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PAGE5MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2014FISHERIESStampsandsmovetowardsBuffaloReefspawningbedsArmyCorpsproposesstonewalltointerveneFigure1.Distributionofon-shorestampsandinGrandTraverseBay.Thedottedlinerepresentsthedistributionofstampsandduring1938.ByBenMichaelsGLIFWCFisheriesBiologistGayMich.ItwasatribalcommercialfishermanwhofirstnoticedthatstampsandwasencroachinguponBuffaloReefanimportantspawningsiteforlakewhitefishandlaketroutalongtheKeweenawPeninsulasGrandTraverseBayknownlocallyasBigTraverseBay.WhenthefishermanexpressedhisconcerntoGLIFWCfisheriesstaffinvestigatedthesituationanddiscoveredapotentialthreattoimportantspawninghabitat.Stampsandsaretheby-productofarefiningprocesswhichinvolvesalargemachinethatpulverizeslargerocksintosmallerparts.Theprocessfacilitatestheextractionofmetalssuchascopperhoweverproduceslargequantitiesofextrane-ousmaterialakastampsand.Stampsandsareknowntocontainhighconcentra-tionsofmetalssuchasmercuryandcopperthesemetalscannegativelyaffectaquaticandterrestrialorganisms.Alsohabitatdegradationcanbecausedbytheencroachmentofstampsandintosmallcreviceswithinnaturalbottomsubstrates.TheKeweenawPeninsulawhichispartofthe1842CededTerritoryisaregionsubjecttoscoresofcopperminingoperationsthroughoutmininghistory.Manyofthecoppermineswereoperatedfromthemid-1800sto1968.By19684.8millionmetrictonsMtofcopperwassmeltedfromareasaroundtheKeweenawPeninsula.Unfortunately360Mtofstampsandweredepositedintoriversandlakesincluding64MtintoLakeSuperior.By1938anestimatedtotalof22.4MtofstampsandwasdepositedintoapileofftheshoreinGrandTraverseBay.SincethenstampsandhasbeenerodingfromthispileandspreadingsouthwestalongtheKeweenawshorelineFigure1.In2005GLIFWCconductedanexpandedgillnetsurveyonBuffaloReeftodeterminewhichareasofthereefcontainedimportantspawninghabitatforlakewhitefishandlaketrout.AdditionallyGLIFWCcontractedEnvironmentCanadatoconductsonarsamplinginordertodeterminethedistributionofstampsandwithinBuffaloReef.TheresultsofthesurveyrevealedthattheentireareaofBuffaloReefwasanimportantspawningareaforlakewhitefishandlaketrout.Alsothesonarsurveyshowedthatstampsandswereindeedmovingincloseproximitytoimportantspawninghabitatwithinthereefposingahabitatriskforspawningfish.InadditiontotheexpandedgillnetsurveyonBuffaloReefGLIFWChasconductedbeachseiningonareasofstampsandandnativesandontheshorelineareaofGrandTraverseBaytodeterminewhetheranyfishspecieswerethrivingonstampsandsubstrate.During20082011and2013severalspecieswerefoundinsamplestakenonnativesandhowevernofishwerefoundinsamplestakenonstampsandduringthesameyearsFigure2.Theabsenceoffishonthestampsandbeachessuggeststhereisinsufficienthabitatandorfoodforthesurvivalofsmallfishwhichareanimportantdietitemforlargerpredatorssuchaslaketrout.TheresultsfromGLIFWCsexpandedgillnetsurveyandbeachseinesurveyshowthatBuffaloReefissusceptibletohabitatlossviastampsandencroachmentandon-shorestampsandshavecreatedaninhospitableenvironmentforsmall-sizedfish.InresponsetothenegativeimpactsofstampsandtheArmyCorpofEngineersproposedconstructionofastonewallinGrandTraverseBaytheintentofthisprojectistopreventadditionalerosionanddispersalofthestampsandpilenearGay.OncethestampsandpileisstabilizedrestorationeffortswillbeundertakenbyremovingstampsandfromGrandTraverseBay.Afeasibilitystudyisunderwayfortheprojectandisexpectedtobecompletedbytheendof2014.MeanwhileGLIFWCwillcontinuetomonitorfishpopulationswithinandaroundBuffaloReef.Figure2.Catchpereffortnumber100fthaulofnativeshspeciesonnativesandandstampsand.Noshwereobservedinsamplestakenonstampsandsubstrate.Representativesfromthe1854AuthorityandtheCouncilofGreatLakesFisheryAgenciesCGLFAsignTheJointStrategicPlanforManagementofGreatLakesFisherieswhichrepresentsacollectivewillofthesherymanagementagenciestoprotectandwherenecessarytorehabilitatethesheriesoftheGreatLakes.The1854Authorityisthethirdinter-tribalandsixteenthgovernmentagencytosigntheagreementsinceitsinceptionin1981.PicturedaboveduringthesigningareSeatedDr.SethMooreGrandPortagewildlifebiologistMillardSonnyMyers1854AuthorityexecutivedirectorJimDexterCGLFAactingdirector.StandingTomSwaderGrandPortagetrustlandsadministratorE.J.IsaacGrandPortageshandwildlifebiologistChrisJohnson1854Authorityconservationofcer.PhotobyT.LawrenceGreatLakesFisheryCommissionMazinaigandigitalflipbookDoyoureceiveMazinaiganinthemailWouldyouratherreaditonlineYounowhavethisoption.Theonlineeditionisafull-colorflipbookthatcanbereadordownloadedtoaPDF.Flipbooksareenvironmentallyfriendlyandtheysavepostageandprintingcosts.IfyouchoosetheonlineeditionyouwillbenotifiedviaemailapproximatelyoneweekbeforetheMazinaiganismailedwhenitisavailableforviewing.TheemailwillcontainalinktoGLIFWCswebsitewhereyoucanviewtheflipbook.TosignuptoreceivetheMazinaiganeitherelectronicallyoramailedsubscriptiongotowww.glifwc.orgpublicationsmazinaiganMazinaigan.htmlandchooseeithernewsubscriptionorE-editionnotification.