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PAGE1MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2013PublishedbytheGreatLakesIndianFishWildlifeCommissionSpringSummer2013Lateice-outcoolsnettingGoodfishingforwalleyespearersVITFhonorsRedCliffsLeoLaFernierBySueEricksonStaffWriterApinchofasemaatobaccoishandedtoRedCliffsLeoLaFernierrequestinghimtoopenaVoigtIntertribalTaskForceVITFmeetingwithaprayerarequesthegraciouslygrantsandoffersuphiswordstotheCreatorfollowingaDrumSongandthepassingofaPipe.InthiswaymanyVITFmeetingshavebegunovertheyearswiththeTaskForceslongest-standingmemberaskingtheCreatorforwisdomandguidance.LaFernierhasbeenwiththeTaskForcesinceitsbeginningin1983andisenteringhis28thyearasaTaskForcerepresentativefromRedCliffalthoughthisyearheisservingasanalternate.Asoft-spokenbutdeterminedogichidaaLaFernierknownasUncleLeohasadvocatedforhistribetreatyrightsandtheenvironmentasatribalcouncilmemberaVITFrepresentativeandasaspiritualguide.Hisjourneyhasbeenlongandrichashehasparticipatedinthere-affirmationoftribalsover-eigntyandtreatyrightsandtheresultingempowermentoftribalgovernmentsthroughthepast30years.HesparticiaptedinmanybattlesalongthewayincludingtheprotestyearsonWisconsinspearfishinglandingsthestrenuousnegotiationswiththeStatethatcharacterizedthefirstyearsoftreatyharvestsinthe1980sthebattleagainstthelocationofanuclearwastedisposalsiteintheregionRedCliffsefforttoinvestigatemysterybarrelsplantedbytheUSDepartmentofDefenseinLakeSuperiorandmostcurrentlythethreatofanironminestationedatopthePeno-keeMountainssettodrainintotheBadRiverwatershedandLakeSuperiorthetribescurrentandhistoricalfishingandricinggrounds.LaFerniergrewupontheRedCliffreservation.Hisfamilydependedheavilyonhuntingandfishingtoputfoodonthetable.Thiswasduringatimewhenyoudidntknowwhatmightbeservedfortheeveningmealmuskratporcupinewhateveronewasfortunateenoughtocatch.Whateverthemenuwaswesureenjoyeditherecalls.HoweverlifecalledLeotoworkawayfromthereservationinthemid-fifties.HespenttimeinMichiganMil-waukeeandChicago.HereturnedtoRedCliffin1973oneyearafterthehistoricGurnoedecisionwhichre-affirmedtribaltreatyfishingrightsinLakeSuperior.AfterseveralbidsforelectionLaFernierwonelectiontotheRedCliffTribalCouncilin1983andservedontheCounciluntil1999.ThemajorityofthattimeLaFernierwasvice-chairmanapo-sitionwhichtookhimonmanyjourneystoWashingtonDC.OnonesuchtripwithlateTribalChairmanRichardGurnoehecarriedagiftofLakeSuperiorfishondryicethatslowlybegantomeltalongtheway.Thepreciouspackagewasdrip-pingfishjuiceasLaFernierandGurnoeenteredtheDepartmentofInterior.ButLaFernierdoggedlypursuedhismission.BoththeRedCliffTribeandGLIFWCsaidchimiigwechtoRedCliffsLeoLaFernierforhis28yearsofserviceontheVoigtIntertribalTaskForceVITFasRedCliffsrepresentative.CongratulatingLaFernierashereceivedaframedresolutionofappreciationfromGLIFWCareRedCliffTribalChairwomanRoseGurnoe-SoulierGLIFWCBoardofCommissionersChairmanMicIshamandVITFChairmanTomMaulson.PhotobySueEricksonSeeHonoringpage20RedCliffsMorrisfamilyspenttheeveningofMothersDayonMiddleEauClaireLakeinNorthwestWisconsin.PhotobyCharlieOttoRasmussenCededTerritoryWesternGreatLakesGaa-biboonikedOldManWinterkeptfreshwaterlakesinhisicygripwellinMayfrustratingtheeffortsofanxiousfishermenreadytohitopenwater.Thelatenearrecordice-outonmanywaterstranslatedtoashortseasonandmodestharvestatMilleLacsandotherhistoricallyproductivelakes.ApairofsmalllakesonthesouthernreachesofthecededterritoryinWiscon-sinpresentedthefirstharvestopportu-nityMay1.SpearersfromLacCourteOreillesbroughthome108walleyefromWindfallLakewhileCedarLakeyielded175fishforSt.Croixmembers.ByMay7allsixWisconsinbandswereparticipatingintheharvest.Evenwiththeseasonbeginningnearlyfiveweekslaterthanthe2012openerWisconsinspearersbagged28273walleyebythethirdweekinMay.Tribalofficialsear-lierannouncedaharvestdeclarationof59399walleye.InUpperMichiganLacVieuxDesertfishermenfoundopenwateronEmilyLakeandtheCiscoChainaninterconnectedlakesystemthatdescendsintoWisconsinonopeningnightMay5.TheexpansivebutreliableLakeGo-gebicprovidedthehighesttotalsfortheLVDcommunitywith1631fishspearedthroughMay16.BayMillsfishermenintheeasternUpperPeninsulaconductedlimitedwalleyespearingatMonocleLakeandtheEscanabaRiver.IndownstateChe-boyganCountyBlackLakeyieldedasinglelakesturgeonforaBayMillstreatyspearer.JustinCarrickBayMillsConservationDepartmentsaidthatnear-shoreareasofLakesSuperiorHuronandMichiganhavereceivedthemostattentiontodatebothfromsubsistenceandcommercialfishermen.WhileMilleLacsBandfishermennegotiatedthelatebreakupwithunder-icenetsinlateAprilitwasMay9beforeopenwaterfishinggotunderway.SkilledOjibwespearerssuccessfullytargetedabroadersizerangeofwalleyeintheefforttoconservesensitiveyear-classesofsmallerfish.Historicallythemostutilizedfishingmethodnettingproducedonlyabout17oftheharvesttotalac-cordingtopreliminarynumbers.ThenewregulationsallowingallsizesofwalleyetobespearedatMilleLacsappearstohaveshiftedsomeoftheharvestawayfromsmallerfishsaidJoeDanRoseGLIFWCInlandFisheriesBiologist.Accordingtopreliminarycreeldatawalleyetakenbyspearaveraged19.2-inchesinlengthasizethatmeshesnicelywithstateanglerrequirementstokeeponly18-20walleye.Duetodecliningabundanceofcatchablewalleyethetotalharvestablesurplusforthe2013fishingyearwasreducedto250000poundshalfofwhatitwaslastyear.TheBandsvoluntarilyByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffWriterSeeWeatherpage5 MAZINAIGANPAGE2SPRINGSUMMER2013TribesworkwithNWFtoprotectnaturalwatersConcernoverloopholesinCleanWaterActGikinoowezhiweOnjiiWabaanG-WOWGuidingforTomorrowprojectpartnersabovewererecognizedwithanHonorAwardfromtheUSForestServiceEasternRegiononMay3.TheG-WOWprojectfocusesontheimpactofclimatechangeandfeaturesafree-standingexhibitattheNorthernGreatLakesVisitorCenterNGLVCalongwithaninteractivekioskandclimatechangecurriculum.PicturedareJasonMaloneyUSForestServiceandNGLVCdirectorSueEricksonGLIFWCpublicinformationdirectorJimSt.ArnoldGLIFWCprogramdirectorNeilHowkApostleIslandsNationalLakeshoreassistantchiefofinterpretationandeducationandCatherineTechtmannUniversityofWisconsinExtensionenvironmentaleducator.CORMININGG-WOWAWARDOnthecoverFlashywithacrimsonheadandblackandwhitebodytheboldlycoloredred-headedwoodpeckerisindeclineduetochanginghabitatseestorypage8.PhotocomplimentsofLarryLeonardBrainerdMinn.BySueEricksonStaffWriterAccordingtoareportissuedbytheNationalWildlifeFed-erationNWFinApril2013loopholesintheCleanWaterActCWAallowminestodischargepollutionintowaterbodies.Clos-ingthoseloopholeswouldprotecttribesandothercommunitiesfrompotentiallyadverseimpactsasaresultofhardrockmining.EntitledHonoringtheRiverHowHardrockMiningImpactsTribalCommunitiestheNWFreportfocusesontheimpactsmininghashadontribeshistoricallyandencouragesafederalrulechangetopreventtherecurrenceofsimilarimpactsinthefuture.EmphasizingtheurgencyforchangetheNWFcallsattentiontotheproliferationofnewminingproposals.MinesarebeingproposedfromAlaskasBristolBayawatershedthatsupportsthegreatestremainingrunsofwildsockeyesalmononearthtotheGreatLakesbasinwhichcontains84percentofNorthAmericassupplyoffreshsurfacewater.LoopholesintheCWASomemaythinktheEPAandtheCWAhavethepollutionproblemcovered.NotsosaysNWF.LoopholesintheCWAallowminingcompaniestodeposituntreatedtailingsandotherminewasteproductsintostreamslakesandwetlands.CurrentregulationsprovidethatminescantreatsomewaterbodiesaswastetreatmentsystemsandthereforethosewatersarenotprotectedbytheCWA.Thereportpointsoutthatminescantreatsomeminingwasteasfillmaterialwhichisnotsubjecttonormalpollutionstandards.AmericanIndiantribesacrosstheUnitedStateshavebeenimpactedbythetailingsandotherwastedumpedintoAmericaswaterwaysbythemetalsminingindustry.Tribesownandmanagenearly95millionacresoflandmuchofitconsistingoflargeintacthabitatsabundantwildlifecleanwaterandairanduniqueculturalandhistoricresources.Nearly2millionacresofIndianlandsaresubjecttomineralleasesadministeredbytheU.S.DepartmentoftheInterior.HardrockminesdisproportionatelyimpacttheenvironmenthealthandcultureofNativecommunities.HonoringtheRiverHowHardrockMiningImpactsTribalCommunitiesareportbytheNationalWildlifeFederationSurfacewaterspotentiallyfilledbyironmininggivenprovisionsofAB1SB1asamendedFebruary52013WithinasectionofthereportentitledHardrockMiningWaterPollutionbothsurfacewaterandgroundwaterpollutionfromacidminedrainageAMDisdiscussed.Acidminedrainageisaparticularlydangerousby-productofhardrockmining.Oftheestimated500000abandonedminesinthewesternUnitedStatessomedatingbacktothelate19thcenturymanycontinuetopollutetoday.Thelong-termimpactofAMDmakesitparticularlyconcerning.AccordingtothereportAMDstillseepsfromminesinEuropethatwereworkedbytheRomansbeforeA.D.476andmodernminessuchastheproposedPhoenixgoldmineinNevadaarepredictedtoproduceAMDforaslongas10000years.TribalhistorieswithhardrockminingWithinthissectionNWFdiscussestribalexperienceswithhardrockminingfeaturingwesterntribesinMontanaIdahoandeasternWashingtonwhereminingprojectshaveleftwaterspolluted.Manyoftheseminingprojectsoccurredatatimewhentribeswerevulnerableandunawareofthepotentialimpactsofminingonthelandandwater.Thereportemphasizesthepowerfulconnectionstribalpeoplehavewiththelandwaterandthenaturalworldnotingthatthereservationshaveoftenbeenhomelandsformanygenerationsmakingitunimaginablefortribalcommunitiestopickupandmoveiftheirenvironmentbecomespoisonedbyminingwaste.Similarlyresourcesonlandscededintreatiesremainimportantsourcesoffoodfortribeswhoretainedtreatyrightstofishhuntandgatherforsustenanceandstilldependonthefishandgametobepresentandsafetoeat.WhattribesaredoingtoclosetheloopholesTribesareworkingwiththeNWFtogetclosureoftheminingloopholeswhichallowfortailingsandotherminewastetobedumpedinlakesstreamsandwetlands.AlreadysometribesintheGreatLakesregionandelsewherehaveWrittentotheWhiteHouseEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyEPAandArmyCorpsofEngineersCorpsstatinghowhardrockminingthreatenstheircommunitiesandaskingthemtoclosetheloopholesintheCleanWaterActspecificallytolimitthewastetreatmentsystemexclusiontoonlymanmadewatersandtorevisethedefinitionoffillmaterialtoexcludedischargessubjecttoeffluentlimitationssuchasminingslurrieswhicharecurrentlyclassifiedasfill.PassedresolutionsurgingtheWhiteHouseEPAandtheCorpstoclosetheCWAloopholes.Encouragedtheirmemberstosendanactionalertlettertothesameparties.Thereportencouragesmoretribestoreachouttotheirmembersandfederalagenciestoclosetheloopholesthatthreatentheirwaters.Foradditionalinformationgotowww.nwf.orgminingloopholes.ForestServicehonorsG-WOWpartnersStreamslakespotentiallyfilledbyminingstreamswith2sq.mi.drainagelakes2acresPossiblemineinitialprojectareaapprox.Streamswith2sq.mi.drainagetroutstreamslakes2acresPenokeeHillsironoredepositsapprox.GTACIronCountyForestleasedlandsLegend PAGE3MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2013TREATYOBLIGATIONSMININGTreatyobligationsandtrustresponsibilityAcallforactionByMichaelJ.IshamJr.GLIFWCChairmanLacCourteOreillesReservationWis.Trustrespon-sibilityisatermIhavebeenhearingalotthesedays.Triballeadersfromaroundourregionandfromaroundthecountryhavebeencallinguponthefederalgovernmenttohonoritstrustresponsibilitytowardtribes.IhavewitnessedthisinanumberofvenuesandonanumberofissuesatmeetingsoftheEPAsRegionalTribalOperationsCommitteeinrelationtowaterqualityairqualityandhabitatprotectioninstateandfederalmeetingsandwrit-tentestimonyinrelationtoprotectingourbrotherMaiinganandinmeetingswithfederalandCongressionalofficialsinrelationtoadequatefundingfortribalnaturalresourceandenvironmentalmanagementprogramstonamebutafewexamples.WhatdoestrustresponsibilityreallymeanItisatermthateasilyrollsoffthetonguebecauseweinIndiancountryknowhowimportantitistocontinuallyremindthefederalgovernmentofpromisesandcommitmentsthatremainjustasvalidtodayaswhentheyweremademanyyearsago.Trustresponsibilityseemstobeunderstoodinconceptbymanyinthefederalgovernmentbutunderstoodinpracticebyfew.Thequestionbegshowdowetellthefederalgovernmentandotherswhattrustresponsibilitymeansintermsofac-tionintermsofgettingsomethingdonethathelpstribesmeettheirpriorityneedsTometrustresponsibilitymeansthatthefederalgovernmentmusttakespe-cificactionstoupholdanddefendtheobligationsitassumedinsigningtreatieswithmytribeLacCourteOreillesandothertribesinthisregion.ForexampletheTreatyof1837guaranteestothetribestherighttohuntfishandgatherinourcededterritories.Itguaranteesthatwecancontinueourlong-heldlifewaysandusetheresourcesaswehavesincetimeimmemorial.Thesametypesofguaran-teesarepartofthetreatiesandotherdocumentsthatestablishedourreservations.Manyequatethefulfillmentofthesetreatyobligationstothefulfillmentoftrustresponsibilities.Somesuggestthatspecifictreatyobligationsareasubsetofthegeneraltrustresponsibility.Ifindthistypeoflegaleseconfusingandunhelpful.TomeobligationscontainedintreatiesthattheUSConstitutionconsidersasthesupremelawofthelandaremorepowerfulthanageneraltrustresponsibilitythatwasdefinedbythecourts.Bysigningthesetreatiesthefederalgovernmenttookonspecificobligationsandcommittedtomakinggoodonspecificguarantees.Treatyobligationsgobeyondadutytoconsultwithtribesonagovernment-to-governmentbasis.Theygobeyondapplyingsomesortofbalancingtestthatmerelytakestribalinputintoaccountbutthatdoesnotguaranteedecisionsthattrulyprotecttribalinterests.Treatyobligationsrequiremuchmore.TheyrequirethefederalgovernmenttoaffirmativelyactnotsitidlybywhileAkiisbeingdestroyed.Theyrequirespecificactionsanddecisionstoprotectanddefendourrighttohuntfishandgathernaturalresourcesincludingtoensurethattreatyresourcesarenon-toxichealthyandabundant.Treatyobligationsmeanthatthegovernmentmustdenyapermitforminingactivitiesforexamplethatwillpolluteandpoisontreatyresourcesaswellasdestroyvaluabletreaty-protectedhabitat.Theyalsomeanthatthefederalgovern-mentmustensurethattribeshavesufficientfinancialresourcesandexpertisetodeterminetheimpactsofparticularproposalsontribalrightsandinterestsaswellastobefullparticipantsinalldecisionsthataffectthem.TounderstandtrustresponsibilityIchoosenottogettangledupintheoreti-calconceptsanddiscussions.InsteadIlooktothespecifictermsofthetreatiesthemselves.Theyprovidethefoundationandthejustificationforfederalactionnotinactionandlipservice.Thereneedbenoothersourceoflawtoprovidethatauthorityorimpetustoact.AfterallastheConstitutionmakescleartreatiesarethesupremelawoftheland.OdanahWis.FromtheYel-lowDogPlainswesttotheArrowheadregionmininginitiativesareinplayacrossthecededterritory.Influencedbyweatherregulationsandmarketforcesplansforextractingironoretaconiteandothermetalsincludingcopperzincandnickelremaininvariousstagesofdevelopment.MiningspecialistswithGLIFWCTribesandgrass-rootsorga-nizationsaretrackingminingactivityinthefieldandinpublicforums.Theresamajorpushinthecededterritoryandadjacentregionsfrommin-ingcompaniestoidentifyanddeveloporebodiesAnnMcCammon-SoltisGLIFWCpolicyanalystsaid.Legalandenvironmentalstaffaremonitoringthismodernminingboomandthepotentialthreatstonaturalresourcesthattribalmembersrelyupon.NeartheKennecottEagleMineinnorth-centralUpperMichigananewwaterqualitymonitoringprogramintheYellowDogandSalmonTroutwa-tershedsisunderway.TheKeweenawBayIndianCommunityKBIChelpedbrokeracooperativeagreementwiththeUSGeologicalServiceonafour-yearstudytomeasureimpactsfromnotonlyminingbutassociatedactivityincludingroadconstructionheavytrucktrafficandtheoperationoflargeaindustrialfacilitywhichsprawlsover100acresofbulldozedsandplains.AquifersoftheYellowDogPlainsdischargetoformseveralpristineriverssaidKBICPresidentWarrenC.Swartz.MiningactivitiesmaydiminishtheinherentvalueoftheCommunitys1842Treatyrightsandputthehealthandwelfareofthepublicinjeopardyforgenerationstocome.SwartzsaidthewatermonitoringprogramincludesthesupportoftheHuronMountainClubandtheYellowDogWatershedPreservebothlocatednearBigBay.MeanwhileKennecottofficialsannouncedapullbackoncompletingconstructionandbeginningoperationoftheundergroundEagleMine.Withmineralpricesexpectedtostaysup-pressedinthecomingyearKennecottispositioningproductionofnickelandcopperforthesecondhalfof2014.AttheOrvanaResourcesminesitedubbedCopperwoodnearMichiganswesternGichigamishorelinecompanymanagerscontinueworkingthroughthestateapplicationprocess.AnticipatingstateapprovalOrvanastatedthemineshouldbeoperationalsometimenextyear.InarepeatperformancefromthepreviouslegislativesessiontheWiscon-sinAssemblyexecutedaparty-linevoteonminingregulationslargelyauthoredbyminingcompanyGogebicTaconite.Withaslimpro-minemajorityin2013lawmakerspassedtheAB1SB1IronMiningBillafterlimitedpublicoppor-tunitytoprovideinput.OnMarch11GovernorScottWalkersignedthebillintolawwhichallowsfillingstreamsandlakeswithminewastematerial.ThebillalsostripstheDepartmentofNaturalResourcesfromauthoritytohaltminingoperationsevenintheeventofanim-mediateandsubstantialthreattopublichealthandsafetyortheenvironmentcreatingahurdletoswiftremediationinemergencysituations.AlatesnowmeltinthePenokeeHillswhereGogebicTaconitepro-posestoconstructtheworldslargestopenpitironminedelayedtestdrill-ingupto1200-feettobetterdefinetheorebody.Companyofficialsannouncedplanstodiguplargerbulksamplesofrocklaterintheyear.TheBadRiverTribecreatedalegaldefensefundinthewakeofrecentde-velopmentstominethePenokeedepositwhichliesjustsixmilesupriverfromthereservation.Formoreinformationseewww.badriver-nsn.gov.TribeswhichsubmittedcommentsontheEnvironmentalImpactStatementfortheproposedPolymetmineinMin-nesotaarelookingforwardtoareviseddocumentslatedforreleasethissummer.Situatedintheheartofthe1854cededterritoryminingatthesitedominatedbycopperoreraisesanumberofenvi-ronmentalconcernsincludingimpactstoover1000acresofwetlands.ByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffWriterCopperironorebigdrawsforminingcorporationsBadRiversEdithLeososupportsnieceJadeasshetestifesatalisteningsessioninAshlandregardingtheWisconsinAB1SB1IronMiningBill.AgroupofstatelegislatorsorganizedtheFebruary10gatheringwhichdrewmorethan200participants.AB1SB1loosensmanyenvironmentalprotectionsandultimatelybecamelawonapartylinevote.PhotobyCharlieOttoRasmussen MAZINAIGANPAGE4SPRINGSUMMER2013CAMPINGDANGERSINLEADFeeexemptcampingonNationalForestcampgroundswhileexercisingtreatyrightsThroughanagreementbetweenparticipatingGLIFWCmemberbandsBadRiverBayMillsKeweenawBayLacduFlambeauLacVieuxDesertMilleLacsRedCliffandSokaogonMoleLakeandtheEasternRegionoftheU.S.ForestServicemembersoftheparticipatingBandsexercisingtheirtreatyrightsmaycampforfreeandwithoutlengthofstayrestrictionsformostcampgroundsintheChequamegon-NicoletOttawaHiawathaandHuron-ManisteeNationalForests.Somefee-exemptcampgroundsespeciallythosethatarebusystillmaintaina14-daylengthofstayrestrictionbetweenJune15andAugust15.Thisprovi-sionisperiodicallyreviewedtoensurethattheserestrictionsarenotinterferingwiththeexerciseoftreatyrights.Thereisgenerallynolimitonthenumberofcampingpermitsapersonmayobtain.ForfreecampingonNationalForestCampgroundsyoumustFillingoutForestServicecampgroundfeeenvelopesfortribalusePleasefillintherequestedinformationonthefeeenvelopetoregister.Tearofftheenvelopestubandattachtositepost.Pleasereviewthecampgroundspostedrulesandenjoyyourvisit1.BeamemberofaBandthathasratifiedtheTribalUSFSCampgroundAgreement2.ObtainatribalcampingpermitthroughyourtribalregistrationstationorGLIFWC.YourregistrationstationorGLIFWCwillusetheonlinepermittingsystemNAGFAYouwillbeissuedapermitsimilartopreviousyears-Thepermitwillincludeapermitnumberthatyouwillusetofilloutthefeeenvelope.3.Followthecampingregistrationproceduresatthecampground.Gen-erallythisinvolvesprovidinginformationrequestedonaregistrationformorenvelope.Seeillustrationonhowtofilloutthefeeenvelopeatthecampsite.4.Followallcampgroundrulesandregulationsfoundinthetribalrules.ReminderFeeexemptcampingisforNationalForestcampgroundsonlyCorrectionGLIFWCsinternet-basedpermittingarticleInthewintereditionofMazinaigantherewasanarticleaboutaninternet-basedpermitandregistrationsystemwhichisbeingusedbyseveralGLIFWCmem-bertribes.Thearticlesaidthatthesystemwasusedbyallmembertribes.ThiswasnotaccurateasKeweenawBayKBemploysadifferentsystemandthepermittingrequirementsforKBarenotthesameasforothertribes.Thisarticlecausedsomeconfusionandconcernbecauseofitsinaccuracies.Weapologizeforanyconfusionthatthisoversightmighthavecaused.DangersofleadinvenisonArecentstudyconductedbytheUSGeologicalSurveyattheNationalWild-lifeHealthCenterrevealedthatthereareelevatedammunition-associatedleadlevelsinconsumerswildgame.Thephotobelowshowstheplacementofleadfromammunitioninthestudyscarcasswithwhitespecksbeinglead.Notethedistancethoseleadspeckstraveledfromtheentrywound.Surveysdistributedtofoodbanksthesurveysshowedthat8-15ofWisconsindonatedvenisontofoodshelvescontainedleadfragments.Theseleadfragmentsarenotonlyharmfultohumansbutarealsohurtingourwildlifeinthecededterritory.Someofthemanyaffectedanimalsincludecarrionbirdssuchaseaglesandvulturescaninessuchaswolvesandcoyotesandwa-terfowlsuchasducksandgeese.Anunusualbirdthatisdroppinginpopulationsduetoleadpoisoningisthewoodcock.Someothersourcesofleadthatanimalsingestincludespentshotwaterfowluplandgamesinkerswaterfowlminetailingswaterfowlandpaintchips.Leadcancauseneuraldegenerationnervedamagekidneydamagebonedamageandinhibitbloodformationandnervetransmission.Thebodymistakesleadforcalciumandthentransportsittonervecellsandothertissues.ByLynnaGurnoeRedClifftribalwardenX-rayofadeercarcassshotwithaleadbullet.Noticehowtheleadbullethasdispersedthroughthebody.Photoreprintedwithpermissionfromwww.huntingwithnolead.orgWhatcanIdotohelpSwitchingtoammunitionthatdoesnotcontainleadwillgreatlyreducemortalityinwildlifeandlimitthechanceofhumansingestingleadfragments.Unfortunatelythisammunitiondoescostmorebutspendingafewdollarsisworthenvironmentalandhumanhealthbenefits.Leadriebulletwithfragmentspro-duced.Ammunitionmadeoutofcopperhasnofragments. PAGE5MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2013SPEARFISHINGNETTINGYoungOjibwewomenparticipateinspearandreleaseatLCOBySueEricksonStaffWriterLacCourteOreillesReservationWis.SpearandreleasedoesntseemtojivebutthatswhatsomeLacCourteOreilllesLCOOjibweSchoolstudentsareuptoundertheguidanceofJasonBisonetteoutdoorskillsteacherandWendyTorstensonscienceteacher.OntheeveningofMay15threeyoungwomenallstudentsfromtheLCOOjibweSchoolboardedBisonettesspearfishingrigandslippedontothestillwatersofLCOLakeinordertolearnsomethingofthistraditionalOjibwepractice.Howeverthisnighttheirmissionhadseveralgoalstolearntraditionalskillandvaluestobringhomesomefishtosharewiththeclassandtocollecteggsandmiltforrearingwalleyeforeventualrelease.Hereinliesthespearandreleaseaspectoftheprogram.BisonetteisintegratingatraditionalOjibwepracticewithhands-onappli-cationoftextbookscienceandmathgivingthestudentsalearningexperienceinboth.TheresacleardifferencebetweeneducatingOjibwekidsandOjibweeducationsaysBisonettewhoisdedicatedtoincorporatingOjibweperspec-tivesvaluesandcustomsintotheeducationofOjibweyouth.OjibweEduca-tionconsistsofthoselessonsthathaveallowedourpeopletothrivesinceourcreationandwhatwearedoingisblendingthattraditionalOjibweeducationwithafederallymandatedmainstreamcurriculumheexplainsconsciousthatyouthmustmeetacademicstandards.Notsurprisedthatthreeyoungwomenoptedtoparticipateinthisnight-timeventureBisonettecommentedonthestrongroleOjibwewomenhavealwaysplayedinthecommunitiesasthebackboneoftheOjibwe.ForstudentJolynnDiamondthiseveningwasanopportunitytolearnhowtospearforreal.Iactuallywanttolearnhowtospearshecommented.Iwanttolearnmoreaboutmyculture.ForsistersCateraandClariceRobertsitwasanopportunitytoseewhatspearfishingisallabout.Jolynngotherhands-onopportunitytospearthatnightbutalsolearnedaboutacknowledgingthefishwithasemaapriortoharvestlearnedaboutthespawninghabitsoffishlearnedaboutconservationprinciplesbytakingeggsandmiltforrearinglearnedaboutsharingharvestwithotherslearnedaboutenforcementofcodesgoverningspearinglearnedaboutmanagementpracticessuchasthecreel-ingofthefishlearnedaboutcamaraderieandhelpingeachotheratthelandings.AlsoshelearnedspearingafishatnightisntaseasyasitlooksOncethecrewharvestedtheirfishtheywerebroughtashoreforcreeling.Fisharemeasuredsexedandcountedateveryopenspearfishinglanding.Lack-ingfemalewalleyesneededforeggsfellowLCOspearersonthelakethatnightdonatedafewfemalesforthatpurpose.Torstensonmilkedtheeggsandtookmiltfrommalewalleyemixedthemforfertilizationandafterawaitcoveredthemwithclay.Theeggsweretransferredtoanincubatorinherclassroomandwillbetendeduntiltheyhatch.AtthatpointthefrywillbetakentotheLCOtribalhatcherytoberearedtofingerlingsizeandeventuallyreleased.Thegirlsalsoparticipatedinthecleaningandpreparationofthespearedfishinschoolthenextday.Theygavealloftheirfishawaytoeldersandpeopleworkingintheschool.WevebeenspearingfishforgenerationsBisonettesayscommentingthatOjibwepeoplehavesurvivedmanyhardtimesandthatitisimportanttosharenotonlysurvivalskillswiththeyouthbutalsotopassonthoseOjibwevaluesthatshapeourcharacterandhelpdefineusasapeople.FirsttimeoutspearingstudentJolynnDiamondleftlearnstechniqueandvaluesfromJasonBisonetteLCOOjibweSchooloutdoorskillsteacherandexperiencedspearshman.PhotobyCraigEuneauCreelingthecatchfortheeveningatLacCourteOreillesLakelandingLucieAndersonrecordsnumberswhileCharlieBraegerandTonyPricemeasurethecatchbroughtinbytheLCOSchoolcrewaswellasotherLCOshermen.SETakingeggsfromafemalewalleyeWendyTorstensonLCOSchoolscienceteacherwilladdmilttotheeggsandeventuallyhatchtheminanincubatorinherclassroom.ThewalleyefrywillbetakentotheLCOhatcheryforrearingtongerlingsizebeforerelease.SEAtMilleLacsSouthGarrisonlandingGLIFWCstaffcollectdatafromwalleyespearedintheearlyhoursofMay15.FromleftJeremyOzhwaanaquadMcClainCurtGreeneRobinArunagiriandJoeSpottedEagleWade.Accordingtopreliminaryharvestguresspearedwalleyeaveraged19.2inches.CORCreelworkatMilleLacsreducedtheirdeclaredharvestamountto71250poundsandatpresstimeonly14182poundsofthisamounthadbeentakenbytreatyfishermen.OnthelastdayoftreatywalleyefishingforWisconsinbandstheearlyhoursofMay15spearersbattledgustingwindsfromvirtuallyeverydirectionandthecreelcounttrickledtoafewdozenogaawalleye.NettersfromMilleLacsareexpectedtonudgeharvestnumbersupslightlybutfarbelowthequotalimit.SueEricksoncontributedtothisreportWeatherlimitsMilleLacsharvestSpearersfromBadRivershthewesternshoreofMilleLacs.CORContinuedfrompage1 MAZINAIGANPAGE6SPRINGSUMMER2013Tree-chompingpeststhreatennativetreesAshmapleandoakinthecrosshairsBySteveGarskeANAForestPestEnv.GrantCoordinatorFORESTPESTSOdanahWis.Theyear1635wasanimportantoneinAmericanhistory.ThatswhenthecodlingmothwasfirstfoundinNorthAmerica.ThisEurasianmothlaysitseggsonapplespearsandcrabapples.Thecaterpillarswhichtunnelthroughthesefruitsareknowntomostpeopleasthewormsinawormyapple.Thecodlingmothmayhavebeenthefirsttree-feedinginsecttoarriveherefromoverseasbutitcertainlywouldntbethelast.By1859another17introducedtree-feedinginsectshadbeenrecordedinthecontinentalUnitedStates.Thenthingsreallytookoff.From1860through2006anaverageof2.4tree-eatinginsectpestsweredetectedeachyear.Overthesametimeperiodthenumberofhigh-impactinsectsfungiandothertreepathogensaveraged0.43peryear.Mostofthesepestsarrivedonnurseryshipmentsandotherlivingplantmaterial.Todaymorethan450tree-feedinginsectsandpathogenshavebecomeestablishedintheUS.Oneofthefirsthigh-impactpeststoarrivewasthefungusthatcauseschest-nutblight.KnownastheredwoodoftheeasttheAmericanchestnutgichi-zhaaweminandominatedforestsfromsouthernMaineandOntariotoIndianaandGeorgia.Thesetreescouldreachatleast15feetindiameterand120feettall.InJulytheywouldburstintobloomturningwholehillsideswhite.Inthefalltheirhugecropsofchestnutsgichi-azhaaweminbagaanagwouldcoverthegroundseveralinchesdeep.Thenutsfedawidearrayofwildlifefromblackbearsmakwagandsquirrelsajidamoogtoturkeysmizhisegandthenow-extinctpassengerpigeon.AbreadmadefromchestnutmealmixedwithcornwasastaplefoodoftheCherokeepeople.AfterEuropeansettlementthechest-nutplayedamajorroleintheAppalachianeconomyaspeoplegatheredthenutsasacashcropandusedthetannicacidfromthebarkintheleatherindustry.Thewoodwasstronglighterthanoakandmorerot-resistantthanredwoodandcabinsmadefromchestnutlumberinthe18thand19thcenturiesarestillstandingtoday.ThearrivaloftheAsianchestnutblightfungusintheearly1900smarkedthebegin-ningoftheendforthismagnificenttree.By1940thediseasehaddecimatedthechestnutacrossitsnativerange.Wildlifepopulationscrashedandatleastsixspeciesofmothsvanishedforever.Todaythewildchestnutpopulationconsistsalmostentirelyoftherootsystemsofsurvivingoldtreesthatshootoutgetreinfectedanddiebacktotheground.Old-growthAmericanchestnuttrees.PhototakenintheGreatSmokyMountainsofNorthCarolinaaround1910.SidneyV.Streatorphotographer.PhotocourtesyoftheForestHistorySocietyDurhamNC.RarebloomingAmericanchestnutinMassachusetts.PhotobyUSDAForestServiceSouthernResearchStationBugwood.orgCurrentfederalemeraldashborerEABquarantineareas.InsetAdultEABonpenny.PhotobyHowardRussellMichiganStateUniversityBugwood.orgWoodpeckersloveEABlarvaandpicktheouterbarkfrominfestedtreestogetthem.PhotobyKennethR.LawUSDAAPHISPPQBugwood.orgAdultEABnexttoD-shapedexithole.PhotobyJaredSpokowskyNewYorkStateDepartmentofAgricultureandMarketsBugwood.orgSeeAsianlonghornedpage7Thenextgreatwaveofdestructioncameinthemid-1900swiththedemiseoftheAmericanelmaniib.AcommonoverstorytreeineasternNorthAmericanforestselmtreesalsolinedthestreetsofmanyUScitiesandtowns.AmericanelmisattackedbyanativebarkbeetlesothearrivalofthesmallercloselyrelatedEuropeanbarkbeetleprobablywasntmuchofaproblemforit.ThenthefungithatcausesDutchelmdiseasearrivedininfestedelmlogsbroughtfromFrancein1931.Bothbeetlescarriedthefungifromonetreetothenextwipingouturbanstreettreesanddecimatingwildpopulations.FortunatelytheAmericanelmhasfaredbetterthanthechestnut.SomeAmeri-canelmtreeshavesignificantresistancetothedisease.Theelmfungusalsodoesnotspreadasefficientlyaschestnutblightwhichblowsonthewind.Thusmanyelmtreesescapethefunguslongenoughtoproduceabundantseedcrops.Throughgeneticrecombinationresistanttreescontinuetoariseandpasstheirgenesontosubsequentgenerations.HistorynowrepeatingitselfThelatestmajorpesttohitourforestsistheemeraldashborerorEAB.ThisgreeninchlongbeetleprobablyarrivedinsolidwoodpackingmaterialfromChinaintheearly1990s.Bythetimeitwasdiscoveredin2002itwaswell-establishedinDetroitandneighboringWindsorOntario.ItisnowfoundfromMassachusettswesttoMinnesotaandsouthtoMissouriVirginiaandTennessee.MostofMinnesotaWisconsinandtheUpperPeninsulaofMichiganarestillfreeoftheEABthough.TheEABattacksandkillsonlytrueashgenusFraxinusspecies.Inthecededterritoriesthisincludesblackashwiisagaakgreenashaagimaakandwhiteashaagimaakorbaapaagimaak.TheOjibweandotherGreatLakestribesvalueblackashforbasketmaking.Thewoodofwhiteashisusedforsnowshoeaagimframesandsledszhooshkodaabaanagandthebarkwanagekofallthreeisusedformedicinalpurposes.Ashisalsovaluedforhandlesfurniturecabinetryandbaseballbats.Thelossofthesetreeswouldbedevastatingtotheenvironmentandtheeconomyaswell.UnfortunatelythescenariocurrentlyfacedbyashismorelikethatofthechestnutthantheAmericanelm.TheEABattacksashsaplingsassmallasoneinchindiameterkillingthembeforetheycanproduceseed.Blackashtreesareusuallykilledwithinthreeyearswhilewhiteashtreesmaypersistforfourtofiveyears. PAGE7MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2013FORESTPESTSButtheyareallkilled.Noresistanttreesofthesethreespecieshavebeenfoundsofar.IftheEABstaysonitscurrentcourseashmaybenearlyeliminatedfromourGreatLakesforestswithinadecade.EventuallyonlyseedlingswillremainandasthosereachthesizethattheEABcanusetheywilldisappeartoo.IftheEABlooksbadanevenmoredestructivebugisknockingatthedoor.ForthosewhoremembertheoldBugsBunnycartoonstheAsianlonghornedbeetleALBisliketheTasmaniandevil.Iteatsbirchincludingwhitebirchorwiigwaaswillowselmsandhorsechestnuts.Italsoattacksaspencottonwoodashandhackberry.Butitsfavoritefoodis.....maple.RedmapleandsilvermaplebothzhiishiigimiiwanzhboxelderadjagobimakNorwaymapleoftenplantedasastreettreestripedmaplemoozomizhandsugarmapleaninaatigareallpreferredhostsoftheALB.FirstfoundinNorthAmericanearBrooklynNewYorktheALBhassubse-quentlyappearedonLongIslandandinNewJerseyandChicago.TheyvealsobeeninterceptedinwarehousesinseveralstatesincludingMichiganandWis-consin.Sofartheseurbanpopulationshaveeitherbeenorarebeingeradicated.RecentlythoughtheALBhasspreadintowoodedareasinMassachusettsandsouthwestOhio.IfthisbeetlegetsawayithasthepotentialtodomoredamagetoNorthAmericashardwoodforeststhanDutchelmdiseasechestnutblightandthegypsymothcombined.Ourcherishedconifersevergreensarealsothreatenedbyintroducedpests.TwoaphidrelativescalledadelgidsarrivedinNorthAmericadecadesago.BothareestablishedineasternandwesternNorthAmerica.Thehemlockwoollyadelgidattackshemlockskaakaagiwanzhranginginsizefromseedlingsto600-year-oldforestgiantsnearlyallofwhicharekilledwithinafewyears.Thebalsamwoollyadelgidprimarilyattacksbalsamaninaandagsaplingsandoldertrees.Balsamseedlingsproduceachemicalthatinhibitsthisbug.Whileinfestedbalsamtreescanhangonforadecadeormorethetwigsandterminalshootdevelopswellingscalledgoutingweakeningthetreesandrenderingthemuselessforboughsorlumber.FortunatelyboththeseinsectslackaviableflyingstageinNorthAmericasospreadveryslowlyontheirown.Allittakesisonecarelesspersonmovinginfestednurseryplantsbarkorboughsthoughandtheycouldbehereovernight.Oaksmitigomizhareincreasinglyatriskaswell.Theoakwiltfungusprob-ablyoriginatedinthehighlandsofMexico.Ithasbeensteadilyspreadingnorthandnowisshowingupinthecededterritories.LastyearitwasfoundinVilasLincolnandSawyercountiesofWisconsin.Inthiscasethepestdoesnotreadilyattackhealthyundamagedtrees.Treesgetinfectedeitherthroughwoundsinclud-ingprunedbranchesorthroughrootgraftswithnearbyoaktrees.ThefungusismostlikelytospreadbetweenAprilandJuly.Itgenerallyshowsupindevelopedsiteswherehomeownersanddevelopersbringincontaminatedoakwoodanddamagelivingtrees.OaksfallintothreegroupstwoofwhicharefoundintheGreatLakesregion.Redandblackoakstheredoakgrouphaveleaveswithlobesthatendinapointorbristlewhilewhiteoakshaveleaveswithroundedorbluntlobes.Oaksoftheredoakgrouparemuchmoresusceptibletooakwiltthanwhiteoaks.Redoaksareusuallykilledwithinoneortwoyearsofbecominginfectedwhereaswhiteoaksmaysurvivefor10yearsormore.Buttheendresultisthesame.Inadditiontobeinghighlyvaluedforfurnitureconstructionandfirewoodoakbarkhasanumberofmedicinalusesandwhiteoakacornscanbegatheredforfood.WhatcanbedoneHeroiceffortsarebeingmadetobringbacktheAmericanchestnut.Anex-tensivebreedingprogrambytheAmericanChestnutFoundationACFinvolvescrossingAmericanchestnutswiththeirmuchsmallerorchard-sizedblight-resistantChinesecousinandthenrepeatedlybackcrossingtheoffspringwithAmericanchestnutstogetresistanttreesthatretainnoChinesechestnutcharacteristicsexceptforblightresistance.WorkisalsounderwaytoisolatethegenesresponsibleforresistanceintheChinesechestnutandgeneticallyengineerthemintotheAmericanchestnutgenome.TheresistanttreesfromtheACFbreedingprogramarealreadybeingtestedinthewild.TheAmericanchestnutmayonceagainbeapartofAmericasforests.Whetheritwilleverfulfillthedominantandecologicallyvaluableroleitoncehadthoughisaquestionthatwillnotbeansweredforacenturyormore.WhilelargetreesarenowveryrareAmericanelmisstillapartofourfor-ests.Becausesometreessurvivelongenoughtoreproduceresistantstrainswillcontinuetoappear.AdditionallytheUSDAAgriculturalResearchServiceARSandothershavebredhighlyresistantstrainsfromtreesshowingsomeresistanceinthewild.Severalofthesearenowcommerciallyavailable.SofarnoneofourthreeashtreeshaveshownanyresistancetotheEABsoabreedingprogramreallyisntevenpossiblerightnow.BlueashnativetotheeastcentralUSdoesappeartoberesistant.TheUSDA-ARShasinitiatedaprogramtocollectashseedsfromacrossthecountry.TheseseedswillbepreservedincoldstoragesothatiftheEABerasesashfromthelandscapeseedwillbeavailableforbreedingprogramsandhopefullyeventualreintroductiontothewild.BiologicalcontroleffortsareunderwayfortheEAB.Sofarthreetinysting-lesswaspshavebeenintroducedfromChina.ThelarvaeofthesewaspsarenaturalparasitesoftheEAB.OnelaysitseggsinEABeggswhiletheothertwoattackthelarvaeunderthebark.AdditionallyanativeparasitoidwasphasbegunattackingEABlarva.WhethertheseinsectswilleventuallybringEABpopulationsundercontrolremainstobeseen.Thesameistrueforpredatorinsectsreleasedtocontrolthehemlockandbalsamwoollyadelgids.WhatwouldbeleftofourforestsifthesetreeswereseverelyreducedinnumberorwipedoutaltogetherItishardtoimagineournorthernforestswith-outashmaplehemlockandbirchandwherebalsamfiraspenandoakareinseriousdecline.Fortunatelyeveryonewhocutsfirewoodpicksberriesgathersmedicinesorjustlikestogoforawalkinthewoodscanplayapartinslowingthespreadofthesepests.Firstbeawareofwhatthesepestslooklikeandwhattheydotothesetrees.Ifyouspotatreeoraclusteroftreesthatlookliketheyredecliningordyingunnaturallybesureandreportiteithertousortooneoftheorganizationsbelow.Slowingthespreadwillbuytimeforscientiststofindthebestsolutionsavailabletosaveourforests.Thesimplestandperhapsmosteffectivethingwecandoistoavoidmov-inglogsorfirewoodfrominfestedareas.WhenitcomestoslowingorstoppingtheseforestpeststhefutureisinourhandsFormoreinformationThehistoryofinvasivespeciesisfromAukemaJ.E.D.G.McCulloughB.VonHolleA.M.LiebholdK.BrittonandS.J.Frankel.2010.Historicalac-cumulationofnonindigenousforestpestsinthecontinentalUnitedStates.Biosci-ence6011886-897.ForagreatreadontherestorationoftheAmericanchestnutseethisrecentNationalGeographicstoryhttpphenomena.nationalgeographic.com20130311resurrecting-a-forest.AlsocheckouttheAmericanChestnutFoundationsiteathttpwww.acf.orgindex.php.Foradditionalinformationandphotoswww.glifwc.orgForest_PestsAsianlonghornedbeetleattacksmapleContinuedfrompage6UpperphotoGalleriescreatedbyAsianlonghornedbeetleALBlarvaegreatlyweakentheirhosttrees.PhotobyE.RichardHoebekeCornellUniversityBugwood.orgInsetAsianlonghornedbeetle.PhotobyJoeBoggsBugwood.orgTotheleftALBexitholesandotherdamage.PhotobyPennsylvaniaDe-partmentofConservationandNaturalResourcesForestryArchiveBugwood.orgNorthernredoakmashkode-miizhimizhsuccumbingtooakwiltinMinnesota.PhotobyJosephOBrienUSDAForestServiceBugwood.org MAZINAIGANPAGE8SPRINGSUMMER2013WILDLIFEMilleLacsReservationMinn.Providingsuitablehabitatforthewinged-onesespeciallythosewhomaketheirhomesonthereservationandwhosepopulationsappeartobeincrisisisamissionoftheMilleLacsBandofOjibweDepartmentofNaturalResourcesandEnvironmentDNREaccordingtoKellyApplegateDNREwildlifebiologist.MilleLacsBanddoesalotofhabitatrestorationmakingthebesthabitatwecanforanimalsthatarehereApplegateexplains.Itmakemoresensetosavespecieswhiletheyarehereratherthanwaitforthemtobelisted.BirdsareoneareaoffocusfortheDNREstaffwithfourtargetspeciesthecommonternpurplemartinchimneyswiftandthered-headedwoodpecker.Allhavedecliningpopulationsandallremainresidentonornearthereservation.GayaashkoshenscommonternOfthefourtargetspeciesthegayaashkoshenscommonternisinthemosttrouble.ItisonMinnesotasthreatenedspecieslistandonlyfivebreedingcoloniesremaininMinnesota.OneisonMilleLacsLakesHennepinIslandandiscurrentlythelargestcolonyofthefive.DNREhasbeenco-managingthecolonywiththeUSFishandWildlifeSer-vicesince2000.Itrequiresintensivemanagementincludingtheconstructionandmaintenanceofagull-exclusivegridthree-feethighandinrowsthreefeetapartonhalfofHennepinIsland.Aggressivebaashkawaa-gayashkwagring-billedgullspillageternnestsforeggsandchickstofeedtotheirownyoungApplegateexplainssotheideaistokeepthegullsintheirownarea.Ifwedidntmanagelikewedotheterncolonywouldbegoneinoneyearhesays.Becausegullshaveawiderwingspreadthantheternstheyshyfromthegridfearingentanglementwhereastheternscomfortablyflyinunderthegridandhavenoproblems.Butgullsarenttheonlyproblemfortheternswhomakeshallownestsinopengravelorsand.Theislanditselfisdegradingbecomingsmallerandmorewaterislikelytofloodovernests.Thisisalsoaprobleminhigh-wateryearsonthelake.Waveactioncanwashawaytheeggsandchicksresultinginpoorreproduction.Followingastructureddecision-makingworkshoptolookatoptionsfortheislandsternsmanagersoptedtofortifytheislandwithrockandsubstrateinordertoraiseit.Thiswinter30yardsofpeagravelwereaddedtothenestinggroundwhiletheternfamilieswereawayenjoyingwinterintheGulfcoast.Comenestingseasonmanagersperformaweeklyeggcountandbandchickswithstandardgreenfederalmarkingbands.Bandingstartedafterthe2010GulfoilspillpromptedbyfearthatthewinteringternscouldrunintotroubleintheGulfhowevertherehasbeennoevidenceofthat.Despiteintensemanagementreproductionratescontinuetoseesaw.Lastyearwasnotagoodreproductiveyearfortheternsbut2012gainedabout150-200chicksarelativelygoodyear.TheBandscontinuingconcernfortheHennepinIslandternsstemsfromtheBandsculturaltiestotheIslandandtheirviewofwildliferesourceswhichissocompleteandveryinvolvedApplegateexplains.AcormorantcolonyalsoexistsonSpiritIslandwhichDNREmonitorsfordisease.ThetwoMilleLacsLakeislandsmakeuptheMilleLacsNationalWildlifeRefugeknowntobethesmallestnationalrefugeatlessthanoneacre.ItsforthebirdsMilleLacsBandfosterssurvivalofdecliningspeciesBySueEricksonStaffwriterGridssetonMilleLacsLakesHennepinIslandservetokeepgullsfrominvadingnestingsitesforthecommontern.Withawiderwingspreadthegullsbecomeensnaredinthestrunglineswhereastheternseasilyfyunder.PhotobyTrailCameraU.S.FishandWildlifeServiceInsetGayaashkoshens.PhotoJohannSchumacherVIREOGichi-zhaashaawanibiisiipurplemartinThepopulationofthegichi-zhaashaawanibiisiihasdecreasedby78inMinnesotaApplegatesays.Itsstatusisdeclining.ItsevenworseinthewiderGreatLakesregionhometomanyOjibwetribesaccordingtoApplegatewhoisalsothedirectorofthePurpleMartinWorkingGroupheadquarteredattheDNRE.TheWorkingGroupsfocusistorestorethepurplemartinpopula-tionbyhelpingwithfostersitesandpublicmartinhousingsites.WorkinggrouppartnersincludeAudubonMinnesotaMinnesotaDepartmentofNaturalResourcestheNationalPurpleMartinConservationAssociationandtheCircleofFlightConservationProgram.InadditiontheBandworkswithYorkUniversityinCanadatowardsthepreservationofthespecies.TheWorkingGroupcanactuallyincludeanyonefromabackyardenthusiasttoahigh-levelscientificresearcher.ThepurplemartinisamongonlyacoupleofbirdspeciesthathasevolvedtobecomedependentuponmanApplegatesays.ItseemedtostartintheSouthwestwhentribesuseddriedgourdsforstoringgrain.Smallholeswouldgetinthegourdsperhapsfrommiceorsquirrelsandthebirdswouldmaketheirneststhere.Nativepeoplefoundgoodusesforthepurplemartin.Firstwasforentertain-mentbywatchingthebirdsanticsswoopingandsoaring.TheywereconsideredagiftfromtheCreator.Secondamartencolonywouldkeepawayhawksandcrowsandothergardenpredators.Martinsareveryprotectiveoftheircolonysitessochaseawayinvadersandthirdtheyaregreatalarmclocks.Atthecrackofdawntheywillbechirpingaway.TheMilleLacsBandiscurrentlyhometofivecoloniesofpurplemartin.Onecolonythatresidesinarackoftwenty-fourartificialgourdsjustoutsidetheelderlycenterprovidesentertainmentthere.Eachcolonyhostsabout30to50nest-ingpairs.Therearealsopublicsiteswhicharemartinhousesconstructedwithjust14holes.Thehopeisthatnewpairswillgoouttopeopleintheareawhoaretryingtoattractthem.Purplemartinhousessomethingontheorderofminiatureapartmentbuildingsareconstructedtobestar-lingresistantbymakingtheentryholetoosmallforstarlingswhooftentakeovertheintendedpurplemartinfacilities.Muchofthepurplemartinrecoveryisaccomplishedonacostsharebasis.Partiesmustpurchasetheequipmenti.e.housesbutWorkingGroupexpertswillhelpwithset-upandprovideinformationonhowtoattractthebirds.Birdsareattractedusingpurplemartindecoysaswellassoundrecordings.DNREperformsweeklynestchecksattheBandspurplemartinnestingsites.Theyhavealsoplacedbean-sizedbackpackscontaininggeo-locatorsonsomebirdsaspartofon-goingcollaborativeresearch.Thegeo-locatorsregistersunriseandsunset.Fromthatinformationmanagerscanfigurewhereabirdislocatedwithinafifty-mileperimeter.OneofMilleLacsBand-managedpurplemartinswastrackedtoBrazilandback.Thegoalfor2013istohave24geo-locatorde-ploymentsandtoband2000birdsacrossMinnesota.WorkingwiththebirdmigrationlaboratoryofYorkUniversitythestudytodatehasbeenpublishedintheRoyalSocietyofBiologylettersatopscientificjournalrepresentingthefirsttimeaMilleLacsBandmemberauthoredinascien-tificjournal.ThestudywillalsobepublishedinTheAukanationalornithologistpublicationthisspring.BandingstudiescoordinatedinthestatehavealsobeenpublishedinTheLoonaprestigiousornithologypublication.Formoreongichi-zhaashaawanibiisiipurplemartinincludingmartinhousesandmanagementformartinlandlordscheckoutwww.purplemartin.org.MemitigoningwegaaneshiinhchimneyswiftAlsocalledflyingcigarsthechimneyswiftischaracterizedbyashortbrownbodyandlongwings.Swoopingbetweenbuildingsafterflyinginsectsatdusktheswiftsareoftenmistakenforbatshowevertheyareactuallyarelativeofthehummingbird.Theswiftsalsosuffereda50populationdeclineinthelastfortyyears.Manyswiftsmovedfromtheirtraditionalhomesinhollowedtreestumpstonestinbrickchimneysastheirhabitatwastakenoverbysettlementthustheirnamechimneyswifts.Chimneyswerenormallynotusedduringthenestingseasonsotheaccommodationsworkedoutwell.Largeindustrialsmokestackscouldhousethousandsofswifts.Howevertodaytherequirementtolinechimneyflueswithmetalhasfurtherdeprivedthespeciesofhousing.Swiftsattachtheirnestsalongverticalsurfacesthenestslookingalmostlikeasmallcurvedvarietyofshelffungusonatreetrunk.WithfeetlikegrappleGichi-zhaashaawanibiisii.PhotoGlennBartleyVIREOPurplemartincondo.PhotobyKellyApplegateSeeMemitigoningwegaaneshiinhpage10 PAGE9MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2013WILDLIFEOff-reservationgatheringThroughanagreementbetweenparticipatingGLIFWCmemberbandsBadRiverBayMillsKeweenawBayLacduFlambeauLacVieuxDesertMilleLacsRedCliffandSokaogonMoleLakeandtheEasternRegionoftheU.S.ForestServicemembersoftheparticipatingBandsexercisingtheirtreatyrightsmaygathernon-timberforestproductsfromtheChequamegon-NicoletOttawaHiawathaandHuron-ManisteeNationalForestsaswellasthefollowingstatepropertiesinWisconsinBigBayStateParkBruleRiverStateForestCopperFallsStateParkCrexMeadowWildlifeAreaEddyCreekFisheryAreaFlambeauRiverStateForestGovernorKnowlesStateForestNorthernHighlandsAmericanLegionStateForestPowellMarshWildlifeAreaWillowFlowageScenicWatersForoff-reservationgatheringyoumust1.BeamemberofabandthathasratifiedtheTribalUSFSMOUAgreement2.ObtainatribalgatheringpermitthroughyourtribalregistrationstationorGLIFWC.GLIFWCparticipatesinthestudyoftheWisconsinomashkoozoogelkinconjunctionwiththeWisconsinDepartmentofNaturalResourcesandtheUSForestService.ThispastwinterClamLakeAshlandCountyareaelkwerecapturedinordertoradio-collarfemalesandtoconductpregnancychecks.PhotobyMicahCainAPITtaginawaabizheshiAmericanmartencapturedintheChequamegon-NicoletNationalForestthiswinteraspartofGLIFWCsongoingmartenrecoveryprogram.ThePITtagallowsresearcherstoi.d.themartenwithascanningdevicewhenrecaptured.GLIFWChasworkedhand-in-handwithWisconsinDepartmentofNaturalResourcesandtheUSForestServiceinthereintroductionandmonitoringofwaabizhesiwaginthecededterritoriessince1989.PhotobyMicahCainOdanahWis.Followingahuntingandtrappingseasonthatproduced529registeredwolvesinMinnesotaandWisconsinstatewildlifeofficialsaretakingaimata2013-14season.WhileMichiganfinalizesplansforitsinauguralhuntGLIFWCmembertribesmaintainthatkillingwolvesforsportisbothinappropri-ateandunnecessarilyrushed.ItsalwaysbeenknownbytheAnishinaabethatwhathappenstomaiinganhappenstoussaidMarvinDeFoeVoigtIntertribalTaskForceVITFrepresen-tativefromRedCliff.Itsourpositiontoalwayswalkwithmaiinganthewolfandprotectthatrelationship.Thelineisdrawn.Itsamistaketokillmaiinganourbrotherandwewillnotbeapartofit.TheUSFishWildlifeServiceremovedwesternGreatLakeswolvesfromtheendangeredspecieslistinJanuary2012turningmanagementovertostateandtribalofficials.WhileGLIFWCmembertribesandadditionalOjibwebandsvoicedsupportforfullwolfrecoveryinallsuitablehabitatMinnesotaandWisconsinlaw-makersimmediatelylaunchedsportharvestplansontheheelsoffederaldelisting.MaiinganoutmaneuveredinMichiganTheMichiganNaturalResourcesCommissionNRConMay9approvedaplantoproceedwithawolfhuntthisfallintheUpperPeninsula.Theactioncomesjustaswolfhuntopponentshadgatheredmorethanenoughsignaturestoforceapublicreferendumonwhetherwolvesshouldbeidentifiedasagameanimal.Throughfast-movingbillspassedinboththeSenateandHousestatelegislatorssharedvestedauthoritywiththeNRCtoreclassifyanimalsasgamespeciesren-deringthereferendumcampaignmoot.Therewerealotofthingsthatwereneglectedinthisprocessincludingproperconsultationwithtribesonagovernment-to-governmentbasissaidRogerLaBineLacVieuxDesertLVDVITFrepresentative.ThisincludesnotonlytheDepartmentofNaturalResourcesbutthestatelegislators.Theyhadanagendaandmovedswiftly.AttheMichiganNRChearingsinRocommonLaBinehand-deliveredasemaaandtribalcouncilresolutionsissuedbybothLVDandtheKeweenawBayIndianCommunityopposingtheharvestofwolvesforrecreation.LaBinetestifiedonconsecutivedaysbeforecommissionersonbehalfofmaiingan.Igavemylasttestimonyformaiinganat330pmLaBinesaid.At430Ifoundoutwehaveawolfseason.MichiganofficialscarvedoutthreezonesintheUpperPeninsulasettingacombinedhuntingandtrappingharvestquotafor43wolvesforaseasonexpectedtobeginthisNovember.Firstseasoninahalf-centuryThispastyearstatetrappersandhunterstookabout100wolvesfromthe1837and1842TreatycededterritoriesofMinnesotaandWisconsinaccordingtoPeterDavidGLIFWCwildlifebiologist.Statewide412wolveswerekilledduringtheMinnesotaseasoncomparedto117inWisconsin.ButthosenumbersonlyaccountforaportionofwolfmortalityapointofconcernforGLIFWCwildlifeofficials.Arecordnumberofdepredatingwolveswerelethallyremovedin2012andtheillegalkillappearstohaveremainedhighDavidsaid.Coupledwithsportremovalcarkillsknownpoachingandnaturalmortalityitalladdsuptoaparticularlysignificantimpacttothishighlysocialspecies.InWisconsinalonestate-licensedhuntingandtrappingplusothermortalitysourcesdispatchedtheequivalentofmorethanone-quarterofthestatesspringwolfpopulation.RecentDNRestimatesputwolfnumbersataround820mostbelongingtooneofthestates213packs.Someoftheimpactsmaynotbeapparentuntilafterthecomingbreedingandpup-raisingseasonsarecompleteDavidsaid.Huntersandtrappersinbothstatesweremoreefficientthanmanyobserversexpectedtriggeringseasonclosuresasquotasweremetweeks-to-monthsaheadofthescheduledendtotheseasons.LargeOjibwereservationsinWisconsinservedaszero-quotazonesprohib-itingsportharvest.DeFoeaRedCliffeldersaidthatthroughprotectingwolvesandthewildcountrytheyinhabitnativepeoplealsoprotectthemselves.TheguidingmessageforallofusistotakeheedtogetreadyforwhatsaheadDeFoesaid.ByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffWriterNiizhmaiinganag.PhotobyCharlieOttoRasmussenMaiingantakeforsportgainstraction MAZINAIGANPAGE10SPRINGSUMMER2013ENVIRONMENTALOnboardtheresearchvesselBlueHeroninsummer2012EMRscientistsconductpreliminarywatercontaminanttestingpriortobarrelrecovery.Pic-turedcenter-frameadeep-waterinstrumentraisedfromthebarreldumpsiteprovideswatersampleswhichareprocessedintheforeground.Thesamplesweretestedformetalsradioactivityandavarietyoforganiccontaminants.PhotobySaraMosesRedCliffWis.Incineratedmet-alclusterbombpartsandtraceamountsoftoxicchemicalsweredetectedinfifty-fivegallondrumsrecoveredfromLakeSuperiorthroughastudyspearheadedbytheRedCliffBand.DespiteuncoveringapotentiallyexplosivesurpriseprojectscientistJulieKloss-MolinaannouncedthatinitialfieldworktoanalyzeUSDepartmentofDefenseDODwastebarrelsrevealedarelativelystraightforwardcacheofmilitarywaste.Preliminarydataresultsshownoimmediatecauseforconcernregardingthesafetyofwaterandfishconsump-tionsaidKloss-MolinaofEMRanenvironmentalcontractor.CitizensoftheregionshouldcontinuetofollowexistingguidelinesforLakeSuperior.SecretlydumpedbytheDODbe-tween1959-62morethan1400barrelsformacrookedlineontheGichigamilakebedjustoffshorefromtheCityofDuluth.Intheearly1990sstateandfed-eralenvironmentalauthoritiesmappedthedistributionofthemilitarywastesiteandpulledupninebarrelsfindinglargelyinnocuouscontents.Fast-forwardtosummer2012whensome15000activeexplosiveswereencounteredbyEMRpackedwithin22of25drumsraisedtothesurface.Thediscoverywasunexpectedandposednewchallengestothebarrelrecoveryteam.Handlingasinglethumb-sizedclusterbombassemblycouldcauseseri-ousinjurysaidKloss-MolinaatarecentpressconferencehostedbyRedCliff.ThelargerconcernwasthattheyarecapableofsympatheticreactionKloss-Molinaexplained.Ifoneweretogooffinproximityofothersitcouldcauseachainreaction.Giventhevolatilityofthemuni-tionsfederalregulationsrequirere-coveryofficialstoapplyforapermittobringchargesonshorefordisassemblyanddisposal.IntheinterimEMRtech-niciansrepackagedtheexplosivesinto85-gallonoverpackbarrelstemporarilystoringthemonthe200-footdeeplakebottom.Plansarecurrentlyunderwaytopulltheoverpacksin2013whenfederalpermitsarefinalizedandfund-ingsecured.Theedgeofthesunkenbarrelar-rayinfarwesternLakeSuperiorisonlytwomilesfromtheCityofDuluthswaterintakesystem.AllofuswhoarefortunateenoughtoliveonthisgreatlakeshouldbegratefultotheRedCliffBandsaidDanielFanningaDuluthgovernmentofficial.Since2006RedCliffsNativeAmericanLandsEnvironmentalMitiga-tionProgramNALEMPcommitteehasinvestedmorethanthreemilliondollarsinDODgrantfundstostudythebarreldumpsite.NALEMPofficialMeloneeMontanosaidwhileotherAmericanIn-diannationshaveacquiredDODmoniesforon-reservationprojectsRedCliffsLakeSuperioreffortisacededterritoryfirst.Throughthe1854TreatyOjibweleaderscededorsoldlandsandwaterstotheUnitedStatesinthetransactiontheOjibwereservedperpetualpropertyuserightscommonlyknownastreatyrights.ForRedCliffsNALEMPcommit-teemovingtheprojectthroughlayersofjurisdictionsinvolvingdifferentagen-ciesandpoliciesmadeforachallengingexperience.TherewasnoroadmaponhowtodothishowtojumpthroughallthehoopsMontanosaid.Wevelearnedalot.ExplosivestracecontaminantsinGichigamimilitarydumpRedCliff-ledprojectrecovers25sunkenbarrelsByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffWriterRedCliffhadoriginallyplannedtoraisesome70barrelshowevermanag-ingtheunanticipatedfindofexplosivesrequiredamodifiedworkplandrainingfinancialresources.In-depthanalysisofthe25barrelsthatwererecoveredisscheduledtocontinueuntilSeptemberwhentheNALEMPcommitteereleasesafinalreportincludingrecommendationsforpotentialfutureworkatthebarrelsite.hooksswiftscanclingtothewallandspinesintheirtailshelpthempropagainstthechimneywall.Swiftsarecapableofflyingverticallystraightup.TheircontactwiththesurfaceatthenestingsiteistheironlyterrestrialcontactApplegatesays.Outsideofthattheyremainairborne.DNREiscurrentlyinvolvedinastudyinvolvingchimneyswifttowerswhicharewoodenmockchimneys.Applegatehasfiveathishomeonewithacamerainstalled.Fourhavenestingpairslivinginthem.TheBandalsohasfourtowersontheReservation.PlayingaCDwithchimneyswiftchatterattractsnewpairstothelocation.ApplegateexpectstheirreturntoMilleLacsReservationsometimeinMay.Theymusthaveflyinginsectsavailabletosurvivehesays.TheBandplanstodocumentroostsitesaspartoftheongoingstudyofthisfeatheredfriendintrouble.Formoreinformationonmemiti-goningwegaaneshiinhchimneyswiftsincludingsightingsandswifttowersgotochimneyswift.org.Miskwandibe-baapaasered-headedwoodpeckerMilleLacsReservationisfortunatetohaveasmallchunkoflandwithsparselyplantedoakthatalsohostsapopulationofred-headedwoodpeckersyeararoundAp-plegatesays.DNREhasverifiedthreenestsonthereservationandtheBandismanagingareasoflandforthewoodpeckersbecausetheyareyetanotherbirdspeciesindecline.Red-headedwoodpeckersareamid-sizewoodpeckerwithabsolutelystrikingplumagefeaturingamixofbrightredblackandwhite.Howevertheirhabitathasbeendisappearing.Feedingoninsectsbothpulledoutoftreetrunksorsnappedupinflightthered-headedwoodpeckeralsofeedsonnutsandberriespreferringopenpineoroaksavannahswitholdhollowtreesforhousing.Red-headedwoodpeckersarealsoknowntoplanaheadcachingfoodforthewinter.Applegatehasobservedthemextractthemeatfromanacorntakeitovertoatreetrunkandcarefullystashitbeneathapieceofbark.Duringthewintermonthstheywillspendtheirtimetryingtofindthosecachesagainheremarks.WorkinginconjunctionwiththeUSDANationalResourcesConservationServiceonaprojectDNREwillplantabout20acresofoakforthebenefitofthered-headedwoodpeckerswhitetaildeerandwoodducks.Theplanalsoincludesplantingchokecherriesattherequestoftribaleldersforculturalharvest.Sixthou-sandtreeswillgoinduring2013astheBandlooksintothefutureforthebenefitofitscitizensaswellasbrothersandsistersoftheanimalworldthefour-leggedthosethatswimandthewingedones.MilleLacsBandfosterssurvivalofdecliningspeciesContinuedfrompage8Miskwandibe-baapaase.PhotobyLarryLeonardBrainerdMin-nesotaMemitigoningwegaaneshiinh.PhotoJimMcCullochMemitigoningwegaaneshiinhartifcialchimney.PhotobyKellyApplegate PAGE11MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2013ACT31Act31IssuesoriginsByJPLearyFirstNationsStudiesAssociateProfessorUW-GreenBayforMazinaiganAmericanIndianStudiesProgramStatutesandRules115.2817dWisStats.Generalduties.Thestatesuperintendentshall17AMERICANINDIANLANGUAGEANDCULTUREEDUCATION.dDevelopacurriculumforgrades4to12ontheChippewaIndianstreaty-basedoff-reservationrightstohuntfishandgather.118.012c7.and8.WisStats.Educationalgoalsandexpectations.2EDUCATIONALGOALS...eachschoolboardshallprovideaninstruc-tionalprogramdesignedtogivepupils7.Anappreciationandunderstandingofdifferentvaluesystemsandcultures.8.AtallgradelevelsanunderstandingofhumanrelationsparticularlywithregardtoAmericanIndiansBlackAmericansandHispanics.118.198WisStats.Teachercertificatesandlicenses.8Thestatesuperintendentmaynotgranttoanypersonalicensetoteachunlessthepersonhasreceivedinstructioninthestudyofminoritygrouprela-tionsincludinginstructioninthehistorycultureandtribalsovereigntyofthefederallyrecognizedAmericanIndiantribesandbandslocatedinthisstate.121.02WisStats.Schooldistrictstandards.1Exceptasprovidedin118.402rdeachschoolboardshallhProvideadequateinstructionalmaterialstextsandlibraryserviceswhichreflecttheculturaldiversityandpluralisticnatureofAmericansociety.L4.BeginningSeptember11991aspartofthesocialstudiescurriculumincludeinstructioninthehistorycultureandtribalsovereigntyofthefederallyrecognizedAmericanIndiantribesandbandslocatedinthisstateatleasttwiceintheelementarygradesandatleastonceinthehighschoolgrades.SeeAdHocCommissionpage12TribalmembersdrumoutsideaPARRmeetinginParkFallsdrawingattentiontotheracistnatureofprotestsexperiencedattheboatlandingsinthemid-1980s.staffphotoEditorsnoteDuetospaceconstraintsallfootnotescanbefoundonlineatwww.glifwc.orgSatz.OnAugust81989Gov.TommyThompsonsignedSenateBill31the19891991BiennialBudgetActwhichincludedprovisionscreatingnewstatutesrelatedtoinstructioninthehistorycultureandtribalsovereigntyofthefeder-allyrecognizedtribesandbandsinthestateandrelatedissues.Thisbillbecameknownas1989Act31uponpublicationonAugust201989andinIndianeduca-tioncirclesthisbecamethenamefortheinstructionalrequirementsthemselves.ItwasanimportantlegislativevictorybecausethesenewlawsspecificitywasunprecedentedinWisconsinwheretraditionsoflocalcontrolofeducationandbroadauthorityoflocallyelectedschoolboardswerepointsofpride.Theserequire-mentsrepresentedthekindofcomprehensiveapproachrecommendedbytheAdHocCommissiononRacismandweresupportedbysubsequentindividualsandorganizations.Act31representedasignificantvictoryforIndianeducatorsandtheiralliesbutgreathopeandseriousconcernsrelatedtoimplementationbothbecameapparentalmostimmediately.NativeeducatorsandtheiralliesinitiallyviewedAct31asasourceofhopeforaddressingthekindofracismandignoranceexhibitedatWisconsinboatland-ingsinthewakeoftheVoigtDecisionbutconversationsnowmoreoftenreflectgreatdisappointmentinitsseeminglysmallimpact.SeveralfactorscomplicatedhowlocalschooldistrictsandthestateDepartmentofPublicInstructionDPIworkedtoimplementthenewrequirements.Atthelocallevelperceptionsofastate-impositiononschoolboardsauthorityandtheabsenceofdedicatedfundsforschooldistrictstocarryouttheirnewresponsibilitiesledmanytoresistAct31ortoimplementitunevenly.Localracialpoliticsandpressurefromcommunitymemberswhothemselveshadlimitedknowledgeofhistoricalculturalandlegalissuescertainlycontributedaswell.Thesepoliticalfactorscertainlyaffectedthestatesabilitytocarryoutitsresponsibilitiesandlikelyshapedthemixedmessagesthatcharacterizedofficialresponsesfromthestatesuperintendent.TheabilityoftheDPItosupportlocalimplementationwasfurthercomplicatedbyconflictsoverstaffingissuesincludingtheclassificationandlocationofnewpersonnel.Anar-rowrangeofenforcementandsanctionoptionsessentiallylimitedtowithholdingaportionofstateaidsdidnotallowforaflexibleresponsethatconsideredlocalcircumstances.Despitetheserealandongoingconcernsthestoryofthatinitialvictoryservesasanimportantreminderthatmanyoftheconcernshavebeentherefromthebeginning.Act31soriginstoryalsopointsthewaytorefocusoureffortstowardthekindofbroaderpublicunderstandingitsadvocatessoughttopromote.Act31containedseveralprovisionsthatsoughttousethepublicschoolstodevelopunderstandingofAmericanIndianhistoryculturetribalsovereigntyandrelatedconcerns.OneprovisionrequiredthestatesuperintendenttocollaboratewiththeAmericanIndianLanguageandCultureEducationBoardtodevelopappropri-ateinstructionalmaterialsontheChippewaIndianstreaty-basedoff-reservationrightstohuntfishandgatherbytheendofthebiennium.iOtherprovisionsaddressedbroaderissuesrelatedtoraceandhumanrelationsandtheyrequiredWisconsinschooldistrictstoprovidelearningopportunitiesforstudentstogainanappreciationandunderstandingofdifferentvaluesystemsandculturesandanunderstandingofhumanrelationsparticularlywithregardtoAmericanIndiansBlackAmericansandHispanics.iiThenewstatelaweffectivelyrequiredthoseseekingalicensetoserveasateacheradministratororpupilservicesprofessionalinWisconsintolearnaboutminoritygrouprelationsincludinginstructioninthehistorycultureandtribalsovereigntyofthefederallyrecognizedAmericanIndiantribesandbandslocatedinthisstate.iiiThebiennialbudgetalsoenactedaprovisionthatrequiredschooldistrictstoprovideadequateinstructionalmaterialstextsandlibraryserviceswhichreflecttheculturaldiversityandpluralisticnatureofAmericansocietyreflectingamultifacetedapproachtotransformingstudentsunderstandingoftheseissues.ivThelastprovisionaddressessocialstudiesinstruc-tionanditrequiresallWisconsinpublicschoolstoincludeinstructioninthehistorycultureandtribalsovereigntyofthefederallyrecognizedAmericanIndiantribesandbandslocatedinthisstateatleasttwiceintheelementarygradesandatleastonceinthehighschoolgrades.vThepolicyasdesignedwascomprehensiveandintendedtoaddressseveralaspectsofstudentlearningbuttraditionalschoolpoliciesandpracticescanoftenbesloworresistanttochange.Act31soriginstoryshowsthesituationinitsfullcomplexity.Proponentssoughttocounterthepost-Voigtbacklashbutitwasnotsimplyanotherexampleofusingthepublicschoolstoaddressbroadersocialissueslargelyexternaltotheschoolsthemselves.Americanshavelongsoughttouseschoolstoreformsocietyitselftryingtoaccomplishthroughchildrenthekindsofchangesthataremuchmoredifficultwithadults.viBecausethefocusofsocialchangeisontheadultsourstudentswillbecomethebestindicatorofthesuccessofpolicieslikeAct31isnotstudenttestscoresorsimilarmeasuresbutthebehaviorofouralumni.viiDuringthe1980sinWisconsinsomeofthealumniofourpublicschoolswereengaginginviolentracistprotestsonboatlandingsandsomewereorganizingop-positiontothoseviewsandworkinginsupportoftreatyrightswhilemoststayeddisengaged.Ifweconsiderthatthesebehaviorsandtheracismandignorancetheyreflectarethemselvesoutcomesofpasteducationalpolicydecisionsitbecomesclearerwhyapolicysolutionbasedontheinvolvementofandcooperationfrompublicschoolswasessential.SeveralinterrelatedfactorsledthestateofWisconsintoenactAct31.Firstpriorto1989therewasadecades-longpolicytrendatthenationalstateandlocalleveltoredefinecurriculumcontenttoaddressbroadersocialconcernsincludingWorldWarIItheColdWarthecivilrightsmovementandnationaleconomicanxieties.TheseprioritiesandtheeffortsthatfollowedfromthemoftennarrowedthecurriculumleavingAmericanIndianslargelyinvisibleorstereotypicallypor-trayedduetobroadernationalconcernsinthefield.Evenascurriculumpolicybegantoshifttoincludeethnicstudiesinthe1970sand1980sNativepeopleweremostoftensimplyanotherracialorethnicgroupratherthancitizensofsovereignnations.ThisleftlittleopportunityforstudentstodevelopatrueunderstandingofAmericanIndianhistorycultureandtribalsovereignty.ThestudyofWisconsinhistorytypicallyofferedinfourthgradehasbeenanotableexceptiontotheproblemofinvisibilitybecauseitismoreattunedtotheuniquefeaturesofthestatewhichsocialstudiesasawholehashistoricallyfailedtoaddress.ItistypicallytheonlyclasswithasignificantfocusonNativepeopleinWisconsinasopposedtotheoccasionallessonsstudentsmightencounteraboutotherquiteculturallyandlinguisticallydistinctpeopleselsewhereinNorthAmericawithinthescopeofUnitedStateshistoryorothercourses.LeadingWisconsinhistorytextbooksfromthe1950s1960sand1970smostnotablyRomanoandGeorgiadysExploringWisconsinsimilarlyprovidedlittleopportunitytolearn MAZINAIGANPAGE12SomeWisconsinresidentsrespondedtotheviolentandracialprotestsatspearshinglandingsfollowingthe1983Voigtdecisionshowingsupportforthetreaties.VedaStonereleasesthenalrecommendationsfromtheAdHocCommissiononRacismduringa1984pressconferenceatLacCourteOreilles.SEThelateRonaldN.SatzauthorofChippewaTreatyRightsTheReservedRightsofWisconsinsChippewaIndiansinHistoricalPerspective.AdHocCommissionoContinuedfrompage11Signsandracialslmanyspringsthrouschools.PhotobyanythingaccurateorauthenticaboutNativepeoplebeforeAct31spassage.WhileAmericanIndianpeopleareincludedconsistentlyintheearliestchaptersgreetingNicoletservingashostsandguidestoFrenchmissionariesandexplorersanddyingintheBlackHawkWarastheperiodcoveredmovestowardcontemporarytimesNativepeopleallbutdisappear.ThesehistoricalreferencesdepictNativeAmericansasprimitivesuperstitiouspeoplewhowarredamongthemselveswithoutEuropeaninterventionandthefewcontemporaryreferencesarequitevagueandoffernoclearconnectionbetweenpastandpresent.OverallthetextimpliesthatNativepeoplearesecondarycharactersinstoriesthatareultimatelyaboutEuropeansthusthereislittletobelearnedoutsidethecontextofEuropeanexplorationandsettlement.Thereislittletosuggestthattribesaredistinctsovereignnationswiththeirowngovernmentsandtreaty-basedrelationshipswiththefederalgovernment.TodosowouldrequireadiscussionoftribalsovereigntytribalgovernmentandtreatymakingwhichwoulditselfchallengetheoverallmessageaboutIndiansnecessarilyfadingoffintotheWestasAmericagrows.ConsideringtheabsentorlimitedopportunitiestolearnaboutWisconsinIndianhistorycultureandtribalsovereigntythatschoolsprovidedtogenerationsofthegeneralpublicitisnotsurprisingthattheactionsofouralumniincludedignoranceracismandviolenceinresponsetotheVoigtDecision.Whilediscussingtreatyrightsonaradiocall-inshowduringthesummerof1989acalleraskedhistorianRonaldN.SatzwhetherthelanguageinthetreatiesdesignatedacertainnumberofIndiansoffthereservationasawarpartywhocouldbelawfullyfiredupon.viiiThisstoryshowsthelevelofdangerousignoranceandmisinformationcirculatinginWisconsinfromthetimetheSeventhCircuitCourtofAppealshandeddowntheVoigtDecisionin1983.TensionsescalatedasviolenceincreasedandthefearsthatsomeonemightbekilledataWisconsinboatlandingincreasinglybecamerealpossibilities.Thecontro-versytoreapartmanycommunitiescostmillionsofdollarsinlawenforcementandcourtexpensesharmedbusinessesanddamagedWisconsinsreputation.By1989thepeakofviolentprotestsduringspringspearingmanypoliticalleadersinWisconsinonbothsidesoftheaislebegantodiscusspotentialpolicysolutions.Stateofficialsfoundwillingpart-nersintriballeadersIndianeducatorsandalliesmanyofwhomhadlongbeenengagedineffortstobuildbroaderunderstandingofWisconsinIndianhis-torycultureandtribalsovereignty.AtthenationallevelorganizationssuchastheSocietyofAmericanIndiansandtheGrandCouncilFireofAmericanIndianshadbeenchallengingtextbookaccountsasearlyasthe1920s.Inthe1960sanewgenerationofNativescholarsfoundedtheAmericanIndianHistoricalSocietytocounterbiaseddepictionsintextbooksandtoproduceinstructionalmaterialsthatprovidedanAmericanIndianperspectiveonAmericanhistory.Atthe1961AmericanIndianChicagoConferenceStockbridge-MunseeElderElmerDavidsSr.deliveredaspeechdecryingthewhitepublicslevelofignoranceandcallinguponschoolstomakestudentsawareofhistoricalpoliticalandculturalissuesrelatedtoNativepeople.Indianeducatorsandtheirallieseffortstochangecurriculumachievedanim-portantsuccessin1980withthepassageoftheIndianEducationAct.Theactestab-lishedprovisionsforestablishinglanguageandcultureeducationprogramsinpublicschoolsprovidedameasureofstateaidforsuchprogramsoperatinginalternativeschoolsandestablishedtheAmericanIndianLanguageandCultureEducationBoardAILCEB.TheAILCEBwasagroupofNativeeducatorsnominatedbytribesandappointedbythegovernortoadviseonabroadrangeofeducationalissuesinclud-ingcurriculumpolicy.OverthecourseofthenextdecadetheAILCEBemergedasakeyadvocateforcurriculumpolicyreformsdesignedtocreatelearningopportunitiesforallstudentsrelatedtoWisconsinIndianhistorycultureandtribalsovereignty.LessthanayearaftertheVoigtDecisiontheJointLegislativeCouncilsAmericanIndianStudyCommitteebegantodiscussimplementationoftheIndianEducationAct.TheCommitteewhichconsistedofelectedmembersoftheWisconsinAssemblyandSenateandpublicmembersrepresentingtribalnationsinWisconsinwastostudyissuesaffectingAmericanIndiantribesandtribalmembersandtodevelopappropriaterecommendationsandproposalstoaddressthem.ixElectedofficialsandappointedtribalrepresentativesurgedthecommitteetoenactnewlawsrequiringschooldis-trictstoestablishIndianeducationprogramswherethereweresizablepopulationsofAmericanIndianstudentsandtoconsultwithtribesintheprocess.xThefirstsetofeducationpolicyproposalsemergedin1984fromthefindingsoftheAdHocCommissiononRacisminNorthernWisconsinabodyconvenedbytheLacCourteOreillestribalgovernmentandco-sponsoredbytheOfficeoftheGov-ernortheWisconsinIndianResourceCouncilandtheLacCourteOreillesOjibwaCommunityCollege.TheCommissionwasresponsibleforstudyingtheincidenceprevalenceandimpactofallegedracismprejudiceanddiscriminationonthetribeanditsmembersbyholdingahearingandissuingareportwithitsfindingsandrec-ommendations.xiInitsreportissuedonNovember301984theAdHocCommissiononRacismidentifiededucationamongseveralthemesdrawnfromtestimonyandtheyfrequentlyidentifiedandcalleduponotherentitiesandorganizationsincludingschoolschurchesbusinessescivicorganizationsandthemediaitselftobecomeactivepartnersindevelopingpositivesolutionstothesesocialissues.TheEducationsectionofthereportrecognizedschoolschurchesandhomesassourcesofracismanditcalledforfurthereducationandpublicdialogue.xiiThereportnotedthatschoolscurricularandextra-curricularofferingsgenerallyfailedtoincludelessonsreflectingtherichheritageandmanycontri-butionsoftheAmericanIndianculture.TheCommissioncalleduponschoolsatalllevelstoacttoreduceracismbyprovidingwelltaughtcoursesontribalsovereigntythetreatiesIndiancultureandhistory.xiiiItsspecificrecommendationscalledupontheDPIGreatLakesInter-TribalCouncilGLITCUniversityofWisconsinSystemWisconsinAssociationofIndependentCollegesandUniversitiesandlocalschooldistrictstoevaluateexistingeffortsanddevelopimprovedmeansforexpandingeducationalopportunitiesforprofessionaleducatorsstudentsthegeneralpublicandmembersofthemedia.Overallthereportidentifiedthelackoflearningopportunitiesasbothcauseandeffectofracism.ThespecificrecommendationsofferedbytheAdHocCommissiononRacismbecametheinitialtemplateforwhatwouldbecomeAct31.TheCommissioncalleduponschoolstocreatematerialswhichincorporatetheculturesandhistoryoftheAmericanIndiannationsparticularlythosehavingreserva-tionswithinWisconsin.Theyrecommendedthatschooldistrictsscreeninstructionalmaterialsandwithdrawthosereflectingeitherovertorimpliedracism.FurthermoreitcalleduponschoolstopartnerwithlocalIndianparentcommitteestodevelopAC PAGE13MAZINAIGANRacismspursactionrsdominatedthescenesatboatlandingsthroughoutnorthernWisconsinduringhthemid-1980swithtensionsimpactingcommunitieschurchesandowingintoueEricksonRepresentativeFrankBoylepushedforaresponsetoracismviacurriculumandeducation.PhotobySueEricksonSeeCurriculumdevelopedpage14TribalattorneysrepresentativesandsupportersoutsidethefederalcourtbuildinginMadisonWisconsinpriortoatrialbeforeFederalJudgeBarbaraCrabbin1988tofurtherdeneOjibwetreatyrights.SEappropriatecurriculumandprograms.xivItisimportanttonotethateachoftheserecommendedstrategiesinvolvedpartner-shipswithNativepeople.TheAILCEBbecamethefirsttotakeuptherecommen-dationsoftheAdHocCommissiononRacism.Inits1985reporttheBoarddescribeditsroleintermsofincreasingopportunitiesforIndianandnon-IndianstudentstobecomeknowledgeableaboutAmericanIndianhistorylanguageandcultureanditexplicitlyconnecteditsgoalstorecommenda-tionsoftheAdHocCommissiononRacism.xvOverthenextseveralyearsitofferedteachertrainingworkshopsreprintedtheWisconsinWoodlandIndiansSeriesoriginallypublishedbytheRhinelanderSchoolDistrictinthe1970sandcontinuedtoadvocateformoreformalrequirementsconsistentwiththeWisconsinIndianEducationActandtherecommendationsoftheAdHocCommissiononRacism.TheAILCEBaffirmedtheAdHocCommissiononRac-ismsviewthatovertracismreflectedgeneralignoranceoftherelationshipbetweenthefederalgovernmentandIndiantribes.TheBoardcalleduponallschooldistrictstodevelopandimplementcoursesthatwouldteachthehistoryofallWis-consintribesandtheconceptsoftribalsovereigntyandtreaties.ItnotedseveralsuccessfuleffortsacknowledgingpartnershipswithDPItheWisconsinEducationAssociationCouncilandtheWisconsinIndianEducationAssociationWIEAanddeclareditisimperativethatIndianhistorybeincorporatedinthepublicschoolcurriculathroughoutthestate.TheBoardidentifiedseveralexistingprogramsthatcouldserveasviablemodelsbutnotedthatthelackoffundsspecificallyearmarkedforthispurposenegativelyimpactedlocalinterestinimplementingthem.xviItwasclearthatunfundedvoluntaryprogramsforincorporatinglessonsonWisconsinIndianhistorycultureandtribalsovereigntywereinadequatetoestablishpeaceandharmonyintheStateofWisconsin.xviiTheBoardclearlyidentifiedsolutionsinitsrecommendationstoDPI.TheycalleduponDPItoactivelysupportlegislativeeffortstoprovidespecificfundingtoschooldistrictsforAmericanIndianhistoryandorcultureprograms.TheyarguedthatopportunitiestolearnaboutAmericanIndiansprovidedthebestmeanstoaddressracismandcalleduponDPItorequireschoolstoprovideinstructioninWisconsinIndianhistoryandtorequiresimilarinstructionaspartofteachereducationprogramsandforlicenserenewal.xviiiTheBoardsresolution1-87notedthatrampantracismduetoAmericanIndiantreatystipulationshasbecomeacriticaleducationalissueintheStateofWisconsinmuchofwhichcanbedirectlyattributedtomisinformationonthetreatyrightsissues.TheresolutionassertsallcitizensofWisconsinhavetherighttopropereducationonissuesthataffectpeaceandharmonyintheschoolsandthestateingeneralandthatitisthedutyandresponsibilityofschoolstopromotepeaceandharmonyamongethnicgroups.TheBoarddeclaredthataccuratehis-toricalandcontemporaryperspectivesofAmericanIndianswillpromotepeaceandharmonywhilebenefitingallcitizensthroughknowledgeandunderstandingofnativecultures.TheBoardrecommendedthatDPItheAmericanIndianStudyCommitteeandtribalgovernmentscollaboratetodevelopandimplementcurriculumunitsatthefourthgrademiddleschoolandhighschoollevelswhichaccuratelydescribethehis-toryofthetribesofWisconsinandtheirgovernmenttogovernmentrelationshipwiththeUnitedStatesandtheStateofWisconsinandbetaughtinallWisconsinschooldistricts.TheorganizationcontinuedtocriticizethevoluntaryunfundednatureofAmericanIndianLanguageandCultureEducationprogramsandwiththepassageofresolution1-87itsignaledthatitwasdirectingitseffortstowardadvancingaspecificcurriculumpolicyproposal.xixAmericanIndianeducatorseffortsbegantocoalescearoundthebroadprinciplesoutlinedinAILCEBsresolution.TribalgovernmentstheNationalIndianEducationAssociationtheWIEAtheAdHocCommissiononRacismandIndianandnon-IndianeducatorsaroundthestatecollaboratedtorequireinstructiononAmericanIndiansinWisconsinschools.ManyschoolshadalreadydevelopedandincorporatedappropriatecurriculummaterialsandDPIandAILCEBdistributedcopiesofcurriculummaterialsoriginallydevelopedbylocalschooldistricts.DPIcontinuedtoconductworkshopspresentatconferencesandworkwithteachersbutlocalcontrolofcurriculumpolicyacherishedtraditionandlegallyprotectedrightinWisconsinremainedakeybarrierthatoftenallbutprecludedinstructiononthesetopicsinlocalschools.Theseeffortswerepartofabroaderinitiativetoseeksolutionstoandprovideforanequaledu-cationalopportunityforallstudentsinWisconsinpublicschools.xxThevisionwasalwaysstatewidenottiedtothepresenceofAmericanIndianstudentsorproximitytoatribalcommunity.FurthermomentumcamefrommembersofthepublicastheviewsexpressedbytheAdHocCommissiononRacismAILCEBandothersgainedbroadsupportbeyondtheseorganizations.OnewitnessatahearingbeforetheAmericanIndianStudyCom-mitteeinspring1988arguedpublicschoolsdonothaveclassesontribalgovernmentandIndianculturebutcouldhelperaseprejudicebyprovidingtheseopportunitiestotheirstudents.xxiShearguedthattheintegrationofIndianculturehistoryandgovernmentintotheschoolcur-riculumwillservethedualpurposeofhavingnon-IndianstudentslearntorespectandappreciateIndiancultureandallowingIndianstudentstogainprideinandcredibilityfortheirheritage.xxiiAtribalrepresen-tativeonthecommitteerespondedtothelackofrequirementsrelatedtoteachingabouttribalgovernmentbysuggestingifIndiansubjectswereincludedinthecurriculumitmighthelptoalleviatestereotypesregardingIndians.xxiiiAvisionofcurriculumreformthataddressedbothacademicandsocietalcon-cernswasclearlyemerginganditreflectedagrowingoptimismabouttheimprovedrelationshipsbetweenNativeandnon-Nativecommuni-tiesinWisconsinthatmightfollowfromthem.Inspringandearlysummer1989Rep.FrankBoyleworkedcloselywithGLITCtoadvanceaproposaladdressingtheimportanceofongoingprofessionaldevelop-mentforteachersandexpandinglearningopportunitiesforstudents.BoyleAILCEBrepresentativesLegislativeReferenceBureaustaffmemberslegislativeaidesDPIstaffandotherswhosharedconcernsaboutthepublicslackofunderstandingaboutNativeissuesandagreedthatitwastimefortheeducationalsystemtoassumearoleinmitigatingthepervasiveignoranceaboutWisconsinIndians.xxivTheplansthatemergedfromthatmeetingincludedpermanentpositionsatDPItoeducatetheeducatorsanddevelopappropriatecurriculumandtrainingmaterialstobeusedinthelocalschooldistrictsandmandatorycurriculuminclusionofAmericanIndianstudiesforlocalschools.xxvDoyleexplainedhesoughttoeliminatethenegativestereotypesmychildrenarebringinghomefromschoolandthatitwasadirectoutgrowthofprotestsinthespringoverChippewaspearfishing.xxviClearlytherewasalinktothebacklashagainsttheVoigtDecisionandatleastimplicitlyanac-knowledgementoftheroleoftheschools.WhenGov.TommyThompsonsignedthe19891991BiennialBudgetActthesenewstatutesrelatedtoinstructioninthehistorycultureandtribalsovereigntyofthefederallyrecognizedtribesandbandsinthestatebecamestatelaw.Thiswasasignificantvictorybutgreathopeandseriousconcernsrelatedtoimplementationbothbecameapparentalmostimmediately.AtthenextAmericanIndianStudyCommitteemeetingtwoweeksafterAct31spassagebothpolicysuccessesandimplementationchallengesbecameapparent.OnesuccesswastherequirementthatDPIcollaborate31 MAZINAIGANPAGE14SPRINGSUMMER2013ACT31withAILCEBtodevelopinstructionalmaterialsonChippewatreatyrightswhichrecognizedtheimportanceofongoinginvolvementofAmericanIndianeducators.AnotherwastheauthorizationofthreenewpositionsatDPIanappropriationof300000toimplementtheseinitiativesandanadditional50000peryeartofundprofessionaldevelopmentontribalsovereigntyandtreatyrights.xxviiDespiteeffortstoportrayAct31spassageasasuccessforIndianeducationonetribalrep-resentativeonthecom-mitteelamentedwhathesawasinadequatefundingforIndianedu-cationcomparedtowhatthestatespentforlawenforcementcostsatboatlandings.SeveralelectedmembersraisedconcernsaboutthenewpositionschallengedthenatureandscopeofprogramactivitiesandquestionedDPIswillingnesstoimple-mentthenewprogram.Membersofthepublicalsoexpressedskepti-cismabouttheappro-priatenessofexistinginstructionalmaterialsandschoolswillingnesstousethemregardlessoftheirquality.Otherspeakersincludingrep-resentativesoftribalgovernmentsaddressedthenewrequirementsinabroadercontextsuggestingthateffortstoenactnewcurricularrequirementshadovershadowedotherpressingneeds.TheunitedfrontthathadledtoAct31spassagewasalreadyunderseriousstrain.AspredictedtheStateSuperintendentdemonstratedalackofunderstandingofandcommitmenttothenewprogramatthenextAmericanIndianStudymeeting.AskedaboutsanctionsforthosewhodonotimplementAct31SuperintendentGroverexplainedthatexistinglawauthorizedDPItowithholdupto25ofstateaidsfordistrictsfailingtoupholdrequirededucationalstandardsbuttheagencyinsteadimposeddeadlinesforcomplianceandhadneverimposedthissanction.xxviiiWhenremindedbyatribalrepresentativethatignoranceofhistoricalandcontemporarylegalandculturalissuesaffectedalltribesinthestateGrovermerelysuggestedthathisagencycouldofferasecondconferencelessfocusedonChippewatreatyrights.WhenaskedwhatthepolicymightlooklikeinpracticeGroverindicatedthatDPIwouldnotexpectaschooldistricttodevoteanentireweektothissubjectbutthattheywouldnotacceptsuperficialtreatmentofthesubjectandagainnotedDPIdoesnotcontrolthedetailsoflocalcurricula.xxixInresponsetoanotherquestionGroverexplainedracialdiscriminationisabroadsocietalproblemwhichisoftenreflectedintheschoolsbuthewasseem-inglyasreluctanttoembracehisagencysauthorityandresponsibilitytoaddressdiscriminationashewasreluctanttorobustlyenforcecurriculumrequirementsrelatedtotreatyrights.xxxGroverscommentssuggestthathedidnotrecognizethatdiscriminationagainstAmericanIndiansinschoolsorinthecommunitywaspartoftheimpetusfornewinstructionalrequirements.Overallhisemphasisonthelimitedrangeofenforcementoptionssuggestsambivalentsupportforthenewpolicyandhisdeferencetotraditionsoflocalcontrolclearlysignaledhowlocalofficialsmightchoosetorespond.DespitepassageofnewstatelawsthatseeminglyensuredthatschooldistrictswouldprovidespecificinstructiononWisconsinIndianhistorycultureandtribalsovereigntyseriousquestionsremained.Thenewpolicywasunprecedentedinthespecificityofitsdirectivestolocalschooldistrictsraisingimportantquestionsaboutthefutureoflocalcontrolwhichaffectedhoweventheadvocatesdiscussedimplementation.xxxiQuestionsabouttheadequacyoffundingandstaffinglevelshadbeenaconcernfromtheverybeginningandanongoingdebateinstategovernmentaboutthenumberlocationandclassificationoftheauthorizedpositionsandaninitialhiringfreezemadeitdifficulttofullystaffastatelevelresponseatDPI.xxxiiTheneedforandnatureofinstructionalmaterialstobedevelopedorprovidedbythestateortobeusedinlocalclassroomswasalsoanongoingpoliticallysensitivequestion.xxxiiiThespecificfocusonChippewatreatyrightsseeminglycontributedtoambivalencefromothertribeswhohadthemselvesbeenthesubjectsofwidespreadignoranceandthetargetsofdiscriminationintheaftermathofVoigt.Intribalcommunitiesacrossthestateeducationalleadershadtemporarilyplacedotherimportantissuesonholduntilafterthisstrugglewasoverandbecausetheseconcernsnowrequiredurgentattentionaswellmuchoftheenergyandenthusi-asmshifted.ThesedynamicswhichemergedimmediatelyafterAct31spassagetogetherbecamemagnifiedovertimeandwerethereasonwhycurriculumpoliciesthathadbeenasourceofhopebecameasourceofdisappointment.DespitetheseongoingchallengesitiscrucialtorememberthatthepassageofAct31markedthesuccessofalengthyeffortbyWisconsinIndianeducatorsandtheiralliestochangecurriculumpolicy.TheseeffortsarepartofalongtraditionofNativepeopletalkingbacktothecurriculumandtryingtoreshapeschoolingtobemoreresponsivetotheirneedsovermanyyears.ElmerDavids1961speechattheAmericanIndianChicagoConferenceanationalstagecalledforgreaternon-IndianawarenessandunderstandingofIndianissuesasaprerequisiteforsocialharmonythatwasechoedinthereportoftheAdHocCommissiononRacism.TheCommissionseffortsinitiatedbytheLacCourteOreillesBandofLakeSuperiorChippewaledtorecommendationstovariousbodieswithinstategovernment.InturntheDPItheAILCEBandtheJointLegislativeCouncilsAmericanIndianStudyCommitteeallaffordedaNativevoiceatthetable.InmanycasesthesametribesfamiliesoreventhesameindividualswereinvolvedandadditionaladvocatesworkedthroughtheWIEA.CertainlytheviolentbacklashtotheassertionandexerciseoftreatyrightsaffirmedintheVoigtDecisionwasamajorreasonbehindAct31spassagebutcloseranalysisshowshowthatresponsewasitselfaneducationaloutcomeofthefailuretoprovideWisconsincitizenswithanauthenticunderstandingofim-portanthistoricalculturalandlegalissues.Theteachersjournalistsandothersuponwhomsocietyreliedtopromotegenuineunderstandingcommonlysharedboththeeducationalexperiencesandtheignoranceofthegeneralpublicwhichlimitedtheirabilitytoraiseawareness.Thepoliceofficersgamewardensandpolicymakersatalllevelsuponwhomsocietyreliesforjustimplementationofthelawwerealsounabletobeprimarycontributorstoasolutionforsimilarrea-sons.Reform-mindedcitizenssoughttoaddressalloftheseconcernsbyenlistingthepublicschoolsanduniversityteachereducationprogramstoinstilinfuturegenerationsatrueunderstandingofWisconsinIndianhistorycultureandtribalsovereigntyandwiththehumanrelationsskillsnecessarytobeglobalcitizensaswellascitizensoftheirhomecommunities.Theirremarkablesuccesshighlightshowtheviolentcontroversyoverspearfishingwasbothcauseandeffectofcur-riculumpolicydecisions.Someoftheissuesremain.AlthoughreformsincludingtheadoptionoftheModelAcademicStandardsandWisconsinKnowledgeandConceptsExamswhichexpandedthestatesroleineducationandNoChildLeftBehindwhichexpandedthefederalrolehavegreatlyaffectedlocalcontrolofeducationfeelingsaboutthistraditionremainstrong.EveninthisnewcontexteffortstoincreaseinstructionalcapacityaremorelikelytobesuccessfulthanincreasedenforcementgiventhepoliticalclimatethenatureofDPIsformalandinformalrelationshipswithlocalschooldistrictsandlimitedoptionsforsanctions.WIEAmobilizedinthelate1990stoensurethattheModelAcademicStandardsreflectedAct31.Asimilarlystrongwell-coordinatedresponsetothenextwaveofreformswhetherledbythefederalorstategovernmentandtheirlocalimplementationstrategieswilllikelybenecessaryinthenearfuturetoensurethatAct31requirementsareincluded.FundingandstaffinglevelsremaincriticalconcernsasbudgetcutshavereducedtheabilityoftheDPItoprovidestrongstateleadership.TheDPIsAmericanIndianStudiesProgramhasanexcellentstaffbutitisstillonlyoneeducationconsultantandasharedsupportperson.TomaximizeitsimpacttheprogramcontinuestoenterintovaluablepartnershipswiththeWisconsinHistoricalSocietyWisconsinMediaLabandotherstoproduceaccurateauthenticinstructionalmaterials.TheAmericanIndianStudiesSummerInstituteapartnershipbetweenDPItribalcommunitiesandstateuniversitieshasemergedasastrongmodelforprovid-inghighqualityprofessionaldevelopment.Resourcesremainscarceandwilllikelyremainscarcesocollaborationamongmultiplepartnershipswillbecriticaltoanysuccessfulcurricu-lumdevelopmentorprofessionaldevelopmentplans.Thereareotheropportuni-tiesforcollaborationbetweenstateandtribalgovernmentsthatdidnotexistin1989.TheAmericanIndianStudyCom-mitteecontinuestooperateastheSpecialCommitteeonState-TribalRelationsandstateagenciescontinuetoobservetheExecutiveOrder39requirementstoengageinregularconsulta-tionwithtribalgovernmentsonavarietyofissues.ForthepastseveralyearstriballeadershavedirectlyaddressedthelegislatureintheStateoftheTribesAd-dressprovidinganotherforumfordirectcommunicationonimportantpolicyconcerns.StateSuperintendentTonyEversandothersfromDPIregularlyattendWIEAslegislativebreakfastandrepresenttheagencyattheannualconference.Thesearejustafewexamplesofhowformalstructurescontributetothekindsofpositivepersonalrelationshipsthatdrivepoliticalchange.ThehistoryofAct31soriginmightserveasacalltoactionorattheveryleastareminderthathistoryisoftenacontestforpowerandauthorityandschoolsandeducationhaveoftenbeeninthemiddleofthatstruggle.Itisareminderthattheimportantconsiderationsarenotpoint-in-timecontroversieslikespearfishinggaminglandintotrustorminingbutthedeeperprinciplesofacommitmenttounderstandingasharedhistoryincludinghistoricalandlegalrelationshipsembodiedinnineteenthcenturytreatiesandadeeperstillrecognitionofoursharedhuman-ity.Curriculumpolicydecisionsatthenationalstateandlocallevelmustprovideopportunitiestolearnabouthumandifferencesevenaspolicycontextsandotherculturalandpoliticalconsiderationschange.Itishopedthatthisre-examinationofAct31soriginsmightproveusefultocontemporaryadvocatesforeducationreformbyservingasareminderofpastsuccessesofthebroadprinciplesthatinformedtheeffortstosecurethemandoftheissuesyettobeaddressed.ThehistoryoftheoriginsofAct31isessentialtoimprovinguponitandprovidesaguideforfuturepolicymakers.CurriculumdevelopedfundslackingContinuedfrompage13BadRiverTribalChairmanMikeWigginsdeliverstheStateoftheTribesAddressin2012.PhotobyCharlieOttoRasmussenClassroomactivitiesonChippewaTreatyRightsarealsoavailablefromtheWisconsinDepartmentofPublicInstruction. PAGE15MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2013AbozhoLeviTadgersonNdizhni-kaaz.Todaymanyofourfirst-speakersaretakingonhugeresponsibilities.ItsatimewhenoureldersarecarryingthelastofwhatitmeanstobeAnishnaabeg.Theseelderscarryourlanguageourteachingsallofourbeliefs.TheycarrythelastofwhatwassmuggledbyourNokamisagandMishomisagthroughtheattemptedculturalgenocidewageduponourpeople.Sadlytheonesthatarehold-ingallofknowledgeforusarequicklywalkingon.LastyearinSaultSte.MarieMichiganatAnishnaabemowinTegoneofthelargestAnishnaabelanguageconferencesinexistenceoneofourfirstspeakerswenttothehospitalforheartcomplicationsandactuallystartedhisfour-daywalkintothenextworld.OurteacherswillnotbehereforeverwithoutactionalltheknowledgeofourAnishnaabegidentitythattheycarrymaybelost.Languageadvocatesrecognizethatifthisyoungergenerationdoesnttakeituponthemselvestoreclaimitourlanguagecouldbegonewithinthenext30years.Onaveragealanguagedisappearsfromthisplanetevery14days.OutofallofthenativelanguagesthatexistedinNorthAmericabeforecolonizationlessthanfiveofthemareexpectedtosurvivethenext50yearssomedialectsofAnishnaabemowinareamongthoseexpectedtosurvive.Thatbeingsaidwemustrealizethatnowisthetimefortheyoungergenerationtotakeituponthemselvestoresponsiblyacquireandpassonourhistoryandculturesothatwemaysecureahealthyfutureforthoseyettoarrive.ThisismythirdyearwithGLIFWCasalanguageassistantworkingontheDabaajimowinMazinaiganOurStoriesbookwhichisscheduledforreleaseinsummer2013.AlargepartofmyjobhasbeensittingdownwithsomeofoureldersfromtheGreatLakesregionandcollectingAnishnaabeDabaajimowinanourtraditionalstoriesthatdealwithwhywelivethelivesweliveusingmultipletraditionalAnishnaabeperspectives.AllofthesedabaajimowinanwerecollectedinAnishnaabemowinandwillbeaccompanyingthebookintheformofanaudioCD.MycolleaguesandIhavecommittedhundredsofhourstranscribingandtranslatingatotalof40dibaajimowi-nantogiveourgenerationandfuturegenerationstheopportunitytoreclaimandpreserveourlanguageandcultureinourowntraditionalwaythroughstorytelling.MycolleaguesandIaresecondspeakersmeaningwespeakAnishnaabemowinasoursecondlanguagemanyofuslearningournativetongueasadults.Asnon-fluentteacherswemustworkcloselywithfluentspeakerstocontinuelearningmoreadvancedaspectsofourlanguagewhileteachingothersthingsthatwehavealreadyacquired.Thisisreferredtoasastudentteacher.Byworkingwithafluentspeakerapartiallyfluentteachercanresponsiblyteachknowingthatwhatisbeingtaughtiscorrect.PersonallyIhavebeenstudyingNwewinoursoundourlanguagesincethewinterof2007underKennPitawanakwatatNorthernMichiganUniversitysCenterforNativeAmericanStudies.AfterreachinganadequateproficiencywiththelanguageIbegantakingonstudentsofmyown.WhenIfirstbeganteachingIsatdownwithKenntobuildacurriculumbasedonthelessonshehadalreadytaughtme.AsmystudentsprogressedKennandIwoulddevelopmorelessonplanstogethersothatwewerebothsuretheinstructionwascorrect.Byhavingupperlevelstudentsteachintroductorylevellanguageclassesafluentteacherisabletoresponsiblypassonourlanguagetoalargeraudience.Forexampleifateacherhasthreeclassescontaining60ofhisownstudentswhilefiveoftheirupperlevelstudentstakeon10-20studentsundertheguidanceoftheirmentorthefluentteacherisabletobranchoutreachinganextra50-100people.Withpropertrainingastudentteachercangivenewstudentsaccesstoastrongvocabularywhilecoveringbasicmaterialthatourfluentspeakersspendsomuchprecioustimecovering.Withthissystemalargerpartofthecommunitycouldallbelearningintroductorylevellanguagewhilethefluentspeakerwouldhavemoretimetodevelopadvancedmaterials.Withproperplanningcommitmentandthenecessaryresourcesthislanguageprogramcouldevolveovertimeintoarelativelyself-sustaininglanguagerevitalizationinitiativegrowingtofittheneedsofthecommunity.ThispastMarchIwasgiftedtheopportunitytopresentatAnishnaabemowinTegabouttheresponsibilityofouryoungpeopletospeakupandpromoteourlanguageandculturewithinthisnewglobalsocietythatweliveintoday.Someofthethingsmypresentationincludedaretheimportanceandsharedresponsibilitiesofourfirstandsecondspeakerstocontinuelanguageandculturalpreservationhowonefirstspeakercancorrelateculturaleducationtoadrasticallylargeraudi-encethroughsecondspeakerteacherscommunityresponsibilitiesinregardtonurturingtheserelationshipshowtostartandmanagetheserelationshipsandlastlymyownexperiencesteachingasapartially-fluentstudentteacherunderafluentmentor.AsayoungerteacherIrecognizetheimportanceofmygenerationhelpingoureldersaccomplishtheirmissionofkeepingourculturealive.Ourelderscon-tinuetostruggleincreatingfluentspeakersofourlanguage.IfeelthatitisourresponsibilityastheyoungergenerationofAnishnaabegtobecomethosecarriersofAnishnaabeidentityandinessencewemustlearntobecomethoseelderswhokeepfightingforourrighttoliveasAnishnaabeg.ByLeviTadgersonANALanguageAssistantLeviTadgersonsharedatraditionalAnishinaabemowinstoryatNorthernGreatLakesVisitorCenterlastFeb-ruary.CORANISHINAABEMOWINFOODSOVEREIGNTYAnishinaabemowinStudentteachersmustshoulderrevitalizationeffortsGreenBayWis.TheFoodSov-ereigntySummitheldApril15-182013inGreenBayWisconsinwasanopenconversationfocusedonhowtocreatesustainablefoodsystemsandhowthesefoodsystemscanfosterFirstNationsovereignty.PanelssuchasBuildingHealthyFoodSystemsfromtheGroundUpApproachestoHealthyCommuni-tiesDemystifyingtheUSDAandCollaboratingtoBuyIndianprovidedtheopportunitytoshareknowledgeresourcesandsparkcollaborations.ThemajorthemeoftheFoodSovereigntySummitwasusingtribalproductstofeedandup-buildtribalcommunities.Attendedbyapproximately250tribalpeopleandorganizationalpartnersfromalloverNorthAmericathesummitallowedtribalpeopleandpartnerstosharepastexperiencesandidentifyothersourcesforfuturefundingorprogramdevelopmentconcerningagriculture.WinonaLaDukekeynotespeakerattheconferenceencapsulatedthemeaningoftribalfoodsovereigntybykeepingtribalmonieswithinthecommunitystatingthatwetribesarenotsovereignuntilwecanfeedourselves.LaDukesharedherworkwithintheWhiteEarthLandRecoveryProjectincludingtheAnishinaabeSeedProjectthathelpswiththerestorationoftraditionalplantvarietiessuchasdifferentvarietiesofcornsquashandbeans.TheMinoWiisinidaaLetsEatGoodprojectwasrepresentedbyOwenHollyMaroneycommunitydietitianwhomoderatedthePlateitUpRes-taurantsusinglocalfoodsandmenuop-tions.AccompaniedbyGordyAdamsandGordonBronitskythePlateitUppanelexploredoptionsandideasforincorporatinglocaltriballygrownfoodintotribalrestaurantsandprograms.Whenyousupporttribalharvest-ersyouaresupportingmorethanjusttheharvesteryouaresupportingthecommunityasawholestatedMaroney.Buyingfromlocaltribalharvestersbringsanaddednutritionalbenefittothepeoplewhoeatit.Localfoodsarefresherfoodspickedwhenripenotbe-foreandthereislesstimefromharvesttotablewhichmeanslessnutrientlossandmorefortheconsumer.DuringthecourseoftheconferenceattendeesenjoyedbisonfromtheOneidaNationFarmduringanetworkingeventincludedtraditionalHaudensuaneesocialdancesandtoursofthevarioussectionswithintheOneidaNationFarm.VendorsandinformationalboothslinedthecommonareaofferinghandmadegiftsaswellthedebutoftheMobileFarmersMarketwhoofferedtraditionalfoodsincludinggroundwildriceflourjamscornandmaplesyrup.TheFoodSovereigntySummitwashostedbythefollowingSovereignOneidaNationofWisconsinFirstNa-tionsDevelopmentInstituteIntertribalAgricultureCouncilandNortheastWis-consinTechnicalCollege.FoodSovereigntySummitfocusesonfeedingtribalnationsByLaTishaCoffinANASEDSCoordinatorHighlightingGLIFWCsMinoWiisinidaaLetsEatGoodprojectduringtheFoodSovereigntySummitinGreenBayWis.GLIFWCprojectstaffprovidedaninformationalboothfeaturingtheprojectandtreatyrights.PicturedfromtheleftZoongeeLeithplanningandANAsecretaryLaTishaCofnANASEDScoordinatorandOwenMaroneycommunitydietician.Maroneyalsomoderatedapaneldiscussiononincorporatinglocallygrownfoodsintotribalrestaurantsandprograms.Wearenotsovereignuntilwecanfeedourselves.WinonaLaDukeWhiteEarth MAZINAIGANPAGE16SPRINGSUMMER2013DoublevowelsystemofwritingOjibwemowin.LongvowelsAAEIIOOWaaboozasinfatherMiigwechasinjayAaniinasinseenMoozasinmoonShortVowelsAIODashasinaboutIngiwasintinNiizhoasinonlyAglottalstopisavoicelessnasalsoundasinAaw.Respectfullyenlistanelderforhelpinpronunciationanddialectdifferences.Down1.also2.or3.robins4.loonsAcross5.babycrows6.halfway7.theyy8.and-yan-yaan-d-yaang-waadVAIConjunctB-formtranslatesIfWhenorWhile...SeecomplexsentencesinNiizh.Suffixesonly.WhenIfShespeaksOjibweOjibwemodWhenIspeakOjibweOjibwemoyaanWhenyouspeakOjibweOjibwemoyanIfwespeakOjibweOjibwemoyaangIfweallspeakOjibweOjibwemoyangIfyouallspeakOjibweOjibwemoyegIftheyspeakOjibweOjibwemowaadThesecanbeusedwithpastandfuturetensemarkersandnegation.GoojitoonTryitTranslationbelow.IKIDOWINODAMINOWINwordplayTranslationsNiizh2A.Atthelakewhenheshesheishappyalwaysmyhusband.B.AttheriverwhenIshIwalkalongtheshorethere.C.OnLakeMichiganwhenyoushyoucleansheveryday.D.OnLakeSuperiorwhenweshwecampontheshorealso.E.Inthecanoeboatwhenweallshweallwearlayers.Itishotweatheranditiscoolweather.F.Inthemiddleofthelakewhenyouallshyoualljumpinthewater.SwimG.Todaywhentheyshtheyhavefun.YesNiswi3Down1.Gaye2.Gemaa3.Opichiwag4.Maangwag.Across5.Aandegoonsag6.Aabita7.Bimisewag8.DashNiiwin-41.Whentheypoundonthedrumtheydanceallday.2.AttheprayingbuildingchurchwhenshegetslegallymarriedIwillgo.3.Ifwegardenweworkandweeat.4.WhatareyoudoingInthewoodswhenIharvestbirchbarkImakeabirchbarkbasket.5.InthesummerwhenifyoubeginspeakingOjibwelanguageyouwillbehappy.TherearevariousOjibwedialectscheckforcorrectusageinyourarea.NotethattheEnglishtranslationwillloseitsnaturalflowasinanyworldlanguagetranslation.Thismaybereproducedforclassroomuseonly.Allotherusesbyauthorswrittenpermission.SomespellingsandtransaltionsfromTheConciseDictionaryofMinnesotaOjibwebyJohnD.NicholsandEarlNyholm.AllinquiriescanbemadetoMAZINAIGANP.O.Box9OdanahWI54861pioglifwc.org.Niizh2Bezhig1OJIBWEMOWINOjibweLanguageNiiwin4Niswi3521VAIsVerbs-Animate-Intransitive3NiibingWhenitisSummerCirclethe10underlinedOjibwewordsinthelettermaze.TranslationsbelowNiibingOdeimini-GiizisidashAabita-Niibino-GiizisgemaaMiini-GiizisidashManoominike-Giizisongowgiizisoonizhinikaazowag.Niibingingiwbineshiiyagninganawaabamaag.Gayenimbizindawaag.Opichiwagopichiinsagnikagnikensagmaangwagmaangoonsagmigiziwagmigiziinsagaandegwagidashaandegoonsag.Bimisewag.Giiyosewag.Wiisiniwag.Nagamowag.Gaagiigidowag.Babaamaadagaawag.Ganawenindiwag.MiigwechWhenitisspringHeart-BerryStrawberry-MoonJuneandHalfway-Summer-MoonJulyorBlueberry-MoonJulyandWildRice-Moonthesemoonmonthstheyarecalled.WhenitissummerthosebirdsIwatchthem.AlsoIlistentothem.Robinsbabyrobinsgeesebabygeeseloonsbabyloonseaglesbabyeaglescrowsandbabycrows.Theyfy.Theyhunt.Theyeat.Theysing.Theytalk.Theyswim.Theycareforeachother.ThanksAGOMPZAPDEAIOGDSNNINAABEMEBEOKMZOJOIDGADIGWAJIIMAANINGEANJOYSBNYYAIGEIAHKWOGAISTNBAGIZOGMGIBAKAZHAAWEA.Zaagaiganinggiigooyikedminwendamapaneninaabem.B.Ziibiinggiigooyikeyaanninjiigeweyaazhagaameimaa.C.Michigamiinggiigooyikeyangibakazhaaweendaso-giizhik.D.Gichigamiinggiigooyikeyaangningabeshimingayeagamiing.E.Jiimaaninggiigooyikeyanggibiitookonayemin.Gizhaatedashdakaayaa.F.Naawagaamgiigoo-yikeyeggibakobiig-waashkwanim.BagizogG.Noongomgiigooyikewaadminwendaagoziwaad.Eya7481.Baagaakowaan____niimiidiwaggabe-giizhik.2.Anamaewigamigongaapiji-wiidiged____ninga-izhaa.3.Gitige______nindanokiiminidashniwiisinimin.4.AaniinezhichigeyanMegwaayaakmaniwiigwaase_____nimakakoke.5.Niibingmaajii-ojibwemo_____giga-minwendam.6Actionofpersondoesnttransfertoanobject.RootcantranslateSheorHe...addinflectionsforotherpersons.Giigooyike.Shegoesfishing.Ningiigooyike.Igofishing.Gigiigooyike.Youaregoingfishing.Ningiigooyikemin.Wegofishing.Gigiigooyikemin.Weallgofishing.Gigiigooyikem.Youallgofishing.Giigooyikewag.Theygofishing.Anishinaabemo.ShespeaksOjibwe.Ojibwemo.SheisspeakingOjibwe.OJIBWEMOWIN PAGE17MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2013KIDSPAGEJeeperscreeperslistentothosepeepersGiziibwewedsingsSpringisatimewhenMotherEarthwakesuptoanewseason.Manyofnaturesvoiceshavebeensilentthroughthelongquietwinter.Butnowifyougooutsideyouwillhearthesoundsofspring.Youwillhearthedripdripdripofmeltingsnow.Ifyouaretappingmaplesyouwillhearthesapplopandpingintothecanbeneaththetap.Youmayhearrunningwaterasriversandstreamsbreakloosefromtheiceorthesongsofrobinsastheyreturnnorth.Butifyoulivenearpondsormarshesyouwillsurelyhearthenight-timecallsofthetinygiziibwewedspringpeeperfrogsfreshoutoftheirwin-tersleep.Peepersdigintothesoftmudnearpondsforthewinterandthengointoapartly-frozenhibernationuntiltheweatherwarmsup.Peeperfrogsareverytinyaboutaninchoraninchandahalflong.Thatwouldbeaboutthislength.SotheyarehardtoseebuttheyhaveaveryBIGvoiceespe-ciallythemalepeeperswhoarebusycallingtotheirmatesasthesunsetsonspringevenings.Somesaythatapondfullofpeeperscansoundlikesleighbellsjingling.Theycomeoutveryearlyinthespringoftenwhensomesnowisstillonthegroundandiceonthepondssoareoneofthefirstspringvoices.Theselittlefrogscanbehardtofindbecausetheyaresotinybutifyouareluckyyoumayseeonesittingonorunderabladeofgrassorinacrevice.YouwillknowitisapeeperbydarkstripesonitsbackthatformanX.Theyareusuallygraytanorbrownincolorandcanchangecolorslightlytoblendintothecolorsaroundthemtoprotectthemselvesfrombeingeatenbysnakesorbirds.Thisiscalledcamouflage.Ifthepeepersarepeepingyoumayalsoseethemfilluptheirneckwithairlikeasmallballoonundertheirchin.Whentheylettheairouttheymakethepeepingsound.Theyarealsoabletomakethatsoundseemlikeitcomesfromadifferentplacelikeaventriloquistsoanimalswhomaylikefrogfordinnercannoteasilyfindthem.Oncetheearlyspringmatingseasonisoverpeepersmoveintowoodlandareasforthesummertime.Wewillhavetowaituntilthenextspringtoenjoytheirspecialchorusonceagain.Tolearnmoreaboutthespringpeeperandlistentoitscallgotowww.seagrant.wisc.edufrogspeeper.htmlSpringpeepersareverytinyandhaveadarkstripeontheirbackthatformsanX.Photoreprintedfrompwconserve.orgTotherightPeepershaveslightlywebbedfeetandnoticeabledisksontheirfngersandtoes.Thesediskshelpthefrogsclimbtreesandotherplants.PhotobyDavidWrobelBySueEricksonStaffWriterFindthePeepersTherearesevenpeepershidinginthepicturebelow.CanyoufindthemallSeehowwelltheycancamouflagethemselves.Malespringpeepershavelargesacsundertheirchins.Theypumpthesesacsfullofairuntiltheylooklikeafullballoonthenletoutamightypeepastheylettheairout.PhotobyBrianLasenby MAZINAIGANPAGE18SPRINGSUMMER2013WALKINGONTobasonakwutKinewspiritualleaderandguidewalksonChimiigwechforhismanycontributionstoGLIFWCsgrowthWinnipegOnt.SpiritualleaderandelderTobason-akwutKinewLynxclanOjibwaysofOnigamingwalkedonDecember23attheageof76.AnenduringfriendandguidetoGLIFWCovermanyyearsheencouragedtheincorporationofOjibwetraditionslanguageandspiritualityintotheheartofGLIFWCsdecision-makingandactivities.HispresentationofaPipetoGLIFWCsparkedtheceremoniesthatopenGLIFWCsmeetingstoday.ItwashissuggestionthatledthewaytoGLIFWCsDrum.UnderTobasonakwutsguidanceGLIFWCaddressedtheSandyLaketragedyrecognizingthespiritsofthosewhoperishedtherewithtraditionalceremoniesandprayers.TobasonakwutandhisbrotherFredKellyprovidedspiritualguidancethroughoutthe1998TreatyConferenceonMadelineIslandandhelpedfindthepaththatledtotheWaabanongRuntoWashingtonD.C.therunitselfaprayerfortheprotectionoftreatyrightsastheMilleLacscasewasheardintheUSSupremeCourtofAppeals.ItwasTobasonakwutwhohelpedpreparetherunnersforthelongjourneyfromLacduFlambeautoD.C.throughasweatandceremoniesandalsoTobasonakwutwhoprovidedGLIFWCwiththeRunnerspipe.ItwasTobasonakwutandFredKellywhoconceivedofandwrotetheAnishinaabeAkiiProtocolsignedonMadelineIslandbyrepresentativesofCanadianandU.S.Ojibwetribesthatrecognizedacommonbrotherhoodnottobeseparatedbynationalboundaries.TheProtocolagreestoworktogethertoprotectthelandtheresourcestreatiesandsharecul-turalknowledge.ItiswithhumblegratitudethatGLIFWCrecognizesTobasonakwutsmanygiftsthathavebeenasourceofstrength.HislegacywithGLIFWCispositiveandindelible.FollowingisthefullobituaryrunintheWinnipegFreePressonDecember272012TobasonakwutKinewTOBASONAKWUTKAAGAGEWANAKWEBPETERKELLYKINEW19362012Ahowndinawemaa-ganiidogTobasonakwutKaagagewanakwebPeterKinewKellyPizhiwOdotemLynxclanmadehisjourneytothespiritworldonthemorningofDecember232012.Hewas76.Tobasonakwutibanwasawell-respectedmemberoftheAnishinaabecommunitywhoselifeandworkwasknownthroughoutCanadaandtheUnitedStates.Hewasatirelessadvocateandteacherofcivillibertiesandtreatyrightsindigenouslanguagecultureandphilosophy.HewasapipecarrierSundancechiefandhigh-degreememberoftheMiteiwin.TobasonakwutibanwasbornonhisfatherstraplineonLakeoftheWoodsin1936andchosenbyeldersasachildtobeinstructedandmentoredintheknowledgeandtradi-tionsoftheAnishinaabeg.Hisknowledgewasunparalleled.Throughouthislifehelovedtospendtimeonthelakesharingitsbeautywithhisfamilyandfriendsfromallovertheworld.AtayoungagehewastakenawaytoSt.MarysResi-dentialSchoolwhichhewasonlyallowedtoattenduntilgradeeight.DespitethishepursuedhiseducationattheCoadyInternationalInstituteatSt.FrancisXavierUniversityUniversityofManitobaBAculminatinginanHonouraryDoctorateinLawsfromTheUniversityofWinnipegin2011.Heencouragedmanytopursuetheireducationsinspiringcountlesspeopletobecomelawyersanddoctors.Healsoinspiredmanytolivealifefreeofdrugsandalcohol.InhispoliticalcareerTobasonakwutibanservedasGrandChiefofGrandCouncilTreaty31972to19751991to1995andasthefirstOntarioregionalchiefforAFNaswellasseveraltermsasChiefoftheOjibwaysofOnigaming.HewasinstrumentalintheestablishmentandguidanceofmanyorganizationsthatadvocatedforlanguagerevitalizationtreatyandFirstNationsrights.LacduFlambeauWis.ErnestD.NickHockingsLacduFlambeauLdFenteredtheSpiritWorldonNo-vember302012.Hewasanogichidaawarriorwholitmanyfires.AcalmvoiceamidsttheraucousshoutsatspearfishinglandingswhentribesbegantoexercisetheiraffirmedtreatyrightsinnorthernWisconsinwasthatofNickHockingsLdFspearfisher-man.Nicktookquietlytothewatersdespitejeersandthreatsatboatlandingsdeterminedtoexercisehisrightsbutalsodeterminedtodosopeacefully.Thepeacefulwarriorbecameanappropriatedubforthismanwhoselifebecamedevotedtoeducationcombat-tingracismsocialjusticeandculturalrestoration.Assuchhewasalsoen-trustedasthekeeperoftheTreatyStaffwhichwascarriedfromPipestonetoLacduFlambeauinsupportofOjibwetreatyrightsduringtheprotestera.AsatravelingspeakerandalongwithwifeCharlottetheco-owneroftheWaswagoningVillagewhichrecreatedthehistoricallifeofregionalOjibweNickwasaneducatorwithatremendousoutreachespeciallyinthefour-stateregion.HetouchedthelivesofhundredsofschoolchildrenthroughWaswagon-ingVillageasatravelingspeakerandthroughtheWoodlandVillagehecon-structedattheannualIndianSummerFestivalinMilwaukeeWisconsineachyear.Nickalsohadtheopportunitytotravelandtalkabroad.Nickmusthaveexhibitedfire-startingtothousandsoffolksovertheyearsmagicallyproducingflamefromflintandjute.Sometimeshewoulddemonstratethisoverandoverthroughaday.HemadeitlooksoeasyTosomeextenthisknackoffire-startingwassymbolicofhislife.Heignitedmanysparksofunderstandingthroughhistravelsnumerouspresentationsatschoolsandchurchesandtourgroupsthroughthevillage.Nickwasamanwithmanygiftsallofwhichheshared.OvertheyearsGLIFWChasbeengratefulforhistalentsasaspeakerpresenterandasanartistwhoseartworkgracedseveralpopularannualpostersovertheyears.HereceivedtwoEmmyAwardsasartisticdirectorforthePBSseriesWasaaInaabidaaWeLookinAllDirectionswhichwasfilmedattheWaswagoningVillage.Nickwasafatherandagrandfather.HisoldestdaughterJeannieHockingspassedseveralyearsagoleavingthreegrandchildrenCelesteErnestandGageHockingsinthecareofNickandCharlotte.HisyoungestdaughterNicoleLarsonbecameaculturaleducatorlikeNickandmaintainedafamilydancetheatergroupknownasBlueWindsDancingtoday.NicolestwosonsJulianandNakaialongwithCeleteErnestandGagehavebeenasourceofprideforNick.OvertheyearsNickcarriedthePipefromtheBigDrumSocietyandlivedhislifebasedonOjibwetraditionsandceremoniesbutalsoadheredtotheBahaiFaith.Chimiigwechtothepeacefulwar-riorWegimaawaadizidrolemodelminewaagayeGekinooamaagedteacherNickHockingsthepeacefulwarriorteacherwillbemissedWithusthroughhardtimesTobasonakwutispicturedwithhisPipeinfrontoftheU.S.SupremeCourtofAppealsjustpriortothe1998hearingoftheMilleLacsCasewhichresultedinafavorabledecisionforthetribes.PhotobySueEricksonBySueEricksonStaffWriterBySueEricksonStaffWriterSeeTobasonakwutKinewpage23AneducatorandartistNickHockingsdemonstratedre-startingtomanyvisitorswhoenjoyedatourthroughWaswagoningVillageanhistoricalre-creationofanOjibwevillagebuiltbyNickandhiswifeChar.SE PAGE19MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2013INOUYENEWSBRIEFSSenatorDanielInouyeofHawaiiwarriorandformerChairmanofSenateCommitteeonIndianAffairspassesBySueEricksonStaffWriterAtruefriendtoIndianCountrySenatorDanielInouyeDHawaiiwalkedonattheageof88onDecember172012.AWorldWarIIcombatveteranInouyerepresentedthestateofHawaiisinceits1959statehoodwasachieved.Hewasaprominentandlong-servingSenatorandleaderoftheSenateCommitteeonIndianAffairsservingasitschairmanforatotaloftenyears.InouyeplayedasignificantroleinresolvingconflictsinWisconsinduringthetreatyrightsprotestinthemid1980sandearly1990s.AstheChairmanoftheSenateCommitteeonIndianAffairsInouyewassuccessfulinsecuringaCongres-sionalappropriationtoenableajointfederalstateandtribalassessmentofthewalleyefisheryresourceinWisconsinscededterritorytodeterminethehealthofthefisheryandwhethertribalspearingwasdamagingtheresource.ThefinalreportentitledCastingLightUpontheWaterswasreleasedatapressconferencein1991andindicatedOjibwespearingwasnotdamagingtheresources.ThisjointreportprovedtobeaturningpointintheviolentproteststhathauntedWisconsinlandingseachspringandwassuccessfulinquellingmuchoftheprotestthathingedontheargumentofresourcedepletion.ThisinitiativealsoledtoCongressionalsupportforongoingjointfisheryassessmentsinnorthernWisconsinlakescoordinatedbytheJointAssessmentSteeringCommittee.ThefollowingstatementwasreleasedbyTheNationalCongressofAmeri-canIndiansNCAIfollowingthepassingofthisgreatfriendandwarriorfortherightsofallpeopleSenatorInouyewasoneofthemosthonorableandcourageousmenmodernIndianCountryhasknown.Hewasadistinguishedwarriorandheservedhiscountryandpeoplewithdignityandastrongsenseofadvocacy.AsamemberandchairmanoftheSenateCommitteeonIndianAffairshechampionedtherightsofNativepeoplesandwewillalwaysrememberhimforholdingthelineonnumerousissuescriticaltoculturalprotectionandtribalsovereignty.Ourthoughtsandprayersarewithhisfamilyatthistime.Thiscountryhaslostatruepatriotandstatesman.InthewordsofourNativeHawaiianbrothersandsisterswesayMahalonuiloaforhisserviceandcommitmentandwillforeverrememberthissonofHawaiiasagreatleader.InouyeservedontheSenateCommitteeonIndianAffairsastheChairmanfrom1987-1995asVice-Chairmanfrom1995-1997andagainasChairmanfrom2001-2003.Hewouldhavecontinuedhisroleasacommitteememberinthe113thCongress.InouyeworkedcloselywithNCAIandNativetribesadvocatingfortribalsovereigntytribaleducationalinstitutionsandcommunitydevelopmentamongmanyotherissues.SenatorInouyewashonoredbyNCAIin1999withtheNCAILeadershipAwardforhisservicetoIndianCountry.TheofficialstatementreleasedbyInouyesofficedescribeshislonghistoryofmilitaryserviceSenatorInouyebeganhiscareerinpublicserviceattheageof17whenheenlistedintheU.S.ArmyshortlyafterImperialJapanattackedPearlHarboronDecember71941.HeservedwithEcompanyofthe442RegimentalCombatTeamagroupconsistingentirelyofAmericansofJapaneseancestry.SenatorInouyelosthisarmchargingaseriesofmachinegunnestsonahillinSanTerenzoItalyonApril211945.HisactionsduringthatbattleearnedhimtheMedalofHonor.This1991pictureofOjibwetriballeaderswithSenatorDanielInouyewastakenwhentheCastingLightUpontheWatersreportwasreleased.ThereportreleasedthendingsofajointassessmentofWisconsinlakesbyfederalstateandtribalbiologistsandstatedthatspearshingdidnotharmtheresource.TheefforttorealizethejointassessmentwasleadbySenatorInouyeandthereportprovedtobeaturningpointintheuglyprotestsatboatlandingsinWisconsinthatcharacterizedthemid-to-late1980suntilthesendingsquelledmuchoftheprotest.PhotobyAmooseCededTerritoryNewsBriefsGLIFWCChairmanMichaelJ.IshamJr.namedtoGreatLakesAdvisoryBoardGLIFWCChairmanMichaelJ.IshamJr.wasnamedtothenewly-formedGreatLakesAdvisoryBoard.TheBoardwasestablishedtosupporttheimplementationoftheGreatLakesRestorationInitiativebyprovidingadviceandrecommenda-tionstotheAdministratoroftheUnitedStatesEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyintheAdministratorsroleasChairoftheGreatLakesInteragencyTaskForce.SixteenfederalagenciesparticipateintheTaskForcetocoordinatetherestorationoftheGreatLakes.ThenewBoardismadeupof18representativesfromtribalstateandlocalgovernmentsacademiabusinessandnon-profitorganizations.AppointmentstotheBoardlastfortwoyears.JenniferVanatorMississippiwaterwalkersprayforwaterresourcesCarryingcrystalcleanwaterdrawnfromtheMississippiRiverheadwatersatLakeItascaMinnesota2013waterwalkersfollowedthe1200milecourseofthegreatrivertothefarsouthernportofPilottownLouisianabeginningMarch1.LeadbySharonDayexecutivedirectoroftheIndigenousPeoplesTaskForceandaveteranwaterwalkerthewalkisaprayerforthehealthoftheriverandallofEarthswaterresources.Daywhoparticipatedinthe2011MotherEarthWaterWalkwhichbroughtwaterfromthefourdirectionstoLakeSuperiorcontinuesatraditionofWaterWalksbegunbyCanadianElderJosephineMandamindesignedtobringaware-nesstothesacrednessofwaterandtheneedtoprotectit.DayalongwithhersisterDoreenmadethecommitmenttothisyearsMississippijourneyfollowingMandaminstradition.AlongwithagroupofAnishinaabekweandsupportersMandamincarriedacopperbucketofwateraroundLakeSuperiorin2003aroundLakeMichiganin2004LakeHuronin2005LakeOntarioin2006LakeEriein2007LakeMichi-ganin2008theSt.LawrenceRiverin2009andfinallyledthe2011MotherEarthWaterWalk.Formoreinformationonthe2013MississippiWaterWalkcheckthemoutonFacebook.SueEricksonSallyJewellsworninasSecretaryoftheInteriorSallyJewellwassworninasthe51stSecretaryoftheInterioronApril122013.AsSecretaryoftheInteriorJewellleadsanagencywithmorethan70000employees.Interiorservesasstewardforapproximately20percentofthenationslandsincludingnationalparksnationalwildliferefugesandotherpubliclandsoverseestheresponsibledevelopmentofconventionalandrenewableenergysuppliesonpubliclandsandwatersisthelargestsupplierandmanagerofwaterinthe17Westernstatesandupholdstrustresponsibilitiestothe566federallyrecognizedAmericanIndiantribesandAlaskaNatives.SEEPAclampingdownonballastwaterNewregulationsimposedbytheEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyEPAaddrequirementstotreatseafaringshipsballastwaterwithchemicalsorultra-violetlighttokillorganismsinthewaterpriortoreleasingit.Currentregulationsalsorequireballastwatertobedumped200milesfromU.S.shores.Howevertheregulationonlyappliestovesselslongerthat79feetanddoesnotpertaintoshipsthatdonotleavetheGreatLakes.SomeenvironmentalgroupsaredisappointedintheexclusionofGreatLakesvesselsfearingtheycouldhelpfurtherdisperseinvasivespeciesthroughouttheGreatLakessystem.SEMobilefarmersmarkettargetstribalcommunitiesAnewtakeonMealsonWheelswillbeoutandaboutthissummerinsometribalcommunities.Thistimeitsamobilefarmersmarket.Itwontberollinguptoindividualhousesbutwillarriveatcentrallocationsintribalcommunitiesloadedwithfreshandtraditionalproducewithagoalofmakinghealthywhole-somefoodmoreaccessibletotribalmembers.TheMobileFarmersMarketprojectisaninitiativeoftheIntertribalAgricultureCouncilIACandisinthepilotstageduringthesummerof2013accordingtoDanCorneiliusIACtechnicalassistancespecialist.TheprojectwilltargetnorthernMinnesotaandnorthwestWisconsintribesprimarilyduringthefirstyearhopingtoincludemoretribalcommunitiesastheprojectgrows.TheMobileFarmersMarketintendstovendtraditionalfoodssuchaswildricemaplesyruphominycornalongwithfreshproduceCorneliussayshopingforweatherconditionsthatleadtobountifulharveststhisyear.Buttheprojecthasanotheraspectandgoal.Themobilemarketwillalsogiveanopportunityforfamilygrowerstoselltheirproduceprovidingthemwithanincentivetogrowandharvestfoodslocally.Thiswillalsodevelopanintertribalfoodnetworkofbuyingandsellingfreshtraditionalfoodsbuildingregionalfooddistributioncapacity.WedlikethefarmersmarkettobeacommunityeventCorneliussays.Wedeventuallyliketopartnerwithothergroupsanddrawthecommunityout.Corneliusiscurrentlyworkingonascheduleforsummerstopsandhopestohavearegularscheduleforthemobilefarmersmarkettobeindesignatedcommunities.Forupdatedinformationgoonlineatwww.nativefoodnetwork.com.SE MAZINAIGANPAGE20SPRINGSUMMER2013SUGARBUSHHEALINGCIRCLERUNContinuedfrompage1SecurityletmegorightthroughheremarksandIgotittowhereitwassupposedtogoWhilehisofficialdutieskepthimbusypoliticallyasanadvocateandnego-tiatoronbehalfofthetribesLaFernieralsoservedinaspiritualcontextespe-ciallyasaFirekeeper.HestartedandkeptSacredFiresatSandyLakeMin-nesotabothwhenGLIFWCfirstvisitedthesiteandhonoredthespiritsofthosewhohadpassedthereandalsoastheMikwendaagooziwagmonumentwhenSandyLakewascompleted.HekeptFireduringthe1998GLIFWCTreatyConferenceonMad-elineIslandalsoinWashingtonDCpriortotheMilleLacsCasehearingtheUSSupremeCourtofAppealsinandduringtheMinwaajimoConferenceatBadRiver.InsodoingheprovidedthatimportantrecognitiontotheCreatorandthespiritworldthatsooftenisignoredinthefast-pacedworldofissuespoliticsandlegalbattles.BecauseofhislengthyserviceandcommitmenttotheRedCliffTribeandGLIFWCboththeTribeandGLIFWCseparatelyacknowledgedhissignificantcontributionsinseparateresolutionsthiswinterseeresolution.Itshightimetosaychi-miigwechtoUncleLeolongstand-ingfriendwarriorandKeeperoftheFire.ResolutionhonoringLeoLaFernierWHEREASLeoLaFernierhasbeenaVoigtIntertribalTaskForcerepresen-tativefortheRedCliffBandofLakeSuperiorChippewasince1985andWHEREASLeoLaFernierplaysanimportantroleinsecuringaffirmationandimplementationofanumberofcourtcasesandintergovernmentalagreementsincludingprovidingtestimonyintheLacCourteOreillesv.Wisconsincasein1990asanexpertontheTribesgovernmentalcapacityandabilitytoexercisesovereignauthorityovertheexerciseofmemberscededterritorytreaty-reservedrightsandWHEREASLeoLaFernierworksdiligentlytodefendandimplementallaspectsoftreatyrightstribalsovereigntyandtribalnaturalresourceandenvironmentalmanagementprerogativesandWHEREASLeoLaFernierisaleaderineffortstoprotectcededterritorynaturalresourcesandecosystemsincludingeffortstoassessthepotentialimpactsofradioactivewastestorageinthecededterritoryandWHEREASLeoLaFernieralwaysprovidesthoughtfulandwiseperspectivesonthewiderangeofissuesconsideredbytheVoigtIntertribalTaskForceandfacilitatesintertribalco-managementandunity.NOWTHEREFOREBEITRESOLVEDthattheVoigtIntertribalTaskForceoftheGreatLakesIndianFishandWildlifeCommissionrecognizesthemanycontributionsandenduringlegacyofLeoLaFernierexpressesitssinceregratitudeandappreciationtohimforhislifetimeofachievementasamemberoftheTaskForceandcommendshimforhisleadershipinandcommitmenttotheprotectionandimplementationoftribalsovereigntyandtreaty-reservedhuntingfishingandgatheringrights.HonoringLeoFondduLacReservationMinn.Takingadifferenttackattappingtimethe13MoonsFondduLacTribalCollegeExtensionProgramheldaworkshopontappingbirchtrees.JimLeaseOnamiaMinnesotatalkedabouthisfirstyearexperiencetappingbirchtrees.Afteranunsuccessfulyearofmaplesyrupin2012JimdecidedhecouldntlosetryingtotapthebirchtreesbecausethesapisknowntorunafterthemaplesaporsometimeinApril.Hefoundthebestbirchtreesfortappingarehealthyandatleast8indiameteratbreastheightoroldgrowth.Unlikemaplesapwhichtakesabout40gallonsofsaptomakeonegallonofsyrupittakes100gallonsofbirchsaptomakeonegallonofsyrup.Notnecessarilyaneconomicalventuremostarewillingtogoaftertappingbirchdoeshavebenefitsthatoutweighthecostsinthevalueofmedicinalproperties.WhenIaskedaplantknowledgeablepersonatFondduLacaboutusingbirchsyruphesaidtheOjibweusedthesapformedicinenotnecessarilyasafoodsource.AfteraquickGooglesearchIfoundthatbirchsyrupisusedasabeverageforbeerwineorasarootbeer.Withmoresearchingonbirchmedicinalprop-ertiesIfoundthatbirchsyrupcanbeusedasadiureticforjointpainandhasthesamepropertiesasaspirinforpainrelief.Ilearnedthatbirchbarkishighinbetulinandbetulinicacidwhichcouldbegoodmedicineforcancer.Anecdotallytheknowledgewehaveinourcommunitiesofplantandtreemedicinesmayhavebeensavingourlivesfromcancersanddiabeteslongbeforedocumentedhistory.Tolearnmoreaboutthe13Moonsprogramyoucanlookup13MoonsAshiniswigiizisoogonFacebookorgotowww.fdlrez.comandlookusupontheNaturalResourceslink.Miigwech.LearningaboutbirchsyrupByNikkiCroweforMazinaiganValTurchotteleftandJeffSavagetastingbirchsyrup.JimLeasebroughtsomeofthebirchsyruphebottledlastyeartotastetestattheworkshop.Thesyrupismorewoodsyandmolasses-likethanmaplesyrupyetstillverytasty.PhotobyNikkiCroweSpring2013wasagusherformanywhotappedmapletreestheoppositeoflastspringsnearlydryrun.Anextendedseasonoffreezingnightsandwarmingdaysmadeidealconditionsforaplentifulharvest.TappersattheNelissugarbushgatheredanincredible2580gallonsofsapproducing58plusgallonsofmaplesyrup.Thisaveragedouttobeabout44gallonsofsaptoagallonofzhiiwaagamiziganmaplesyrup.Ajointventureinvolvingvepartnerstheoperationusedastate-of-the-artboilertostreamlinetheprocessandminimizerewoodconsumption.CollaboratorsincludedSteveNelisAndyStaffordJerryStaffordShockieLeosoandMicahCain.PhotobyMicahCainZhiiwaagamiziganThe2013HealingCircleRunWalkisintendedtobeaprayerforhealing.Duringthe2001HealingJourneyRunparticipantsthoughtofateachingonhealingforanationtohealitmustbeginwiththeindividual.Asapersonhealsthenthatpersoncanhelphealhisherfamily.Asafamilybeginstohealtheycanhelphealtheircommunity.Ascommunitieshealtheycanhelpthenationheal.AsnationshealtheycanhelpAkitheearthourplantandanimalrelativestoheal.The2013HealingCircleRunWalkwillconnecteightOjibwereservationsinnorthernWisconsinMichiganandMinnesotastartingattheLacCourteOreillesReservationandendingatLacduFlambeauonJuly13Day1thenendingatMoleLakeonJuly14Day2atLacVieuxDesertonJuly15Day3atBadRiverRedCliffonJuly16Day4atFondduLacBlackBearCasinoonJuly17Day5atSt.CroixonJuly18Day6andatLacCourteOreillesonJuly19Day7.HealingCircleRunWalkJuly13192013IfyouareinterestedinparticipatingorneedmoreinformationcontactRoseWilmerSueLemieuxorNeilKmiecikatGLIFWCat715.682.6619.Allparticipantsmustassumepersonalliabilityaswellasresponsibilityfortheirowntransportationandexpenses.Day1LCO-PipestoneCreekDay1LDF-RoundHouseDay2LDF-RoundHouseDay2MLK-RecCenterDay3MLK-Admin.BuildingDay3LVD-VillageatLVDLakeDay4LVD-ElderlyBuildingDay4RC-TribalCampgroundDay5RC-TribalCampgroundDay5FDL-CARLTONBlackBearCasinoDay6FDL-CityofSuperiorDay6STC-HertelComm.Cntr.Day7STC-HertelComm.Cntr.Day7LCO-PipestoneCreekRouteStartingPointRouteEndingPointDay1RouteDay2RouteDay3RouteDay4RouteDay5RouteDay6RouteDay7RouteRouteEndingPointIfdifferentfromthenextdaysstartingpoint.GLIFWCMemberTribesCountyBoundary PAGE21MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2013ClipmailENFORCEMENTLacVieuxDessertMich.Wouldyouknowhowtosurviveinthewilder-nesswhenits20degreesandsnowingOver25studentswhoparticipatedinthisyearsIshpaagoonikaaDeepSnowCampknowhowThisyearsculturalwintercampprogrambroughtmiddleschoolstu-dentsfromaroundtheGreatLakesforaweekendofeducationandfuninthesnowguidedbyindigenousknowledge.HostedbyLacVieuxDesertandsponsoredbyGLIFWCthecampsmis-siontopromotetreatyrightsthroughtra-ditionalteachingsandadventure-basedlearningwassuccessfullyledbyCampDirectorandGLIFWCOutreachOfficerHeatherNaigus.ThesecondannualIsh-paagoonikaataughtstudentsarangeofactivitiesfromspearingtosurvivingintheharshMidwesternwinters.Saturdaysactivitiesconsistedofspearingthroughtheicetraditionaltip-upsandsnow-packclasses.RogerLaBineLacVieuxDesertmembershowedstudentsthetraditionalwayofmakingtip-upsforicefishingandparticipantswerethrilledtocatchhugewalleyesandnorthernpikesusingthisindigenousmethodfromtheirenviron-mentalsurroundings.Rogerlatershowedthestudentstheproperwaytocleanandcookthesefishgivingeveryoneanop-portunitytotastethem.Dr.MaryHindelangofMichiganTechUniversitysharedherwisdomonlessonswecanlearnbywatchingwild-lifesadaptationsinthesnowpack.Theexperienceconsistedofhowanimalsusethesnowforsurvival.Studentsalsostudiedsnowflakesandhowtodeterminesnowfallbythelayersinthesnow.OnSundayGLIFWCwardensledworkshopsonwintersurvivalandsustainability.Studentsweretreatedtotrappingandanimalidentificationandhowtogetfoodwhenitdependsonsurvival.TheylearnedhowtoproperlyhandletrapswhilerespectingMotherEarthandallherrelatives.Thestudentsalsogottoidentifyandhandleseveraldifferentfurs.Inoneofthecoldestareasinthecountrywarmthandprotectionisparamount.Studentsexperimentedwithvarioushands-ontechniquesincludilngfire-buildingsafetyandwhatshouldbepackedintheiremergencysurvivalkits.Additionallystudentswereshownhowtobuildsheltersusingonlytheresourcessurroundingthemdiggingtunnelsinthesnowandusedbalsamboughsasinsulationandroofing.Itsexcitingtoseesomanyofourtribalyouthgettingoutsidereconnectingwiththeirtraditionsrespectingthosewhocamebeforethemandmostofallhavingfun.Icanseethediscoveryintheirspirits.Theyareleadersandtheyarecare-takersoftheEarth.WeGLIFWCareheretofostertheirabilitiesandsup-portthemstatedNaigus.Thestaffandthestudentsreallyenjoyedthecampandarealreadypre-paringforoursummercampprogramOnji-Akiing.MyfavoritepartofcampwasprobablymakingtheshelterssaidConnorBeaulieuLacCourteOreillesmember.ThisisthebestcampIvebeento.GLIFWCssummercamppro-gramONJI-AKIINGJuly22-26isacceptingapplicationsatthistimeseearticlebelow.FormoreinformationonthiscampandGLIFWCsyouthpro-gramspleasecontactOutreachOfficerHeatherNaigusathnaigusglifwc.orgor906458-3778.IshpaagoonikaaDeepSnowCampByHollyBerkstresserGLIFWCWardenGLIFWCisexcitedtoannounceour2013culturalsummercampprogramCampOnji-Akiingforgrades5-8AcollaborativeeffortbetweenGLIFWCandtheUSForestServiceOnji-AkiingFromtheEarthisaculturaloutdooradventure-basedcampthatfocusesonnaturalresourcecareerexplorationandtreatyrights.Thiscampisheldatbeau-tifulCampNesbitnestledintheheartoftheOttawaNationalForestinSidnawMichiganalsohometothecallingloonsofLakeNesbit.Leadershipandservicelearningactivitiesareimportantaspectsofthisprogram.Activitiesalsofocusongroupcooperationandcommunicationproblem-solvingself-confidenceleadershipphysicalexercisespiritualgrowthsocialskillsaswellasrespectandresponsibilitytoselfandcommunity.Hands-onactivitiesincludeagroupobstaclecoursehighropescoursesweatlodgefishingarcheryswimmingcanoeingculturalexplorationandcooperativegames.CenteredontheMedicineWheelthiscampexploresNativeAmericantra-ditionalwaysandtraditionalecologicalknowledgebutalsolearningintheareasofforestrybiologyandbotany.YouthwillworkwithstafffromGLIFWCandtheUSFS.Transportationinspecificareaswillbeprovided.Thiscampisfreeofcost.ApplicationdeadlineisJune212013.RegistrationFormLakeNesbitEnvironmentalCenterSidnawMichiganJuly22-262013ParticipantName________________________________________________Address________________________________________________________City__________________________State____________Zip____________Email__________________________________________Grade______________Age____________TribeAffiliation________________________________ifnoneleaveblankPhone________________________Pleaseattachanothersheetofpaperwithashortessayatleast100wordsonwhyyouwanttoattendCampOnji-Akiing.Includeanyspecialachieve-mentsandhowthiscampmighthelpyouinschoolyourcommunityandwithanylifegoals.Attachoneletterofrecommendationfromanadultnotrelatedtoyouaboutwhytheythinkyoushouldattendthecampandhowyouwillbenefitfromit.Studentsareacceptedonthebasisoftheiressaysrecommendationsandspaceavailability.Intheeventyouareacceptedyouwillbeexpectedtosignastatementsayingthatyouwillparticipatefullyinallactivitiesandparentsguardianswillhavetocompleteandsignhealthformsandpermissionsforallcampactivities.ForquestionsorconcernspleasecontactHeatherNaigusFredMaulson906-458-3778715-682-6619ext.113hnaigusglifwc.orgfmaulsonglifwc.orgMailapplicationessayandletterofrecommendationtoGLIFWCAttnCampRegistrationsPOBox9OdanahWI54861DeadlineforacceptingapplicationsisJune212013CampOnji-AkiingJuly22-262013GLIFWCConservationOfcerVernStonetagsabobcatgidagaa-bizhiwtrappedintheChequamegon-NicoletNationalForestbyYvetteButtery.Bob-catlikeotterrequireaCITEStagiftakenforcommercialsale.ForButteryaRedCliffmemberandbeginningtrapperitwasherrstbobcat.Onthecommercialmarketbobcatpeltsbringfrom60toover300dependingonsizequalityandhandling.Thewildfelinepopulationremainshealthyinthecededterritories.PhotobyCharlieOttoRasmussenLearningwinterwildernesssurvivaltechniquesparticipantsinGLIFWCsIshpaagoonikaaDeepSnowCamptriedtheirhandsatavarietyofskillsincludingshingthroughtheicewithtip-upsandspears.Besidesacquiringfoodstudentslearnedaboutre-buildingandmakingshelters.Lessonsinsnowsciencewerealsoincorporatedalongwithinformationontrappingandfuridentication.PhotobyHeatherNaigus MAZINAIGANPAGE22SPRINGSUMMER2013ENFORCEMENTOdanahWis.TheGLIFWCEnforcementDivisionwelcomestwonewofficerstotheEasternDistrictaregionthatincludesthenorthernportionofLowerMichiganallofUpperMichiganandnortheastWisconsin.ReubenBigjohnYouwouldntguessitfromalookathisresumebutReubenBigjohnrecentlyseizedavacantconservationwardenpo-sition.ANavyveteranwithclosefamilyrelationsatbothMoleLakeandLacduFlambeaucommunitiesBigjohniscom-pletinga540-hourofficertrainingcoursealongsideStateofWisconsinrecruitsatFortMcCoy.HesslatedtospendaboutoneyearworkingalongsideexperiencedGLIFWCwardensbeforeanassignmenttohisowndutyterritory.BigjohnshometownWestSalemisntfaratallfromFortMcCoytrainingfacilitiesinsouthwestWisconsin.Fromturn-of-the-centuryWestSalemBigjohnjoinedtheServicespecializinginnavalelectronicsatpostsinHawaii.OncebackinWisconsinheenrolledatViterboCollegeearningaBachelorofScienceinEnglish.AtnearbyUniversityofWisconsin-LaCrosseBigjohntackedanotherfour-yeardegreeontohisportfoliothisoneinmath.MorerecentlyadrivetoenterlawenforcementhadBigjohnscoutingvariousjurisdictionsinclud-ingcededterritoryworkwithGLIFWC.ItsawaytoconnectwithsomeofthetraditionalwaysIwasexposedtogrowingupBigjohnsaid.Fromthelate1980sintothe90sBigjohnandhissiblingsmadethefour-hourtripnorthtoLacduFlambeautovisitfamilyandspearwalleyeinthespring.HesaidhisgrandfatherDennisAckleywhosefirstlanguagewasOjibwemowinhadapositiveimpactonhim.Iwanttohelpmakesurenaturalresourcesarehereforfuturegenerationshesaid.GLIFWCenforcementrecruitsincludeBayMillsFlambeaumembersByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffwriterTerryCarrickAfamiliarfaceatBayMillsIndianCommunityhasanewbadgeanduni-form.BayMillsmemberTerryCarrickbrings30yearsoflawenforcementex-periencetohislatewinterappointmentasanEasternRegionGLIFWCwarden.MostrecentlyaconservationenforcementofficerfortheBayMillsBandCarrickwillpatrolalargearealocatedprimarilyinthe1836TreatyCededTerritory.IfeellikeIhavebeenapartofGLIFWCthroughmostofmycareersaidCarrickaformerdelegateonGLIFWCsBoardofCommissionersandtheLakesCommittee.NowIhavetheopportunitytoexperiencefirsthandwhatthestaffherearecommendedfor.Sincethemid-1990sCarrickhasservedasaninstructorforanumberofcoursesincludingMichiganhuntersafetyandenforcementfirearmstraining.DuringformaldiscussionswithMichiganofficialsconcerningtheexerciseofreservedrightsCarrickwasamemberofthetribalnegotiationteamsthathelpedsecurethe2000and2007ConsentDecrees.DuringofficertrainingatFt.McCoythisspringCarrickacquiredadditionaltraininginfirearmsandDAATDefensiveArrestAndTactics.IwouldliketothanktheBayMillsIndianCommunityforallowingmetodowhatIlovedtodofor32years.ItwasablastandIamsurethisnextstepinmylifeisgoingtobethesameCarricksaid.2013GLIFWCenforcementyouthactivitieseducationForupdatedinformationontheseeventsandotherspleasebesuretocheckourwebsiteatwww.glifwc.orgorvisitusonFacebook.ClipSaveClassDatePlaceContactATVJune6-8BadRiverVernStone715.292.8862BoaterSafetyJune10-12LacduFlambeauJonasMoermond715.562.0026RileyBrooks715.562.0300ATVSnowmobileJune17-19LacduFlambeauJonasMoermond715.562.0026RileyBrooks715.562.0300ATVSnowmobileJune1821-22RedCliffMikeSoulier715.209.0093JimStone715.292.3234BoaterSafetyJuly18-20BadRiverVernStone715.292.8862HunterSafetyJuly20-21LacVieuxDesertMattKniskern715.292.5320ATVSnowmobileAugust3-4MoleLakeRogerMcGeshick715.889.3200AdamMcGeshick715.209.7217HunterEducationAug.1219-20LacduFlambeauJonasMoermond715.562.0026RileyBrooks715.562.0300HunterEducationAug.1824-25MoleLakeRogerMcGeshick715.889.3200AdamMcGeshick715.209.7217TakeakidfishingAug.19MilleLacsRobinArunagiri715.889.0734HunterSafetyAug.17-18LacCourteOreillesMikePopovich715.292.7535LaurenTuori715.292.8343HunterSafetyAug.24-25St.CroixBradKacizak715.562.0030HunterSafetyAug.2730-31RedCliffMikeSoulier715.209.0093JimStone715.292.3234HunterSafetySeptember6-7MilleLacsRobinArunagiri715.889.0734HunterSafetySept.12-15KeweenawBayStevenAmsler715.562.0034MattKniskern715.292.5320HunterSafetySept.24-28BadRiverVernStone715.292.8862TrapperEd.October19-20MoleLakeRogerMcGeshick715.889.3200AdamMcGeshick715.209.7217ATVSafetyOctober25-26MilleLacsRobinArunagiri715.889.0734ATVSnow.December7-8St.CroixBradKacizak715.562.0030SnowmobileDec.19-20MilleLacsRobinArunagiri715.889.0734RhinelanderWis.OverthelastthreeyearstheChequamegon-NicoletNationalForestCNNFincooperationwithinteragencyenforcementagencieshaseradicatednumerousmarijuanagrowsthatwerecultivatedbylargeDrugTraf-fickingOrganizationsDTO.ThesegrowsiteswerelocatedontheNicoletlandbase20102012andtheChequamegonlandbase2011allwerefirstreportedbyhuntersandfishermen.Theillegalactivityofgrowingandharvestingmarijuanaonpubliclandsisexpectedtocontinue.ThesafetyofthepublicandemployeesisthetoppriorityfortheU.SForestService.TheCNNFandotherpubliclandsarebeingusedfortheseillegaloperationsastheyareoftenvastuninhabitedacresthegrowersfindhavetherightconditionsfortheirillegaloperations.Typicallyplantingoccursinthespringandtheplantsareharvestedinlatesummer.EvenwiththelatesnowmeltinmuchofNorthernWisconsinactivitymayalreadybeoccurringwiththeseillegalgrows.TheseDTOmarijuanagrowersaredangerousandareknowntocarryfirearmsTheCNNFasksthatvisitorsbeawareoftheirsurroundingsandknowwhattodotoremainsafe.Althoughitisunlikelyyouwillcomeacrossoneofthesesitesknowinghowtorecognizethemisvital.IndicatorsofillegalmarijuanagrowsitesincludeIsolatedtentsintheforestwherenootherrecreationalactivityispresentGardentoolsbagsoffertilizerandlargeamountsofgarbageSignsofcultivationsoildisturbancesmanyholesinunlikelyareas1to2acreorsmallerclearedareaswithstumpsuptoapproximately3feettallIfyouencounterasiteorunusualcircumstancesyoushouldtaketheseac-tionsimmediatelyLeavetheareaasquicklyandquietlyaspossibleDoyourbesttoknowyourlocationbyuseoflandmarksorwaypointsNotifyGLIFWCwardensorotherlocallawenforcementauthorities.IfonNationalForestlandsyoucanalsonotifythelocalRangerDistrictOffice.Authoritieswillcontinuetoworktogethertodecreasethisunlawfulanddamagingactivity.YourassistanceisimportanttohelpstopmarijuanagrowinginyourNationalForest.ForestServicewarnsofillegalgrowsitesAsksforcautionreportsofsuspiciousactivity PAGE23MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2013GLIFWCNEWSWiththeexpansionofmininginthecededterritoriesGLIFWCbroughtonDawnWhiteLacCourteOreillesLCOtribalmemberasaminingspecialistinJanuary2013.Hertasksinvolvetrackingminingexplorationanddrillinginthecededterritoriesaswellasreviewingandpreparingcommentsonthoseapplicationstostateandfederalagencies.ThisinvolvessitevisitsgeographicinformationsystemGISmappingskillsanddiscoveryoftribaluseinareaspotentiallyimpactedbyminingactivities.WhitereturnedtoherhomeregionfromMontanawhereshewasrecentlyemployedasthewaterqualitycoordinatorfortheCleanWaterAct106ProgramwiththeChippewaCreeTribesRockyBoysReservationforoverayear.PriortothatsheworkedasaNaturalResourceSpecialistandGISInstructorLabManagerfortheLCOOjibweCommunityCollegeconductingresearchinnaturalresourcesmentoringstudentsintheirresearchandinstructingGISmappingandGPS.ShealsowasemployedthreeyearsinsouthwestOregonasabotanistfortheBureauofLandManagement.WhiteholdsaMasterofSciencedegreefromtheUniversityofMontanaMissoulawithamajorinplantbiologyandecologywithanemphasisonconser-vation.SheearnedherBachelorofSciencedegreefromtheUniversityofGreatFallswithamajorinbiology.Whitehasagreataffinityandappreciationfortheoutdoorsandhasparticu-larlyenjoyedworkingwithGISmappingthroughouthercareer.ConcernfortheconservationandprotectionofnaturalresourceswasonedrawthatbroughthertothepositionwithGLIFWCasaminingspecialist.Anotherincentivewastheopportunitytojoinateamthatsheviewshasbeeneffectiveinconservationandresourcemanagement.Althoughsheenjoysfosteringaspecialrelationshipwithmanyofnaturesgiftsnibiwaterstandsoutasacriticalresourceandonewithwhichshemain-tainsauniquerelationship.WhitehastwodaughtersSierra21currentlyresidinginMontanaandCheyene15livinginHayward.MiningspecialisttracksminingdevelopmentsincededterritoriesBySueEricksonStaffWriterRedCliffWis.In2013Commissionemployeesarereachingthe30-yearmilestoneforthefirsttime.JimZornGLIFWCExecutiveAdministratorrec-ognizedadozenCommissionemployeesfortheirworkonbehalfoftribesandtreatyrightsduringtheFebruary13AllStaffmeeting.HeadingthelistLynnPlucinskihiredbythethenGreatLakesIndianFisheriesCommissionin1983andNeilKmiecikfirsthiredbytheVoigtIntertribalTaskForcein1983.LessthanayearafteritscreationtheTaskForcemergedwiththeGreatLakesIndianFisheriesCommissiontoformGLIFWCinearly1984.ExperienceondisplayatGLIFWCstaffmeetingMarking25yearsatGLIFWCJimSt.ArnoldLeanneThannumandVernStonewithPendletonblanketspresentedbyExecutiveAdministratorZorn.CORLynnPlucinskiwasfrsthiredbytheGreatLakesIndianFisheriesCommissionin1983.NeilKmiecikwashiredbytheVoigtIntertribalTaskForcein1983followingtheVoigtDecision.LynnandNeilreceivedastandingovationandagiftfor30yearsofservicetoGLIFWCmembertribes.CORFisherieswildlifelawenforcementandOjibwemowinoutreachareallrep-resentedinthisgrouprecognizedforyearsemployedattheCommission.FromleftBillMattes20WesleyBallinger5MicahCain5JimStone10andRogerMcGeshick15.MissingfromthephotoAnnMcCammonSoltis20andEstebanChiriboga15.PhotobyCharlieOttoRasmussenLynnandNeilepitomizededicationandcommitmenttoqualityworksaidZorn.TheyareexemplaryprofessionalsandrespectedcolleagueswhoserveGLIFWCanditsmembertribeswell.Iamhonoredtobeoneoftheirco-workers.LynnisassistantdirectorofPublicInformationresponsiblefordevelopmentanddisseminationoftreatyinformationandbudgetmanagement.Neilafisher-iesbiologistisDirectorofBiologicalServiceswhichincludesInlandFisheriesGreatLakesFisheriesWildlifeandEnvironmentalsections.ZornannouncedawardstoallGLIFWCstaffcelebratinganniversariesbasedonfive-yearincrements.CORContinuedfrompage18InthequesttofindhealingafterthelossofhistwosonsDarrylandDannyhecontinuedintheMiteiwinandotherAnishinaabeceremoniesandembracedtheLakotaSundancebecomingapowerfulteacherandmentortomanyinthesetradi-tions.AspartofhislifejourneyTobasonakwutibanstroveformeaningfulactionandcarriedouttraditionalAnishinaabeceremoniesinthenameofreconciliationwithemphasisontheresidentialschoolexperience.ThisincludedgivingPopeBenedictXVIaneaglefeatherin2009adoptingtheArchbishopofWinnipegJamesWeisgerberashisbrotherin2012andsharingtheAnishinaabeworldviewwithallpeoplesNativeandnon-Native.Tobasonakwutibanwasaprofoundthinker.HeconnectedwesternintellectualtraditionsandscientificinquirywithAnishaabephilosophyandcosmology.ItwashislifesworktosharethedepthandbeautyofAnishinaabewisdomwiththeworld.HewasafoundingmemberoftheNa-tiveAmericanScienceAcademy.Hewasabelovedsonbrotherhusbandfathergrandfatherandgreat-grandfather.HejoinshismotherfathersonsDarrylandDannytwinBineshiiandbrothersEdwinandJohn.HeissurvivedbyhiswifeKathibrotherFredsisterNancychildrenPatHermanDianeWabanakwutShawonKiwetinashiikJesseNenaaikiizhikokgrandchildrenDevonDerekMelissaJenniferDanielWendyJasonMatthewLisaPeshanakwutMikeDominikOshkiianangBezhigomiigwaanandnumerousgreat-grandchildrenandadoptedrelatives.AspublishedintheWinnipegFreePressonDecember272012TobasonakwutKinew SusanErickson..............................EditorLynnPlucinski..............................AssistantEditorCharlieOttoRasmussen................WriterPhotographerMAZINAIGANTalkingPaperisapublicationoftheGreatLakesIndianFishWildlifeCommissionwhichrepresentselevenOjibwetribesinMichiganMinnesotaandWisconsin.SubscriptionstothepaperarefreetoUnitedStatesandCanadianresidents.Subscribeonlineatwww.glifwc.orgwriteMAZINAIGANP.O.Box9OdanahWI54861phone715682-6619ore-mailpioglifwc.org.Ifyouhavemovedorareplanningtomovepleasekeepusinformedsowecankeepourmailinglistcurrent.Ifyouplantobeawayforanextendedperiodoftimepleaseletusknowsowecansuspendyoursubscriptionuntilyoureturn.AlthoughMAZINAIGANenjoyshearingfromitsreadershipthereisnoLetterstotheEditorsectioninthepaperandopinionstobepublishedinthepaperarenotsolicited.Queriesastopotentialarticlesrelatingtooff-reservationtreatyrightsandorresourcemanagementorOjibweculturalinformationcanbedirectedtotheeditorattheaddressgivenabove.FormoreinformationseeGLIFWCswebsitewww.glifwc.organdourFacebookpage.MAZINAIGANSTAFFPronouncedMuhzinahigunNONPROFITORGPOSTAGEPAIDPERMIT203EAUCLAIREWIPrintedbyEAUCLAIREPRESSCOMPANYEAUCLAIREWI54701RETURNADDRESSGLIFWCP.O.BOX9ODANAHWI54861OjibweCededTerritoriesandMemberTribesofGLIFWCTreatyCededAreas1836183718421854CHANGESERVICEREQUESTEDZiigwanNiibin2013SpecialsectiononAct31