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PAGE7MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2013FORESTPESTSButtheyareallkilled.Noresistanttreesofthesethreespecieshavebeenfoundsofar.IftheEABstaysonitscurrentcourseashmaybenearlyeliminatedfromourGreatLakesforestswithinadecade.EventuallyonlyseedlingswillremainandasthosereachthesizethattheEABcanusetheywilldisappeartoo.IftheEABlooksbadanevenmoredestructivebugisknockingatthedoor.ForthosewhoremembertheoldBugsBunnycartoonstheAsianlonghornedbeetleALBisliketheTasmaniandevil.Iteatsbirchincludingwhitebirchorwiigwaaswillowselmsandhorsechestnuts.Italsoattacksaspencottonwoodashandhackberry.Butitsfavoritefoodis.....maple.RedmapleandsilvermaplebothzhiishiigimiiwanzhboxelderadjagobimakNorwaymapleoftenplantedasastreettreestripedmaplemoozomizhandsugarmapleaninaatigareallpreferredhostsoftheALB.FirstfoundinNorthAmericanearBrooklynNewYorktheALBhassubse-quentlyappearedonLongIslandandinNewJerseyandChicago.TheyvealsobeeninterceptedinwarehousesinseveralstatesincludingMichiganandWis-consin.Sofartheseurbanpopulationshaveeitherbeenorarebeingeradicated.RecentlythoughtheALBhasspreadintowoodedareasinMassachusettsandsouthwestOhio.IfthisbeetlegetsawayithasthepotentialtodomoredamagetoNorthAmericashardwoodforeststhanDutchelmdiseasechestnutblightandthegypsymothcombined.Ourcherishedconifersevergreensarealsothreatenedbyintroducedpests.TwoaphidrelativescalledadelgidsarrivedinNorthAmericadecadesago.BothareestablishedineasternandwesternNorthAmerica.Thehemlockwoollyadelgidattackshemlockskaakaagiwanzhranginginsizefromseedlingsto600-year-oldforestgiantsnearlyallofwhicharekilledwithinafewyears.Thebalsamwoollyadelgidprimarilyattacksbalsamaninaandagsaplingsandoldertrees.Balsamseedlingsproduceachemicalthatinhibitsthisbug.Whileinfestedbalsamtreescanhangonforadecadeormorethetwigsandterminalshootdevelopswellingscalledgoutingweakeningthetreesandrenderingthemuselessforboughsorlumber.FortunatelyboththeseinsectslackaviableflyingstageinNorthAmericasospreadveryslowlyontheirown.Allittakesisonecarelesspersonmovinginfestednurseryplantsbarkorboughsthoughandtheycouldbehereovernight.Oaksmitigomizhareincreasinglyatriskaswell.Theoakwiltfungusprob-ablyoriginatedinthehighlandsofMexico.Ithasbeensteadilyspreadingnorthandnowisshowingupinthecededterritories.LastyearitwasfoundinVilasLincolnandSawyercountiesofWisconsin.Inthiscasethepestdoesnotreadilyattackhealthyundamagedtrees.Treesgetinfectedeitherthroughwoundsinclud-ingprunedbranchesorthroughrootgraftswithnearbyoaktrees.ThefungusismostlikelytospreadbetweenAprilandJuly.Itgenerallyshowsupindevelopedsiteswherehomeownersanddevelopersbringincontaminatedoakwoodanddamagelivingtrees.OaksfallintothreegroupstwoofwhicharefoundintheGreatLakesregion.Redandblackoakstheredoakgrouphaveleaveswithlobesthatendinapointorbristlewhilewhiteoakshaveleaveswithroundedorbluntlobes.Oaksoftheredoakgrouparemuchmoresusceptibletooakwiltthanwhiteoaks.Redoaksareusuallykilledwithinoneortwoyearsofbecominginfectedwhereaswhiteoaksmaysurvivefor10yearsormore.Buttheendresultisthesame.Inadditiontobeinghighlyvaluedforfurnitureconstructionandfirewoodoakbarkhasanumberofmedicinalusesandwhiteoakacornscanbegatheredforfood.WhatcanbedoneHeroiceffortsarebeingmadetobringbacktheAmericanchestnut.Anex-tensivebreedingprogrambytheAmericanChestnutFoundationACFinvolvescrossingAmericanchestnutswiththeirmuchsmallerorchard-sizedblight-resistantChinesecousinandthenrepeatedlybackcrossingtheoffspringwithAmericanchestnutstogetresistanttreesthatretainnoChinesechestnutcharacteristicsexceptforblightresistance.WorkisalsounderwaytoisolatethegenesresponsibleforresistanceintheChinesechestnutandgeneticallyengineerthemintotheAmericanchestnutgenome.TheresistanttreesfromtheACFbreedingprogramarealreadybeingtestedinthewild.TheAmericanchestnutmayonceagainbeapartofAmericasforests.Whetheritwilleverfulfillthedominantandecologicallyvaluableroleitoncehadthoughisaquestionthatwillnotbeansweredforacenturyormore.WhilelargetreesarenowveryrareAmericanelmisstillapartofourfor-ests.Becausesometreessurvivelongenoughtoreproduceresistantstrainswillcontinuetoappear.AdditionallytheUSDAAgriculturalResearchServiceARSandothershavebredhighlyresistantstrainsfromtreesshowingsomeresistanceinthewild.Severalofthesearenowcommerciallyavailable.SofarnoneofourthreeashtreeshaveshownanyresistancetotheEABsoabreedingprogramreallyisntevenpossiblerightnow.BlueashnativetotheeastcentralUSdoesappeartoberesistant.TheUSDA-ARShasinitiatedaprogramtocollectashseedsfromacrossthecountry.TheseseedswillbepreservedincoldstoragesothatiftheEABerasesashfromthelandscapeseedwillbeavailableforbreedingprogramsandhopefullyeventualreintroductiontothewild.BiologicalcontroleffortsareunderwayfortheEAB.Sofarthreetinysting-lesswaspshavebeenintroducedfromChina.ThelarvaeofthesewaspsarenaturalparasitesoftheEAB.OnelaysitseggsinEABeggswhiletheothertwoattackthelarvaeunderthebark.AdditionallyanativeparasitoidwasphasbegunattackingEABlarva.WhethertheseinsectswilleventuallybringEABpopulationsundercontrolremainstobeseen.Thesameistrueforpredatorinsectsreleasedtocontrolthehemlockandbalsamwoollyadelgids.WhatwouldbeleftofourforestsifthesetreeswereseverelyreducedinnumberorwipedoutaltogetherItishardtoimagineournorthernforestswith-outashmaplehemlockandbirchandwherebalsamfiraspenandoakareinseriousdecline.Fortunatelyeveryonewhocutsfirewoodpicksberriesgathersmedicinesorjustlikestogoforawalkinthewoodscanplayapartinslowingthespreadofthesepests.Firstbeawareofwhatthesepestslooklikeandwhattheydotothesetrees.Ifyouspotatreeoraclusteroftreesthatlookliketheyredecliningordyingunnaturallybesureandreportiteithertousortooneoftheorganizationsbelow.Slowingthespreadwillbuytimeforscientiststofindthebestsolutionsavailabletosaveourforests.Thesimplestandperhapsmosteffectivethingwecandoistoavoidmov-inglogsorfirewoodfrominfestedareas.WhenitcomestoslowingorstoppingtheseforestpeststhefutureisinourhandsFormoreinformationThehistoryofinvasivespeciesisfromAukemaJ.E.D.G.McCulloughB.VonHolleA.M.LiebholdK.BrittonandS.J.Frankel.2010.Historicalac-cumulationofnonindigenousforestpestsinthecontinentalUnitedStates.Biosci-ence6011886-897.ForagreatreadontherestorationoftheAmericanchestnutseethisrecentNationalGeographicstoryhttpphenomena.nationalgeographic.com20130311resurrecting-a-forest.AlsocheckouttheAmericanChestnutFoundationsiteathttpwww.acf.orgindex.php.Foradditionalinformationandphotoswww.glifwc.orgForest_PestsAsianlonghornedbeetleattacksmapleContinuedfrompage6UpperphotoGalleriescreatedbyAsianlonghornedbeetleALBlarvaegreatlyweakentheirhosttrees.PhotobyE.RichardHoebekeCornellUniversityBugwood.orgInsetAsianlonghornedbeetle.PhotobyJoeBoggsBugwood.orgTotheleftALBexitholesandotherdamage.PhotobyPennsylvaniaDe-partmentofConservationandNaturalResourcesForestryArchiveBugwood.orgNorthernredoakmashkode-miizhimizhsuccumbingtooakwiltinMinnesota.PhotobyJosephOBrienUSDAForestServiceBugwood.org