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PAGE13MAZINAIGANClimatechangethreatensthesoulofWisconsintribesByGregoryHitchNicholasHunterForMazinaiganatechangeerritoriesdoesnotreflectsomeregionaldifferencesintheeffectsthroughoutthecededter-ritory.ThewesternhalfoftheWisconsincededterritoryhaswarmedmorethantheeasternhalf.PrecipitationhasalsochangedwithageneraltrendtowardsdryconditionsalongLakeSuperior.Thedataindicatesthatclimatechangeeffectswillbecomemorepronouncedoverthenext50years.Thereisa95probabilitythata4to6degreeaveragetemperatureincreasewilloccurinthenext50years.Themostpronouncedeffectsarepredictedtooccurduringthewinterseasonwhereanincreaseintemperaturesof6to8degreesisforecast.Summertemperaturesarepredictedtoincreaseby4to6degrees.Changesinprecipitationarealsoexpectedwithageneraltrendtowardsdriersummersanddecreasedsnowinwinter.ThesenumbersvarydependingonthescenariosusedtoestimatetheamountofCO2intheatmospherebutitisclearthatsomechangeshavealreadyoccurredandmoresignificantchangeswilloccurWICCI2011.Aninteractivewebpagewww.wicci.wisc.eduisavailablewhereonecanviewthedifferentscenariosandthepredictedeffectsduringdifferentseasons.Asmentionedearlierinthisarticleextremetemperatureandprecipitationeventsareexpectedtobecomemorecommon.InadditiontomanyotherclimatechangeinitiativesGLIFWCstaffarecurrentlyworkingonaprojectthatwillcharacterizewhattheexpectedchangesintemperatureandprecipitationmeanformanyoftheresourcesthattribesharvestwiththehopethatthiswillprovidemanagersatGLIFWCandtribalnaturalresourcesagencieswithatoolthatcanbeusedtopreparetribesforfutureclimates.MoredetailsontheotherprojectsGLIFWCisundertakingareprovidedbelow.GLIFWCworkonNationalandBinationalclimatechangeinitiativesGLIFWCstaffwasactiveintheproductionoftheNationalFishWildlifeandPlantsClimateAdaptationStrategyanationalgovernment-widestrategymeanttocoordinatefederalstatetribalandlocalactivitiesaddressingtheexpectedclimateimpactsonfishwildlifeandplants.TheStrategywaspubliclyreleasedlastyearandGLIFWCstaffhassincebeenworkingaspartoftheStrategysImplementa-tionWorkingGrouptodevelopaplantoimplementtheStrategy.ThegoaloftheimplementationplanistoencouragetheStrategytobeincorporatedintoasmanyclimatechangeplansandactionsaspossiblethoseoffederalstateandtribalgovernmentsaswellasanyotherentitydevelopingaplan.GLIFWCstaffhasbeenassistingthechairwomanofoneofitsmembertribesChairwomanKarenDiveroftheFondduLacBandofMinnesotainherroleontheWhiteHousesStateLocalandTribalLeadersTaskForceonClimatePreparednessandResilience.TheTaskForcewascreatedtoproviderecommenda-tionstothePresidentonhowthefederalgovernmentcanhelptriballocalandstategovernmentsprepareforandrecoverfromtheeffectsofclimatechange.GLIFWCstaffhasalsobeenactiveinaddressingclimatechangeintheimple-mentationofthenewGreatLakesWaterQualityAgreementGLWQAbetweentheUnitedStatesandCanada.TheGLWQAestablishedaGreatLakesExecutiveCommitteeGLECtohelpimplementcoordinateandreviewprogramsandactivitiesthatareundertakenpursuanttotheAgreement.TheGLECismadeupofrepresentativesfromthetwofederalgovernmentsstateprovincialtribalandAculturallyimportantresourcemanoominwildricecouldbeimpactednegativelybyclimatechange.PhotobyCORasmussenOdanahWis.ForthousandsofyearsindigenouspeopleinWisconsinhuntedfishedandgatheredforsubsistenceandtrade.TheseactivitiesinpartdefineWisconsintribalculturesincludingtheLakeSuperiorOjibwe.Howeverscientificandobservableevidenceindicateshuman-inducedclimatechangeisuponusandistearingattheculturalandecologicalfabricthatknitsOjibwecommunitiestogether.ManoominorwildriceiscitedintheOjibweoriginstoryandiscentraltotheirspiritualitybutmaybethreatenedbyclimatechange.ForourEnvironmentalStudiesCapstoneCourseattheUniversityofWisconsin-MadisonwetraveledtotheBadRiverOjibwereservationandmetwithtribaleldersHilaryButlerandJohnDenomietobetterunderstandthehumanandculturalimpactsofclimatechange.TheBadRivercommunityisexperiencingthefrontlineofclimatechangeimpactsifthisisnotaddressedtheircultureeconomyandidentitycouldbeirrevocablyaltered.Fishingandgatheringtranscendsimplesubsis-tencepractices.Theyarespiritualaswellaseconomicbringingthecommunitytogetherthroughstoriesandthesharingofecologicalknowledge.Howeveraccord-ingtotheLakeSuperiorClimateChangeImpactsandAdaptationReportmoreintenserainfalleventswilltriggerincreasedrunoffpollutionmakingwaterlesssuitableforwildricehabitat.Thisrunoffalsofacilitatestheintroductionofinvasivespeciesandincreasessilt-ationthreateningtheKakagon-BadRiverSloughsaRamsarWetlandofInternationalImportance.Extremechangesinwaterlevelsduetodroughtandfloodinghavealreadyoccurredonthereservationandareprojectedtointensify.ButleralongtimewildriceharvesterspokeofthefirsttimetheKakagonSloughswereclosedIn2012wehadbigstormsthatuprootedtheplantsbeforetheyhadestablishedthemselvesTherejustwasntanyriceoutthereforpeopletohar-vestImsurethathadtodowithclimatechange.ElderssuchasButlerhaveTraditionalEcologicalKnowledgeTEKfromexperiencespanningdecadesandgenerations.TEKiscrucialtounderstandingtheprofoundchangesoccurringandwillhelpguidefuturerestorationprojects.LakeSuperiorcoastalsloughsarealsothreatenedbydroughtThefirstyeartheyclosedKakagonSloughthewaterlevelswerewaydownButlertoldusyoucouldwalkonthemuckwhereusuallytherewasopenwater.Furthermorewarmerwatertempera-turesininlandlakescanimpactwildrice.FinallytheecologicalresourcestheOjibwereliedonforcenturiesaresimplynolongerdependable.AsDenomiealsoalongtimewildriceharvestersharedOneyearitmightbeexcellentplentyofriceforeverybody.ThefollowingyearitcouldbeabadseasonbecauseofwaterfluctuationsclimatetemperatureespeciallyinnorthernWisconsin.Human-inducedclimatechangeisuponusandwillbefeltbyallbuttheBadRiverOjibwearealreadyfeelingtheimpacts.Thisisanissueofenvironmentaljusticeasclimatechangeisfallinghardestuponthoseleastculpableforpollutingtheatmosphere.TheBadRiverOjibwehaveresistedindustrializationontheirreservationtopreservelandwaterandwildlifehabitat.Neverthelesstheirculturalidentityandeconomicliveli-hoodisatriskduetopollutionfromtheindustrializedworld.Thisisjustanotherreasononamountinglistoftheabsolutenecessityforactiononclimatechange.EditorsnoteThisarticlewassubmittedaspartofaNelsonInstituteforEnvironmentalStudiescapstoneentitledWaterStewardshipandSovereigntyintheBadRiverOjibweCommunityinstructedbyJessieConaway.ProjectedChangeinWisconsinsannualaveragetemperatureFfrom1980to2055.SeeClimatechangeinitiativespage23CHANGE