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MAZINAIGANPAGE16SPRINGSUMMER2014TREATYRIGHTSSquaxinWash.Theygassedusclubbedusdraggedusbeatus.ThosewerehardtimessaidPuyallupelderRamonaBennettrecallingthebrutaltreat-mentoftribalfishermenandtheirfamiliesbystateenforcementofficersduringthetreatyfishingrightsstruggleofthe1960sand70s.Thestruggleledtothelandmark1974rulingbyfederalJudgeGeorgeBoldtinU.S.v.Washington.Boldtsrulingupheldthetreaty-reservedsalmonharvestrightofthetribesestablishingthemasco-managersoftheresourceandaffirmingthetribalrighttohalfoftheharvestablesalmonreturningtotheirhistoricfishingsites.TribesgatheredinearlyFebruarytocelebratethe40thanniversaryoftheBoldtdecisionwithadaylongsymposiumlookingatthepastpresentandfutureofU.S.v.Washingtonandtribaltreatyrights.ThiswasthesametimeasthepeacestrikesandthecivilrightsmovementBennettsaid.Therewasachangegoingonandwegottobepartofthatchange.TheFishWarofthe1960sand70swasactuallythesecondTreatyWarsaidMuckleshoottribalmemberGilbertKingGeorge.ResearchhasshownthatfamilieswhofoughtinthesecondTreatyWarareinmostcasesdirectdescendantsofthewarriorsthatfoughtinthefirstTreatyWarof1855to56.Wewonbothwarsnomatterwhattheytellyouinhistory.MuckleshootelderLeoLaClairrecalledhelpingtogetthewordoutaboutthetreatyfishingrightsstruggle.SeekingwitnessestotheviolencebeingshowntotreatytribalfishermenandtheirfamiliesheinvitedDr.EvansRobertsoftheAmericanFriendsServiceCommitteeandUniversityofWashingtonMedicalSchooltoattendaFish-InprotestontheNisquallyRiver.WhathesawwasaterribleviolentconfrontationLaClairsaid.Itwasahorrificscene.TheexperiencesparkedRobertstodraftUncommonControversythefirstbooktodetailthetreatyfishingrightsstruggle.AcompanionbookTrea-tiesonTrialsoonfollowed.TogetherthetwobooksprovideacomprehensivelookatthetreatyfishingrightsstruggleandtheBoldtdecision.AttheBoldt40celebrationIndianactivistHankAdamswhoorganizedmostoftheFishWarprotestssharedastoryaboutaconfrontationontheNisquallyRiverinvolvinghisgoodfriendNorthwestIndianFisheriesCommissionChairmanBillyFrankJr.Frankhadbeenfishingoff-reservationjustupriverfromhishomeatFranksLanding.Hewasreturningwithhiscatchwhenhesawafewdozenstatefishandgameenforcementofficersliningtheoppositebank.WhentheofficerslaunchedtwofastboatstointercepthimFrankgunnedhisskifftowardthelandingandyelledtoAdamsonshoreGetthegunGetthegunAdamsgrabbedtherifleandheadedtowardtheland-ingbutstoppedwhenhesawtheenforcementofficersanddivedforcoverbehindanabandonedcar.IusedmymilitarytrainingtousemyriflebutttobreakthefallbutwhenIhitthegroundthegunwentoffhesaid.ThenmyhandslippedfromtherifleandIcutitonabrokenbottle.AtthesoundoftheshotofficersonthetwoboatsdivedforcoverandbeganmotoringblindlydowntheriverrightpastFrank.AsFrankwasunloadinghiscatchthecountysheriffandahalf-dozendeputiesarrivedatthelandingwithlightsandsirens.UrgingcalmhenoticedAdamsbleedinghandandprovidedfirstaidthenleftwithhisdeputies.ThatdayBillywasabletohangontohisfishandhisnetsbutthatwasntusuallythecaseAdamssaid.ItwasthetestimonyofeldersduringtheU.S.v.Wash-ingtontrialthathelpedclinchBoldtsrulingsaidprofes-sorCharlesWilkinsonanIndianlawexpertwhoteachesattheUniversityofColorado.Mostspokeintheirownlanguages.JudgeBoldtrulingonthebasisofjusticeinitsmostluminousdimensionsacceptedtheelderstestimonyandtookitintoconsideration.Theelderstestimonybroughtthewholestorytogether.ThetruestandmostprofoundfactabouttheBoldtdecisionisthatitwasconceivedandaccomplishedbyIndianpeople.ThetranscendentmeaningoftheBoldtdecisionwastoupholdthetreatyrightsofNorthwesttribesbutitwasalsoanationalcaseaboutnationalobligationsandvalues.ThedecisionwasagifttoallofAmerica.ExcerptreprintedwithpermissionfromtheNorthwestIndianFisheriesCommission.Boldt40WisconsinOjibwetreatyactivistsLCOsMikeandFredTribblealongwithgaiashkibostraveledtoWashingtonstatelastFebruarytosalutetheeffortsofNisquallymemberBillyFrankJr.andothersduringthe40thanniversaryoftheBoldtdecisionafederalcourtrul-ingthataffirmedoff-reservationrightsfortreatytribesinwesternWashington.AuthoritiesarrestedFrankmorethan50timesinthe1960s-70sforexer-cisingreservedrightsoff-reservation.DuringthatperiodWashingtonstateofficialsimposednettingrestrictionsonPugetSoundtributariestolimitsalmonharvests.Frankandothertribalmembersintheregionignoredthestateruleslead-ingtoarrestsprotestsandsometimesviolentconfrontations.TheerabecameknownastheFishWarsandculminatedwiththe1974Boldtdecision.LessthanamonthafterBoldttheTribblebrotherswerearrestedforspear-ingwalleyejustoutsidetheLacCourteOreillesreservationinWisconsinlaunchinglitigationthatledtotheLCOv.WisconsinorLCOdecision.FortribesthatcedednorthernWisconsintotheUnitedStatesthroughtreatiesthe1983LCOdecisionpro-videdcourt-protectiontohuntharvestandfishoff-reservation.ThefollowingyeartreatytribesinWisconsinMinne-sotaandMichigancreatedGLIFWCtoimplementtreatyharvestsandmanagenaturalresourcesintheOjibwecededterritory.NorthwestIndianFisheriesCom-missionasisteragencytoGLIFWChostedtheBoldteventatSquaxinIslandonFebruary5.CORasmussenTreatyrightsiconsmeetatBoldtcelebrationLacCourteOreillesOjibwetreatyactivistsMikeandFredTribblerightandgiaiashkibosformerLCOchairmanfarlefttraveledtoWashingtonstatelastFebruarytocelebrateBoldt40andsalutetheeffortsofNisquallymemberBillyFrankJr.whowalkedonthreemonthsago.PhotobyDeborahL.PrestonItstartedbeforemeandbeforemyparentsbeforeallourmomsanddadsandgrandmasandgrandpas.Theyknewwhattheyhadtodo.Theylivedheretheynevermoved.Thisistheirhome.Thatsourfoodsalmonthatcomesuptheriver.BillyFrankJrNisquallytribalmemberTribesremembertreatystruggleaffirmationinWashingtonstateWhenHenryBuffaloJr.ayoungRedClifftribalattorneyembarkedonasearchfornativepeoplesuccessfullymanagingoff-reservationnatu-ralresourcesintheearly1980shefoundBillyFrankJr.andtheNorthwestIndianFisheriesCommissionNWIFC.BuffalowaslayingthegroundworkforwhatwouldultimatelybecometheGreatLakesIndianFishWildlifeCommissionGLIFWCandinFrankJr.foundamentorwhoopenedupaworldofpossibilitiesfortribesdevelopingtheinfrastructuretoexercisetreatyrights.FranklongtimeNWIFCChairmanandmemberoftheNisquallyTribewalkedonMay5atage83.FromBuffaloGLIFWCsfirstchair-mantocurrentchairMichaelJ.IshamFrankisrememberedasunselfishgraciousanddynamic.IndianCountryhaslostagreatleadersaidIshamGLIFWCBoardofCommissionersChair-man.Ihavelostagreatfriendandteacher.HisimpactpromotingIndiantreatyrightsisimmeasur-ableandthepositiveimpactforIndianNationswillbeeverlasting.AsisteragencytoNWIFCGLIFWCcel-ebratesthemanandthesubstanceofhismessage.ThroughouthisexceptionallifeBillyarticulatedthesymbioticrelationshipbetweenpeopleandtheirhomelandsacrossTurtleIsland.ConsiderFranksemblematicworldviewIdontbelieveinmagic.Ibelieveinthesunandthestarsthewaterthetidesthefloodstheowlsthehawksflyingtheriverrunningthewindtalking.Theyremeasurements.Theytellushowhealthythingsare.Howhealthyweare.Becauseweandtheyarethesame.ThatswhatIbelievein.Frankchampionedco-managementofnaturalresourcesbuildingbridgesbetweenindividualsandgoverningagenciesforthebettermentofeco-systemsandallthecherishedresourcescontainedwithin.Intheearlyyearsofathree-decadeNWIFCchairmanshiphebroughtthatmessagetotheOjibwetreatytribesoftheGreatLakesinthe1980s.BillygavepeopleavisionofwhatcouldhappenandthevalueofworkingtogethersaidGeorgeMeyercurrentExecutiveDirectoroftheWisconsinWildlifeFederation.AsformerattorneyandleadnegotiatorfortheWisconsinDepartmentofNaturalResourcesMeyerandadelegationoftriballeadersandstatelegislatorstraveledtowesternWashingtoninSeptember1988toseeco-managementinaction.ItwasachanceforustospendtimetogetherinarelaxedsettinganddiscusstheresourcesMeyersaid.Weknewitallcamedowntotheresourcesaboutfishandhabitatandwildlife.ThatlegacylivesontodaybothinthePacificNorthwestandupperGreatLakesregions.SaidGLIFWCExecutiveAdministratorJamesZornBillyhelpedfostermodernmanagementstructuresthatallowforanunprecedentedhighlyvaluableunderstandingofsharednaturalresources.Forthatwecanallbegratefulandcelebratehislifeswork.CORasmussenWalkingonCo-managementvisionaryBillyFrankJr.leftmarkinOjibweCountry