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PAGE13MAZINAIGANRacismspursactionrsdominatedthescenesatboatlandingsthroughoutnorthernWisconsinduringhthemid-1980swithtensionsimpactingcommunitieschurchesandowingintoueEricksonRepresentativeFrankBoylepushedforaresponsetoracismviacurriculumandeducation.PhotobySueEricksonSeeCurriculumdevelopedpage14TribalattorneysrepresentativesandsupportersoutsidethefederalcourtbuildinginMadisonWisconsinpriortoatrialbeforeFederalJudgeBarbaraCrabbin1988tofurtherdeneOjibwetreatyrights.SEappropriatecurriculumandprograms.xivItisimportanttonotethateachoftheserecommendedstrategiesinvolvedpartner-shipswithNativepeople.TheAILCEBbecamethefirsttotakeuptherecommen-dationsoftheAdHocCommissiononRacism.Inits1985reporttheBoarddescribeditsroleintermsofincreasingopportunitiesforIndianandnon-IndianstudentstobecomeknowledgeableaboutAmericanIndianhistorylanguageandcultureanditexplicitlyconnecteditsgoalstorecommenda-tionsoftheAdHocCommissiononRacism.xvOverthenextseveralyearsitofferedteachertrainingworkshopsreprintedtheWisconsinWoodlandIndiansSeriesoriginallypublishedbytheRhinelanderSchoolDistrictinthe1970sandcontinuedtoadvocateformoreformalrequirementsconsistentwiththeWisconsinIndianEducationActandtherecommendationsoftheAdHocCommissiononRacism.TheAILCEBaffirmedtheAdHocCommissiononRac-ismsviewthatovertracismreflectedgeneralignoranceoftherelationshipbetweenthefederalgovernmentandIndiantribes.TheBoardcalleduponallschooldistrictstodevelopandimplementcoursesthatwouldteachthehistoryofallWis-consintribesandtheconceptsoftribalsovereigntyandtreaties.ItnotedseveralsuccessfuleffortsacknowledgingpartnershipswithDPItheWisconsinEducationAssociationCouncilandtheWisconsinIndianEducationAssociationWIEAanddeclareditisimperativethatIndianhistorybeincorporatedinthepublicschoolcurriculathroughoutthestate.TheBoardidentifiedseveralexistingprogramsthatcouldserveasviablemodelsbutnotedthatthelackoffundsspecificallyearmarkedforthispurposenegativelyimpactedlocalinterestinimplementingthem.xviItwasclearthatunfundedvoluntaryprogramsforincorporatinglessonsonWisconsinIndianhistorycultureandtribalsovereigntywereinadequatetoestablishpeaceandharmonyintheStateofWisconsin.xviiTheBoardclearlyidentifiedsolutionsinitsrecommendationstoDPI.TheycalleduponDPItoactivelysupportlegislativeeffortstoprovidespecificfundingtoschooldistrictsforAmericanIndianhistoryandorcultureprograms.TheyarguedthatopportunitiestolearnaboutAmericanIndiansprovidedthebestmeanstoaddressracismandcalleduponDPItorequireschoolstoprovideinstructioninWisconsinIndianhistoryandtorequiresimilarinstructionaspartofteachereducationprogramsandforlicenserenewal.xviiiTheBoardsresolution1-87notedthatrampantracismduetoAmericanIndiantreatystipulationshasbecomeacriticaleducationalissueintheStateofWisconsinmuchofwhichcanbedirectlyattributedtomisinformationonthetreatyrightsissues.TheresolutionassertsallcitizensofWisconsinhavetherighttopropereducationonissuesthataffectpeaceandharmonyintheschoolsandthestateingeneralandthatitisthedutyandresponsibilityofschoolstopromotepeaceandharmonyamongethnicgroups.TheBoarddeclaredthataccuratehis-toricalandcontemporaryperspectivesofAmericanIndianswillpromotepeaceandharmonywhilebenefitingallcitizensthroughknowledgeandunderstandingofnativecultures.TheBoardrecommendedthatDPItheAmericanIndianStudyCommitteeandtribalgovernmentscollaboratetodevelopandimplementcurriculumunitsatthefourthgrademiddleschoolandhighschoollevelswhichaccuratelydescribethehis-toryofthetribesofWisconsinandtheirgovernmenttogovernmentrelationshipwiththeUnitedStatesandtheStateofWisconsinandbetaughtinallWisconsinschooldistricts.TheorganizationcontinuedtocriticizethevoluntaryunfundednatureofAmericanIndianLanguageandCultureEducationprogramsandwiththepassageofresolution1-87itsignaledthatitwasdirectingitseffortstowardadvancingaspecificcurriculumpolicyproposal.xixAmericanIndianeducatorseffortsbegantocoalescearoundthebroadprinciplesoutlinedinAILCEBsresolution.TribalgovernmentstheNationalIndianEducationAssociationtheWIEAtheAdHocCommissiononRacismandIndianandnon-IndianeducatorsaroundthestatecollaboratedtorequireinstructiononAmericanIndiansinWisconsinschools.ManyschoolshadalreadydevelopedandincorporatedappropriatecurriculummaterialsandDPIandAILCEBdistributedcopiesofcurriculummaterialsoriginallydevelopedbylocalschooldistricts.DPIcontinuedtoconductworkshopspresentatconferencesandworkwithteachersbutlocalcontrolofcurriculumpolicyacherishedtraditionandlegallyprotectedrightinWisconsinremainedakeybarrierthatoftenallbutprecludedinstructiononthesetopicsinlocalschools.Theseeffortswerepartofabroaderinitiativetoseeksolutionstoandprovideforanequaledu-cationalopportunityforallstudentsinWisconsinpublicschools.xxThevisionwasalwaysstatewidenottiedtothepresenceofAmericanIndianstudentsorproximitytoatribalcommunity.FurthermomentumcamefrommembersofthepublicastheviewsexpressedbytheAdHocCommissiononRacismAILCEBandothersgainedbroadsupportbeyondtheseorganizations.OnewitnessatahearingbeforetheAmericanIndianStudyCom-mitteeinspring1988arguedpublicschoolsdonothaveclassesontribalgovernmentandIndianculturebutcouldhelperaseprejudicebyprovidingtheseopportunitiestotheirstudents.xxiShearguedthattheintegrationofIndianculturehistoryandgovernmentintotheschoolcur-riculumwillservethedualpurposeofhavingnon-IndianstudentslearntorespectandappreciateIndiancultureandallowingIndianstudentstogainprideinandcredibilityfortheirheritage.xxiiAtribalrepresen-tativeonthecommitteerespondedtothelackofrequirementsrelatedtoteachingabouttribalgovernmentbysuggestingifIndiansubjectswereincludedinthecurriculumitmighthelptoalleviatestereotypesregardingIndians.xxiiiAvisionofcurriculumreformthataddressedbothacademicandsocietalcon-cernswasclearlyemerginganditreflectedagrowingoptimismabouttheimprovedrelationshipsbetweenNativeandnon-Nativecommuni-tiesinWisconsinthatmightfollowfromthem.Inspringandearlysummer1989Rep.FrankBoyleworkedcloselywithGLITCtoadvanceaproposaladdressingtheimportanceofongoingprofessionaldevelop-mentforteachersandexpandinglearningopportunitiesforstudents.BoyleAILCEBrepresentativesLegislativeReferenceBureaustaffmemberslegislativeaidesDPIstaffandotherswhosharedconcernsaboutthepublicslackofunderstandingaboutNativeissuesandagreedthatitwastimefortheeducationalsystemtoassumearoleinmitigatingthepervasiveignoranceaboutWisconsinIndians.xxivTheplansthatemergedfromthatmeetingincludedpermanentpositionsatDPItoeducatetheeducatorsanddevelopappropriatecurriculumandtrainingmaterialstobeusedinthelocalschooldistrictsandmandatorycurriculuminclusionofAmericanIndianstudiesforlocalschools.xxvDoyleexplainedhesoughttoeliminatethenegativestereotypesmychildrenarebringinghomefromschoolandthatitwasadirectoutgrowthofprotestsinthespringoverChippewaspearfishing.xxviClearlytherewasalinktothebacklashagainsttheVoigtDecisionandatleastimplicitlyanac-knowledgementoftheroleoftheschools.WhenGov.TommyThompsonsignedthe19891991BiennialBudgetActthesenewstatutesrelatedtoinstructioninthehistorycultureandtribalsovereigntyofthefederallyrecognizedtribesandbandsinthestatebecamestatelaw.Thiswasasignificantvictorybutgreathopeandseriousconcernsrelatedtoimplementationbothbecameapparentalmostimmediately.AtthenextAmericanIndianStudyCommitteemeetingtwoweeksafterAct31spassagebothpolicysuccessesandimplementationchallengesbecameapparent.OnesuccesswastherequirementthatDPIcollaborate31