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PAGE7MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2014SUGARBUSHINVASIVEPLANTSOdanahWis.Severalhundrednon-nativeterrestrialandwetlandplantsarenowestablishedwithintheOjibwecededter-ritories.Thesenon-nativeplantsvaryintheirpotentialtospreadanddegradenativeplantcommunities.Withlimitedresourcesavailabletomanageinvasiveplantsobjectivetoolsareneededtohelpidentifywhichspeciesposethegreatestthreatstonativeplantcommunitiesandaprocesstoprioritizeandtargetinvasiveplantmanagementefforts.Thegoaloftheinvasiveplantriskassessmenttotribalresourcesprojectwastoquantifytheriskofnon-nativeinvasiveplantstoculturallyimportantnativeplantswithinsixcontiguouscountiesofWisconsinandwesternUpperMichiganborderingLakeSuperior.Modelsweredevelopedbycorrelatingspeciesoccurrencedatawithenvironmentalvariablessuchassoiltex-turelandcoverannualprecipitationandtemperatureextremestopredictthedistributionforseveralnon-nativeandnativeplants.Theriskofanon-nativeplanttoanativeplantwasevaluatedbycombiningthemodelsinGIS.Theresultingmodelidentifieswherebothplantsaremostlikelytothriveandhencecompeteonthelandscape.ThestandardGISformatofthemodeloutputfacilitatestheoverlayofadditionalspatialdatarelevanttomanagement.Inthecaseofinvasivespeciesthesedataincludeintroductionpointse.g.portscampgroundstrailheadsvectorse.g.roadsriversutilitycorridorsknowninvasivespeciesoccurrencesandlandownership.GIScanbeusedtovisualizethisinformationanddiscernpatternsinintroductionandspreadthatcanbeusedtoplananappropriatemanagementresponse.Thegraphicrightillustratestherelativeriskthatleafyspurgemayposetolowbushblueberryacrosstheprojectarea.Thedarkredareasindicatewhereconditionsaremostsuitableforbothleafyspurgeandlowbushblueberry.Pastsurveysforinvasiveplantsaredisplayedinblack.Thewhitecircleshowswhereadditionalsurveysforleafyspurgemaybewarrantedbecauseitishighlysuitablehabitatandpastsurveysdidnotcoverthisarea.Thegreencircleidentifiessomerelativelysmallleafyspurgesitesinthemiddleofalargeareaofsuitablehabi-tat.Thesesitesshouldbeahighpriorityforcontrolbecausetheyaresmallandrelativelyeasytocontrolbutcouldspreadfarintheabsenceofanymanagement.GLIFWCprojectassessesriskofinvasiveplantstonativeplantsByMilesFalckGLIFWCWildlifeBiologistOntheBadRiverWis.NestledinthehardwoodriverbottomssouthofOdanahanoldiskigamizigansugarbushisnewagainwiththearrivaloffourtribalmembersandalotofgear.FromawindingwoodlandtrailofslushandsnowdownasteepgradetotheriverittakessomeefforttogettotheHighLandingcamp.Oncethereittakesnotimetosettlein.ItsniceoutheresaysDanWigginshigh-steppingthroughtheAprilsnowpackunderaskeletalcanopyofhardmaple.Totheleftacherry-chocolatethreadofmovingwaterseparatesthefrozenriverfromitsnorthbankabeaverlodgebulgesofftotherightemergingfromafrozenback-water.Easyaccessisnicetoo.Wevedonethat.WigginsVincentBenderandJeromePowlessallintheir30senteredtheirthirdsugarbushseasontogetherinsearchofproductivegroundsawayfromplowedroadsandfrequentedsites.TheyfoundagoodoneatthevenerableHighLandingandrecruitedDanPowlessJr.Jeromesyoungerbrothertohelp.Weeksbeforethefirstdropofsaplandedthecrewset-upcamputiliz-ingthedeepsnowtosled-inequipmentincludingaheftyevaporatorunit.Atthebaseofthehighbanktheyfashionedaplankofwoodenpalletsbridgingawateryrecesstoabentwoodfifteen-foothoophousethatprovidedstorageandshelter.ThefirstdaysofAprildeliveredthebestsapflowsatthesugarbushfollowedbyon-again-off-againactivitydependingontemperatures.Whentempsdipbelowthefreezingmarkatnightandrisebackuponsunnydayspressuredevelopsinsidethetreedrivingwiishkobaaboowmaplesapthroughthenarrowtaps.YouappreciatemaplesyrupalotmoreafteryouveputintheworkWigginssaysunhookingablueplasticbagfromunderametalspile.Thesmallheavy-dutybagcontainsafewpintsofsap.Wigginsemptiesitintoanearby30-galloncontaineroneofseveralthatserveasawaystationforcollectedsap.Morethan200bluebagssetatchestheightappearthroughoutthehardwoodsahandfuloftreesfeaturesapcollectionapparatusJeromePowlessjerry-riggedwithtubesPVCpipeandemptyCulligancontainers.Backatcampanglingsunlightcatchesthedensewhitesteambillowingfromtheevaporator.Acastironstoveboxbeneaththepandeliverswoodheatkeepingthesapatasteadysimmer.WigginsreturnstocontributemorewishkobaaboowtothesteelevaporatorpantheyoungerPowlessproducesawhitet-shirtwhichtheyemploytostrainstraybitsofdebrisfromthesapbeforeaddingtothethickeningliquid.EveryyearwemakeadjustmentslearnatrickortwotomakeitgomoresmoothlyWigginssaid.Thisisthefirstyearweveusedbags.Ilikethem.Metalbucketsrusttheydontlastunlessyouimmediatelycleanthemout.WigginshaschildrentotendtothateveningandworkinmorningheleavesPowlesstotendtotheevaporatorfeedingitsplitfirewoodwellintothenight.Thewholecrewrotatesinandoutonadailybasis.Mostdaysafterschooltheirkidsswarmthesugarbushtotingcontainersofsapbacktocamp.Onweekendsthemenboilsaparoundtheclocksharingstoriesandconsultingmobilephonesfornewsfrombackhome.SeeNortherniskigamiziganpage8TimelessrewardsinanorthernsugarbushByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffWriterDanPowlessJr.loadssplitrewoodintoamaplesapevaporatorneartheBadRiverinearlyApril.Ittypicallyrequires35-40gallonsofrenedmaplesaptomakeonegallonofsyrup.PhotobyCORBlueplasticcollectionbagshangfrommapletreesasDanWigginssurveystheHighLandingSugarbushalongtheBadRiver.PhotobyCharlieOttoRasmussenSeeInvasiveplantspage8