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MAZINAIGANPAGE12SomeWisconsinresidentsrespondedtotheviolentandracialprotestsatspearshinglandingsfollowingthe1983Voigtdecisionshowingsupportforthetreaties.VedaStonereleasesthenalrecommendationsfromtheAdHocCommissiononRacismduringa1984pressconferenceatLacCourteOreilles.SEThelateRonaldN.SatzauthorofChippewaTreatyRightsTheReservedRightsofWisconsinsChippewaIndiansinHistoricalPerspective.AdHocCommissionoContinuedfrompage11Signsandracialslmanyspringsthrouschools.PhotobyanythingaccurateorauthenticaboutNativepeoplebeforeAct31spassage.WhileAmericanIndianpeopleareincludedconsistentlyintheearliestchaptersgreetingNicoletservingashostsandguidestoFrenchmissionariesandexplorersanddyingintheBlackHawkWarastheperiodcoveredmovestowardcontemporarytimesNativepeopleallbutdisappear.ThesehistoricalreferencesdepictNativeAmericansasprimitivesuperstitiouspeoplewhowarredamongthemselveswithoutEuropeaninterventionandthefewcontemporaryreferencesarequitevagueandoffernoclearconnectionbetweenpastandpresent.OverallthetextimpliesthatNativepeoplearesecondarycharactersinstoriesthatareultimatelyaboutEuropeansthusthereislittletobelearnedoutsidethecontextofEuropeanexplorationandsettlement.Thereislittletosuggestthattribesaredistinctsovereignnationswiththeirowngovernmentsandtreaty-basedrelationshipswiththefederalgovernment.TodosowouldrequireadiscussionoftribalsovereigntytribalgovernmentandtreatymakingwhichwoulditselfchallengetheoverallmessageaboutIndiansnecessarilyfadingoffintotheWestasAmericagrows.ConsideringtheabsentorlimitedopportunitiestolearnaboutWisconsinIndianhistorycultureandtribalsovereigntythatschoolsprovidedtogenerationsofthegeneralpublicitisnotsurprisingthattheactionsofouralumniincludedignoranceracismandviolenceinresponsetotheVoigtDecision.Whilediscussingtreatyrightsonaradiocall-inshowduringthesummerof1989acalleraskedhistorianRonaldN.SatzwhetherthelanguageinthetreatiesdesignatedacertainnumberofIndiansoffthereservationasawarpartywhocouldbelawfullyfiredupon.viiiThisstoryshowsthelevelofdangerousignoranceandmisinformationcirculatinginWisconsinfromthetimetheSeventhCircuitCourtofAppealshandeddowntheVoigtDecisionin1983.TensionsescalatedasviolenceincreasedandthefearsthatsomeonemightbekilledataWisconsinboatlandingincreasinglybecamerealpossibilities.Thecontro-versytoreapartmanycommunitiescostmillionsofdollarsinlawenforcementandcourtexpensesharmedbusinessesanddamagedWisconsinsreputation.By1989thepeakofviolentprotestsduringspringspearingmanypoliticalleadersinWisconsinonbothsidesoftheaislebegantodiscusspotentialpolicysolutions.Stateofficialsfoundwillingpart-nersintriballeadersIndianeducatorsandalliesmanyofwhomhadlongbeenengagedineffortstobuildbroaderunderstandingofWisconsinIndianhis-torycultureandtribalsovereignty.AtthenationallevelorganizationssuchastheSocietyofAmericanIndiansandtheGrandCouncilFireofAmericanIndianshadbeenchallengingtextbookaccountsasearlyasthe1920s.Inthe1960sanewgenerationofNativescholarsfoundedtheAmericanIndianHistoricalSocietytocounterbiaseddepictionsintextbooksandtoproduceinstructionalmaterialsthatprovidedanAmericanIndianperspectiveonAmericanhistory.Atthe1961AmericanIndianChicagoConferenceStockbridge-MunseeElderElmerDavidsSr.deliveredaspeechdecryingthewhitepublicslevelofignoranceandcallinguponschoolstomakestudentsawareofhistoricalpoliticalandculturalissuesrelatedtoNativepeople.Indianeducatorsandtheirallieseffortstochangecurriculumachievedanim-portantsuccessin1980withthepassageoftheIndianEducationAct.Theactestab-lishedprovisionsforestablishinglanguageandcultureeducationprogramsinpublicschoolsprovidedameasureofstateaidforsuchprogramsoperatinginalternativeschoolsandestablishedtheAmericanIndianLanguageandCultureEducationBoardAILCEB.TheAILCEBwasagroupofNativeeducatorsnominatedbytribesandappointedbythegovernortoadviseonabroadrangeofeducationalissuesinclud-ingcurriculumpolicy.OverthecourseofthenextdecadetheAILCEBemergedasakeyadvocateforcurriculumpolicyreformsdesignedtocreatelearningopportunitiesforallstudentsrelatedtoWisconsinIndianhistorycultureandtribalsovereignty.LessthanayearaftertheVoigtDecisiontheJointLegislativeCouncilsAmericanIndianStudyCommitteebegantodiscussimplementationoftheIndianEducationAct.TheCommitteewhichconsistedofelectedmembersoftheWisconsinAssemblyandSenateandpublicmembersrepresentingtribalnationsinWisconsinwastostudyissuesaffectingAmericanIndiantribesandtribalmembersandtodevelopappropriaterecommendationsandproposalstoaddressthem.ixElectedofficialsandappointedtribalrepresentativesurgedthecommitteetoenactnewlawsrequiringschooldis-trictstoestablishIndianeducationprogramswherethereweresizablepopulationsofAmericanIndianstudentsandtoconsultwithtribesintheprocess.xThefirstsetofeducationpolicyproposalsemergedin1984fromthefindingsoftheAdHocCommissiononRacisminNorthernWisconsinabodyconvenedbytheLacCourteOreillestribalgovernmentandco-sponsoredbytheOfficeoftheGov-ernortheWisconsinIndianResourceCouncilandtheLacCourteOreillesOjibwaCommunityCollege.TheCommissionwasresponsibleforstudyingtheincidenceprevalenceandimpactofallegedracismprejudiceanddiscriminationonthetribeanditsmembersbyholdingahearingandissuingareportwithitsfindingsandrec-ommendations.xiInitsreportissuedonNovember301984theAdHocCommissiononRacismidentifiededucationamongseveralthemesdrawnfromtestimonyandtheyfrequentlyidentifiedandcalleduponotherentitiesandorganizationsincludingschoolschurchesbusinessescivicorganizationsandthemediaitselftobecomeactivepartnersindevelopingpositivesolutionstothesesocialissues.TheEducationsectionofthereportrecognizedschoolschurchesandhomesassourcesofracismanditcalledforfurthereducationandpublicdialogue.xiiThereportnotedthatschoolscurricularandextra-curricularofferingsgenerallyfailedtoincludelessonsreflectingtherichheritageandmanycontri-butionsoftheAmericanIndianculture.TheCommissioncalleduponschoolsatalllevelstoacttoreduceracismbyprovidingwelltaughtcoursesontribalsovereigntythetreatiesIndiancultureandhistory.xiiiItsspecificrecommendationscalledupontheDPIGreatLakesInter-TribalCouncilGLITCUniversityofWisconsinSystemWisconsinAssociationofIndependentCollegesandUniversitiesandlocalschooldistrictstoevaluateexistingeffortsanddevelopimprovedmeansforexpandingeducationalopportunitiesforprofessionaleducatorsstudentsthegeneralpublicandmembersofthemedia.Overallthereportidentifiedthelackoflearningopportunitiesasbothcauseandeffectofracism.ThespecificrecommendationsofferedbytheAdHocCommissiononRacismbecametheinitialtemplateforwhatwouldbecomeAct31.TheCommissioncalleduponschoolstocreatematerialswhichincorporatetheculturesandhistoryoftheAmericanIndiannationsparticularlythosehavingreserva-tionswithinWisconsin.Theyrecommendedthatschooldistrictsscreeninstructionalmaterialsandwithdrawthosereflectingeitherovertorimpliedracism.FurthermoreitcalleduponschoolstopartnerwithlocalIndianparentcommitteestodevelopAC