Page 1
Page 2
Page 3
Page 4
Page 5
Page 6
Page 7
Page 8
Page 9
Page 10
Page 11
Page 12
Page 13
Page 14
Page 15
Page 16
Page 17
Page 18
Page 19
Page 20
Page 21
Page 22
Page 23
Page 24
MAZINAIGANPAGE14SPRINGSUMMER2013ACT31withAILCEBtodevelopinstructionalmaterialsonChippewatreatyrightswhichrecognizedtheimportanceofongoinginvolvementofAmericanIndianeducators.AnotherwastheauthorizationofthreenewpositionsatDPIanappropriationof300000toimplementtheseinitiativesandanadditional50000peryeartofundprofessionaldevelopmentontribalsovereigntyandtreatyrights.xxviiDespiteeffortstoportrayAct31spassageasasuccessforIndianeducationonetribalrep-resentativeonthecom-mitteelamentedwhathesawasinadequatefundingforIndianedu-cationcomparedtowhatthestatespentforlawenforcementcostsatboatlandings.SeveralelectedmembersraisedconcernsaboutthenewpositionschallengedthenatureandscopeofprogramactivitiesandquestionedDPIswillingnesstoimple-mentthenewprogram.Membersofthepublicalsoexpressedskepti-cismabouttheappro-priatenessofexistinginstructionalmaterialsandschoolswillingnesstousethemregardlessoftheirquality.Otherspeakersincludingrep-resentativesoftribalgovernmentsaddressedthenewrequirementsinabroadercontextsuggestingthateffortstoenactnewcurricularrequirementshadovershadowedotherpressingneeds.TheunitedfrontthathadledtoAct31spassagewasalreadyunderseriousstrain.AspredictedtheStateSuperintendentdemonstratedalackofunderstandingofandcommitmenttothenewprogramatthenextAmericanIndianStudymeeting.AskedaboutsanctionsforthosewhodonotimplementAct31SuperintendentGroverexplainedthatexistinglawauthorizedDPItowithholdupto25ofstateaidsfordistrictsfailingtoupholdrequirededucationalstandardsbuttheagencyinsteadimposeddeadlinesforcomplianceandhadneverimposedthissanction.xxviiiWhenremindedbyatribalrepresentativethatignoranceofhistoricalandcontemporarylegalandculturalissuesaffectedalltribesinthestateGrovermerelysuggestedthathisagencycouldofferasecondconferencelessfocusedonChippewatreatyrights.WhenaskedwhatthepolicymightlooklikeinpracticeGroverindicatedthatDPIwouldnotexpectaschooldistricttodevoteanentireweektothissubjectbutthattheywouldnotacceptsuperficialtreatmentofthesubjectandagainnotedDPIdoesnotcontrolthedetailsoflocalcurricula.xxixInresponsetoanotherquestionGroverexplainedracialdiscriminationisabroadsocietalproblemwhichisoftenreflectedintheschoolsbuthewasseem-inglyasreluctanttoembracehisagencysauthorityandresponsibilitytoaddressdiscriminationashewasreluctanttorobustlyenforcecurriculumrequirementsrelatedtotreatyrights.xxxGroverscommentssuggestthathedidnotrecognizethatdiscriminationagainstAmericanIndiansinschoolsorinthecommunitywaspartoftheimpetusfornewinstructionalrequirements.Overallhisemphasisonthelimitedrangeofenforcementoptionssuggestsambivalentsupportforthenewpolicyandhisdeferencetotraditionsoflocalcontrolclearlysignaledhowlocalofficialsmightchoosetorespond.DespitepassageofnewstatelawsthatseeminglyensuredthatschooldistrictswouldprovidespecificinstructiononWisconsinIndianhistorycultureandtribalsovereigntyseriousquestionsremained.Thenewpolicywasunprecedentedinthespecificityofitsdirectivestolocalschooldistrictsraisingimportantquestionsaboutthefutureoflocalcontrolwhichaffectedhoweventheadvocatesdiscussedimplementation.xxxiQuestionsabouttheadequacyoffundingandstaffinglevelshadbeenaconcernfromtheverybeginningandanongoingdebateinstategovernmentaboutthenumberlocationandclassificationoftheauthorizedpositionsandaninitialhiringfreezemadeitdifficulttofullystaffastatelevelresponseatDPI.xxxiiTheneedforandnatureofinstructionalmaterialstobedevelopedorprovidedbythestateortobeusedinlocalclassroomswasalsoanongoingpoliticallysensitivequestion.xxxiiiThespecificfocusonChippewatreatyrightsseeminglycontributedtoambivalencefromothertribeswhohadthemselvesbeenthesubjectsofwidespreadignoranceandthetargetsofdiscriminationintheaftermathofVoigt.Intribalcommunitiesacrossthestateeducationalleadershadtemporarilyplacedotherimportantissuesonholduntilafterthisstrugglewasoverandbecausetheseconcernsnowrequiredurgentattentionaswellmuchoftheenergyandenthusi-asmshifted.ThesedynamicswhichemergedimmediatelyafterAct31spassagetogetherbecamemagnifiedovertimeandwerethereasonwhycurriculumpoliciesthathadbeenasourceofhopebecameasourceofdisappointment.DespitetheseongoingchallengesitiscrucialtorememberthatthepassageofAct31markedthesuccessofalengthyeffortbyWisconsinIndianeducatorsandtheiralliestochangecurriculumpolicy.TheseeffortsarepartofalongtraditionofNativepeopletalkingbacktothecurriculumandtryingtoreshapeschoolingtobemoreresponsivetotheirneedsovermanyyears.ElmerDavids1961speechattheAmericanIndianChicagoConferenceanationalstagecalledforgreaternon-IndianawarenessandunderstandingofIndianissuesasaprerequisiteforsocialharmonythatwasechoedinthereportoftheAdHocCommissiononRacism.TheCommissionseffortsinitiatedbytheLacCourteOreillesBandofLakeSuperiorChippewaledtorecommendationstovariousbodieswithinstategovernment.InturntheDPItheAILCEBandtheJointLegislativeCouncilsAmericanIndianStudyCommitteeallaffordedaNativevoiceatthetable.InmanycasesthesametribesfamiliesoreventhesameindividualswereinvolvedandadditionaladvocatesworkedthroughtheWIEA.CertainlytheviolentbacklashtotheassertionandexerciseoftreatyrightsaffirmedintheVoigtDecisionwasamajorreasonbehindAct31spassagebutcloseranalysisshowshowthatresponsewasitselfaneducationaloutcomeofthefailuretoprovideWisconsincitizenswithanauthenticunderstandingofim-portanthistoricalculturalandlegalissues.Theteachersjournalistsandothersuponwhomsocietyreliedtopromotegenuineunderstandingcommonlysharedboththeeducationalexperiencesandtheignoranceofthegeneralpublicwhichlimitedtheirabilitytoraiseawareness.Thepoliceofficersgamewardensandpolicymakersatalllevelsuponwhomsocietyreliesforjustimplementationofthelawwerealsounabletobeprimarycontributorstoasolutionforsimilarrea-sons.Reform-mindedcitizenssoughttoaddressalloftheseconcernsbyenlistingthepublicschoolsanduniversityteachereducationprogramstoinstilinfuturegenerationsatrueunderstandingofWisconsinIndianhistorycultureandtribalsovereigntyandwiththehumanrelationsskillsnecessarytobeglobalcitizensaswellascitizensoftheirhomecommunities.Theirremarkablesuccesshighlightshowtheviolentcontroversyoverspearfishingwasbothcauseandeffectofcur-riculumpolicydecisions.Someoftheissuesremain.AlthoughreformsincludingtheadoptionoftheModelAcademicStandardsandWisconsinKnowledgeandConceptsExamswhichexpandedthestatesroleineducationandNoChildLeftBehindwhichexpandedthefederalrolehavegreatlyaffectedlocalcontrolofeducationfeelingsaboutthistraditionremainstrong.EveninthisnewcontexteffortstoincreaseinstructionalcapacityaremorelikelytobesuccessfulthanincreasedenforcementgiventhepoliticalclimatethenatureofDPIsformalandinformalrelationshipswithlocalschooldistrictsandlimitedoptionsforsanctions.WIEAmobilizedinthelate1990stoensurethattheModelAcademicStandardsreflectedAct31.Asimilarlystrongwell-coordinatedresponsetothenextwaveofreformswhetherledbythefederalorstategovernmentandtheirlocalimplementationstrategieswilllikelybenecessaryinthenearfuturetoensurethatAct31requirementsareincluded.FundingandstaffinglevelsremaincriticalconcernsasbudgetcutshavereducedtheabilityoftheDPItoprovidestrongstateleadership.TheDPIsAmericanIndianStudiesProgramhasanexcellentstaffbutitisstillonlyoneeducationconsultantandasharedsupportperson.TomaximizeitsimpacttheprogramcontinuestoenterintovaluablepartnershipswiththeWisconsinHistoricalSocietyWisconsinMediaLabandotherstoproduceaccurateauthenticinstructionalmaterials.TheAmericanIndianStudiesSummerInstituteapartnershipbetweenDPItribalcommunitiesandstateuniversitieshasemergedasastrongmodelforprovid-inghighqualityprofessionaldevelopment.Resourcesremainscarceandwilllikelyremainscarcesocollaborationamongmultiplepartnershipswillbecriticaltoanysuccessfulcurricu-lumdevelopmentorprofessionaldevelopmentplans.Thereareotheropportuni-tiesforcollaborationbetweenstateandtribalgovernmentsthatdidnotexistin1989.TheAmericanIndianStudyCom-mitteecontinuestooperateastheSpecialCommitteeonState-TribalRelationsandstateagenciescontinuetoobservetheExecutiveOrder39requirementstoengageinregularconsulta-tionwithtribalgovernmentsonavarietyofissues.ForthepastseveralyearstriballeadershavedirectlyaddressedthelegislatureintheStateoftheTribesAd-dressprovidinganotherforumfordirectcommunicationonimportantpolicyconcerns.StateSuperintendentTonyEversandothersfromDPIregularlyattendWIEAslegislativebreakfastandrepresenttheagencyattheannualconference.Thesearejustafewexamplesofhowformalstructurescontributetothekindsofpositivepersonalrelationshipsthatdrivepoliticalchange.ThehistoryofAct31soriginmightserveasacalltoactionorattheveryleastareminderthathistoryisoftenacontestforpowerandauthorityandschoolsandeducationhaveoftenbeeninthemiddleofthatstruggle.Itisareminderthattheimportantconsiderationsarenotpoint-in-timecontroversieslikespearfishinggaminglandintotrustorminingbutthedeeperprinciplesofacommitmenttounderstandingasharedhistoryincludinghistoricalandlegalrelationshipsembodiedinnineteenthcenturytreatiesandadeeperstillrecognitionofoursharedhuman-ity.Curriculumpolicydecisionsatthenationalstateandlocallevelmustprovideopportunitiestolearnabouthumandifferencesevenaspolicycontextsandotherculturalandpoliticalconsiderationschange.Itishopedthatthisre-examinationofAct31soriginsmightproveusefultocontemporaryadvocatesforeducationreformbyservingasareminderofpastsuccessesofthebroadprinciplesthatinformedtheeffortstosecurethemandoftheissuesyettobeaddressed.ThehistoryoftheoriginsofAct31isessentialtoimprovinguponitandprovidesaguideforfuturepolicymakers.CurriculumdevelopedfundslackingContinuedfrompage13BadRiverTribalChairmanMikeWigginsdeliverstheStateoftheTribesAddressin2012.PhotobyCharlieOttoRasmussenClassroomactivitiesonChippewaTreatyRightsarealsoavailablefromtheWisconsinDepartmentofPublicInstruction.