystemsandcultures.8.AtallgradelevelsanunderstandingofhumanrelationsparticularlywithregardtoAmericanIndiansBlackAmericansandHispanics.118.198WisStats.Teachercertificatesandlicenses.8Thestatesuperintendentmaynotgranttoanypersonalicensetoteachunlessthepersonhasreceivedinstructioninthestudyofminoritygrouprela-tionsincludinginstructioninthehistorycultureandtribalsovereigntyofthefederallyrecognizedAmericanIndiantribesandbandslocatedinthisstate.121.02WisStats.Schooldistrictstandards.1Exceptasprovidedin118.402rdeachschoolboardshallhProvideadequateinstructionalmaterialstextsandlibraryserviceswhichreflecttheculturaldiversityandpluralisticnatureofAmericansociety.L4.BeginningSeptember11991aspartofthesocialstudiescurriculumincludeinstructioninthehistorycultureandtribalsovereigntyofthefederallyrecognizedAmericanIndiantribesandbandslocatedinthisstateatleasttwiceintheelementarygradesandatleastonceinthehighschoolgrades.SeeAdHocCommissionpage12TribalmembersdrumoutsideaPARRmeetinginParkFallsdrawingattentiontotheracistnatureofprotestsexperiencedattheboatlandingsinthemid-1980s.staffphotoEditorsnoteDuetospaceconstraintsallfootnotescanbefoundonlineatwww.glifwc.orgSatz.OnAugust81989Gov.TommyThompsonsignedSenateBill31the19891991BiennialBudgetActwhichincludedprovisionscreatingnewstatutesrelatedtoinstructioninthehistorycultureandtribalsovereigntyofthefeder-allyrecognizedtribesandbandsinthestateandrelatedissues.Thisbillbecameknownas1989Act31uponpublicationonAugust201989andinIndianeduca-tioncirclesthisbecamethenamefortheinstructionalrequirementsthemselves.ItwasanimportantlegislativevictorybecausethesenewlawsspecificitywasunprecedentedinWisconsinwheretraditionsoflocalcontrolofeducationandbroadauthorityoflocallyelectedschoolboardswerepointsofpride.Theserequire-mentsrepresentedthekindofcomprehensiveapproachrecommendedbytheAdHocCommissiononRacismandweresupportedbysubsequentindividualsandorganizations.Act31representedasignificantvictoryforIndianeducatorsandtheiralliesbutgreathopeandseriousconcernsrelatedtoimplementationbothbecameapparentalmostimmediately.NativeeducatorsandtheiralliesinitiallyviewedAct31asasourceofhopeforaddressingthekindofracismandignoranceexhibitedatWisconsinboatland-ingsinthewakeoftheVoigtDecisionbutconversationsnowmoreoftenreflectgreatdisappointmentinitsseeminglysmallimpact.SeveralfactorscomplicatedhowlocalschooldistrictsandthestateDepartmentofPublicInstructionDPIworkedtoimplementthenewrequirements.Atthelocallevelperceptionsofastate-impositiononschoolboardsauthorityandtheabsenceofdedicatedfundsforschooldistrictstocarryouttheirnewresponsibilitiesledmanytoresistAct31ortoimplementitunevenly.Localracialpoliticsandpressurefromcommunitymemberswhothemselveshadlimitedknowledgeofhistoricalculturalandlegalissuescertainlycontributedaswell.Thesepoliticalfactorscertainlyaffectedthestatesabilitytocarryoutitsresponsibilitiesandlikelyshapedthemixedmessagesthatcharacterizedofficialresponsesfromthestatesuperintendent.TheabilityoftheDPItosupportlocalimplementationwasfurthercomplicatedbyconflictsoverstaffingissuesincludingtheclassificationandlocationofnewpersonnel.Anar-rowrangeofenforcementandsanctionoptionsessentiallylimitedtowithholdingaportionofstateaidsdidnotallowforaflexibleresponsethatconsideredlocalcircumstances.Despitetheserealandongoingconcernsthestoryofthatinitialvictoryservesasanimportantreminderthatmanyoftheconcernshavebeentherefromthebeginning.Act31soriginstoryalsopointsthewaytorefocusoureffortstowardthekindofbroaderpublicunderstandingitsadvocatessoughttopromote.Act31containedseveralprovisionsthatsoughttousethepublicschoolstodevelopunderstandingofAmericanIndianhistoryculturetribalsovereigntyandrelatedconcerns.OneprovisionrequiredthestatesuperintendenttocollaboratewiththeAmericanIndianLanguageandCultureEducationBoardtodevelopappropri-ateinstructionalmaterialsontheChippewaIndianstreaty-basedoff-reservationrightstohuntfishandgatherbytheendofthebiennium.iOtherprovisionsaddressedbroaderissuesrelatedtoraceandhumanrelationsandtheyrequiredWisconsinschooldistrictstoprovidelearningopportunitiesforstudentstogainanappreciationandunderstandingofdifferentvaluesystemsandculturesandanunderstandingofhumanrelationsparticularlywithregardtoAmericanIndiansBlackAmericansandHispanics.iiThenewstatelaweffectivelyrequiredthoseseekingalicensetoserveasateacheradministratororpupilservicesprofessionalinWisconsintolearnaboutminoritygrouprelationsincludinginstructioninthehistorycultureandtribalsovereigntyofthefederallyrecognizedAmericanIndiantribesandbandslocatedinthisstate.iiiThebiennialbudgetalsoenactedaprovisionthatrequiredschooldistrictstoprovideadequateinstructionalmaterialstextsandlibraryserviceswhichreflecttheculturaldiversityandpluralisticnatureofAmericansocietyreflectingamultifacetedapproachtotransformingstudentsunderstandingoftheseissues.ivThelastprovisionaddressessocialstudiesinstruc-tionanditrequiresallWisconsinpublicschoolstoincludeinstructioninthehistorycultureandtribalsovereigntyofthefederallyrecognizedAmericanIndiantribesandbandslocatedinthisstateatleasttwiceintheelementarygradesandatleastonceinthehighschoolgrades.vThepolicyasdesignedwascomprehensiveandintendedtoaddressseveralaspectsofstudentlearningbuttraditionalschoolpoliciesandpracticescanoftenbesloworresistanttochange.Act31soriginstoryshowsthesituationinitsfullcomplexity.Proponentssoughttocounterthepost-Voigtbacklashbutitwasnotsimplyanotherexampleofusingthepublicschoolstoaddressbroadersocialissueslargelyexternaltotheschoolsthemselves.Americanshavelongsoughttouseschoolstoreformsocietyitselftryingtoaccomplishthroughchildrenthekindsofchangesthataremuchmoredifficultwithadults.viBecausethefocusofsocialchangeisontheadultsourstudentswillbecomethebestindicatorofthesuccessofpolicieslikeAct31isnotstudenttestscoresorsimilarmeasuresbutthebehaviorofouralumni.viiDuringthe1980sinWisconsinsomeofthealumniofourpublicschoolswereengaginginviolentracistprotestsonboatlandingsandsomewereorganizingop-positiontothoseviewsandworkinginsupportoftreatyrightswhilemoststayeddisengaged.Ifweconsiderthatthesebehaviorsandtheracismandignorancetheyreflectarethemselvesoutcomesofpasteducationalpolicydecisionsitbecomesclearerwhyapolicysolutionbasedontheinvolvementofandcooperationfrompublicschoolswasessential.SeveralinterrelatedfactorsledthestateofWisconsintoenactAct31.Firstpriorto1989therewasadecades-longpolicytrendatthenationalstateandlocalleveltoredefinecurriculumcontenttoaddressbroadersocialconcernsincludingWorldWarIItheColdWarthecivilrightsmovementandnationaleconomicanxieties.TheseprioritiesandtheeffortsthatfollowedfromthemoftennarrowedthecurriculumleavingAmericanIndianslargelyinvisibleorstereotypicallypor-trayedduetobroadernationalconcernsinthefield.Evenascurriculumpolicybegantoshifttoincludeethnicstudiesinthe1970sand1980sNativepeopleweremostoftensimplyanotherracialorethnicgroupratherthancitizensofsovereignnations.ThisleftlittleopportunityforstudentstodevelopatrueunderstandingofAmericanIndianhistorycultureandtribalsovereignty.ThestudyofWisconsinhistorytypicallyofferedinfourthgradehasbeenanotableexceptiontotheproblemofinvisibilitybecauseitismoreattunedtotheuniquefeaturesofthestatewhichsocialstudiesasawholehashistoricallyfailedtoaddress.ItistypicallytheonlyclasswithasignificantfocusonNativepeopleinWisconsinasopposedtotheoccasionallessonsstudentsmightencounteraboutotherquiteculturallyandlinguisticallydistinctpeopleselsewhereinNorthAmericawithinthescopeofUnitedStateshistoryorothercourses.LeadingWisconsinhistorytextbooksfromthe1950s1960sand1970smostnotablyRomanoandGeorgiadysExploringWisconsinsimilarlyprovidedlittleopportunitytolearn