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PAGE1MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2014PreparingforclimatechangeathomeFDLsDiverleadstribalplanningonObamataskforceCloquetMinn.AsclimatechangeclawsforwarddegradingnaturalresourcesinthecededterritoryandelsewhereleadersacrosstheUnitedStatesareexploringwaystolessonthenegativeimpacts.AmongthoseattheforeisFondduLacChairwomanKarenDiveramemberofPresidentBarakObamasClimateAdvisoryTaskForce.WereworkingtohelptheObamaAdministrationbettertackleclimate-associatedproblemsincoordinationwithcommunitiessaidDiveroneofonlytwonativelead-erstappedbythePresidentfortheTaskForceonClimateChangeandResiliencewhichincludestwodozenstategovernorsmayorsandcountyofficials.Thebreadthoftheworkisdaunting.Itseverythingfrominfrastructuretohealthtotheenvironmenttoenergysystemsshesaid.AcrossTurtleIslandclimatechangeistriggeringsevereandmorefrequentfloodsdroughtandwildfirecostlyeventsthatstrainbothfinancialresourcesandtheenvironment.UnfortunatelyitstakensomeprettysevereweathereventstogetpeoplethinkingDiversaid.Climatescien-tistshavelong-warnedthatfossilfuelpollutionenhancesaglobalgreenhouseeffectwithwarmairbecomingtrappedintheatmosphere.Above-normalannualtemperaturesaremeltingglaciersatanalarmingpacealteringecosystemsandspurringsevereweatherevents.Inthe1837Treatycededterritoryaloneannualwintertemperaturesare4.5warmerthaninthemid-20thCenturyaccordingtotheWisconsinInitiativeonClimateChangeImpacts.Despitetherecentharshwinteraverageice-outonlakesisoccurringearlierdisruptingOjibwespringtimeharvestactivities.WevebeengoingfromwintertosummerinmostoftherecentyearsDiverexplained.Justafewyearsagoallwecouldgetfrommapletreeswasasmallamountofbittersap.Theninadramaticpendulumswingthe2013seasonproducedabannerharvestformapletappers.ThemovebyAdministrationofficialstoconnectwithlocalleaderswontproduceamagicfixforthechallengesaheadbutitisasignificantsteptowardpreparednessDiversaid.ItsaboutlayingoutwhatstepstheAdministrationcandohowdoyoumakecommunitiesmoreresilientinthelongtermPeoplewholiveinthesecommunitiesknowwhattheproblemsare.OntheFondduLacReservationforexampletribalofficialsarrangedfortheinstallationofabridgewhereaflashfloodhadrippedthroughaculvertwashingawaytheroad.StateguidelinescalledforreplacingtheculvertbutafterworkingthroughtheBureauofIndiansAffairscrewsconstructedabridgeatthesitetoaccommodatethefrequentheavyraineventswroughtbyclimatechange.Diversaidthecaseillustrateshowdifferentrulesanddif-ferentengineeringstandardswithingovernmentagenciescanencumbernecessaryimprovementstoinfrastructure.FondduLacLacduFlambeauandotherGLIFWCmemberbandsarealsoapplyingsustainablebuildingstandardstoon-reservationconstructionprojectsnewtribaladministrationbuildingsareenergyandwaterefficientandbuiltwithenvironmentallyfriendlymaterials.DiversaidtheseByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffWriterFondduLacChairwomanKarenDiverreleasesajuvenilesturgeonintotheSt.LouisRiverpartofatribalsheriesenhancementproject.PresidentObamaappointedDivertotheTaskForceonClimateChangeandResiliencein2013.PhotocourtesyofFDLSeeDiverleadstribalplanningpage18PublishedbytheGreatLakesIndianFishWildlifeCommissionSpringSummer2014SpearersencounterlateicehighwaterandogaaInashowofunitytoprotectcededterritorywaterandnaturalresourcesWisconsinOjibwebandseachdeclaredonewalleyefromGalileeLake.ThesmalllakesitsinshadowofthePenokeeRangewheredevelopersarepursuingconstructionofamassiveironmine.FollowingatwilightceremonyMay13DylanJenningspicturedgotthenodfromChairmanMikeWigginstoharvestawalleyeforBadRiver.PhotobyCharlieOttoRasmussenByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffWriterOdanahWis.Treatyspearfish-ersnavigatedhighwaterandicefloesduringasecondconsecutivelatespringharvestseason.InmanyregionsofthecededterritorytheharvestdippedbelowannualaveragesmostnotablyatLakeMilleLacswherefisheriesmanagersarenursingawalleyeogaapopulationthatisexperiencinghighmortalityinyoungfingerling-sizedfish.Tribalfisherswerechallengedbyhighwaterconditionsandashortspawningseasonduetothelateice-outsaidMarkLuehringGLIFWCinlandfisheriesbiologist.Byanymeasurebiboon2013-14wasabigone.Winterskiesdropped110inchesofsnownearLacCourteOreillesthehighesttotalsincerecord-keepingbeganin1896accordingtotheNationalWeatherServiceinDuluth.TheChequamegonBayareatallied133inchesofsnownearlytwicetheseasonalaverageof70inches.Spurredbyspringrainssnow-meltfromtheextraordinarywinterraisedwaterlevelsonmostlakesandmuddiedwaterclarityonstream-fedflowages.SpearersreporteddifficultywithvisibilityonreservoirsincludingtheTurtle-FlambeauFlowagewhichharnessesthreerivers.IntheWisconsincededterritoryspearfishingkicked-offtheeveningofApril24atafamiliarlocationCedarLakeneartheSt.CroixReservation.AlthoughtheseasongotunderwaylaterthanusualCedarmanagedtosheditsiceafullweekearlierthanlastspringslatenear-recordthaw.FishingpeakedinWisconsinwatersoverathree-daystretchMay9-11whenspearersboatednearlyone-thirdofthetotalharvestafterfinishingupthework-weektribalspearersfishedhardbringinginjustunder12000walleyeovertheweekend.Bythetimethespringseasonwrappedupcreelclerkstallied27527walleyeplus247muskies.NorthintotheMichiganinlandwatersLacVieuxDesertspearersregistered2409ogaaandninemuskies.Inthe1836cededterritoryBayMillsmembersfacedsimilarconditionswhentheicefinallybroke-up.HighfastSeeSpearerspage2 MAZINAIGANPAGE2SPRINGSUMMER2014SPEARINGNETTING2014OnthecoverThecoverimagedepictstheThreeSisterscornbeanandsquashasrenderedbyLacduFlambeausbiskakoneGregJohnson.TheThreeSistersreferstoatraditionalNativegardeningtechniquewherecornbeansandsquashareplantedinthesamemound.Thecornprovidesanaturalbeanpoleforthebeantoclimb.Thebeaninturnenrichesthesoilwithnitrogenandthesquashvinesprovidecovertostopemergingweeds.AquaticinvasivespeciesAIScanhavenegativeimpactstotreatyresourcesincludingspawningandfishhabitats.Rememberwhenoutonthewaterstotaketheprecautionstopreventtheirspread.WatchforinvasiveshitchingridesonplantfragmentsmudordebrisStopAquaticInvasivesREMOVEanymudordebrisplantsandanimalsfromyourboattrailerandandequipment.DRAINallwaterfromboatfishingboxesandequipmentensuringitdoesnotdrainbackintothewaterbody.CLEANorDRYboattrailerandallequipmentthatcameintocontactwithwaterincludingnetsbuoysanchorsropesandlinesetc.Submergeinboilingwater.Dryfor5daysorFreezeforatleast2daysNote1837TreatyConservationCodeforMinnesotaCededTerritoryhasadditionalrequirementsforinfestedwatersincludingMilleLacstodrynetsandequipmentforaminimumof10daysorfreezeforaminimumof2daysbeforeusinginnon-infestedwaters.GanawendanGinibiiminaanProtectOurWatersDontforgettocheckthesespotsforhitchhikers.GLIFWCWardenVernStonemonitorsthecreelattheWhiteshLakelandingDouglasCountyduringthe2014treatyspearshingseason.BenBaisleyGLIFWCcreelclerkmeasuresthecatchbroughtinbyBadRivershermen.PhotobyDylanJenningsGLIFWCinternConservationofcersfromGLIFWCandMinnesotaDepartmentofNaturalResourcesconductedinvasivespecieseducationaloutreachatMilleLacsboatlandingsduringthespringharvestseason.Fishermenlearnedhowtoproperlydecontaminateboathullsandxturestohelppreventthespreadofaquaticinvasivespecies.BiologistshaveidentiedspinywatereazebramusselsandEurasianwatermilfoilinMilleLacs.PhotobyRabindranArunagiriwaterlimitedspearingsuccessontheEscanabaRiverwheretreatyfisherstook15walleyesaidJustinCarrickBayMillsConservationDepartment.InLowerMichiganaBayMillsspearerfilledthebandsloneBlackLakesturgeontagtakinganimpressive73-inch108-poundfishonMay3.CatchreportsdetailadditionalactivityinWaishkeyBaywheresubsistencefishersfoundlimitednumbersofwalleyeandsmeltalongthereservationsLakeSuperiorshoreline.Tribesagainlargelychosespearingovergill-nettingatMilleLacsthisyeartargetingthelakesmoreabundant18-inch-pluswalleyestoconserveyoungeryear-classesofogaa.Accordingtopreliminaryresultsspear-harvestedogaaaver-aged21.2inches.Stateandtribalbiologistsareredoublingon-the-waterfisher-iesassessmentstounderstandwhydespitegoodspawninghatchessomanywalleyesfailtoreachcatchablesize.Withawalleyeharvestlimitsetatamodest17100poundsmanyregularMilleLacslakefishersstayedhome.Othersshiftedtheireffortstocatchingperchandotherspecies.Thewalleyeharvestquotaforstate-licensedanglersis42900.ItwasquieterthisyearsaidareaGLIFWCOfficerRobinArunigiri.Theentirescopeoftheharvestwentverysmoothly.Withthestatefishingopenerrunningconcurrentlywiththetribalspringhar-vestGLIFWCandMinnesotastatewardensjointlymonitoredboatlandingsandmaintainedclosecommunicationsArunigirisaid.GLIFWCwardensalsoworkedcloselywithfisheriesbiologistsandcreelteamsporingoverareal-timedatabasethathelpsensureeachtribestayswithintheirindividualquotas.MembersoftwoMinnesotaandsixWisconsinOjibwebandsfishMilleLacsunderthe1837Treaty.AtthecloseoftheseasonMilleLacsharvestnumberstotaled13451poundsofwalleyeand3716ofnorthernpike.TheFondduLacOjibwehadhopedtoconductlimitedwalleyefishingon1854TreatylakesincoordinationwiththeMinnesotaDepartmentofNaturalResourcesbutthelateice-outpromptedbandofficialstocancelthespear-onlyseason.10-year-oldKayledMartinLacCourteOreillesLCOdonated26shtoLCOeldersthisyearhisrstspearingseason.PhotobyMikePopovichSpearingdominatesMilleLacslakewalleyeharvestduringquietseasonContinuedfrompage1 PAGE3MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2014MNDNRtribesworktostopwalleyedeclineatMilleLacsINLANDFISHERIESGrowingconcernaboutthehealthoftheMilleLacswalleyepopulationpromptedtheMinnesota1837FisheriesCommitteetoadjustharveststrategiesforthebiglakein2014.Whilebiologistsremainuncertainabouttheunderlyingcausesofthewalleyedeclinetheyarepursuingastrategytoincreasewalleyepopulationsasquicklyaspossible.Thetotalharvestablesurplustobesharedbetweentribalfishersandstateanglerswassetat60000poundsfor2014downfrom250000poundsin2013and500000poundsin2012.Accordingtothemodelsusedtoestimatewalleyepopulationinthelakeaharvestof60000poundsorlessshouldkeepthewalleyepopulationfromdecliningfurtherin2015.Thetribalallocationoftheharvestablesurplusis17100poundswhilethestateallocationis42900poundsMilleLacshasanabundanceofgoodwalleyespawninghabitatandhatchingsuccessandsurvivalofyoung-of-yearwalleyetotheirfirstfallhasbeengoodbutthelastgoodyear-classwasin2008.Unfortunatelyjuvenilewalleyeappeartobedyingathigherratesthaninthepastbetweentheirfirstfallandthetimetheyreachtheadultpopulationat3-6yearsofage.The2014strategytohelpthewalleyesbouncebackcentersaroundprotectingyoungfish.TheMinnesotaDepartmentofNaturalResourcesMNDNRandthetribeshaveagreedtorelaxregulationsonnorthernpikeandsmallmouthbasssincethesepopulationsareatanall-timehighandtheymaybecompetingwithorpreyingonsmallwalleye.Theharvestcapfornorthernpikesplit5050betweenthestateandthetribeshasbeenincreasedto100000poundsdoublewhatitwasin2013.AdditionallythetribeshaveauthorizedspearingfornorthernpikeandMNDNRextendedthestatenorthernpikeseasonuntiltheendofMarchwhileincreasingthebaglimitfornorthernsto10onlyoneofwhichmaybeover30inches.Thebandsandthestatealsoeachmaderegulationchangestoallowformoreharvestofsmallmouthbass.MNDNRwillcontinuetousean18-20inchharvestslottoregulatethewalleyeanglingfisheryalongwithabanonnightfishingfromMay12ththroughDecem-ber1st.Thetribesareallowingmemberstospearwalleyeofanysizepreviousregulationshadfocusedharvestonfishunder20toshiftsomeoftheharvestawayfromyoungfish.Alongwiththechangesinharveststrategyfor2014biologistswillcon-tinuetoconductthoroughassessmentstokeeptabsonthefishcommunity.Alreadycompletedthisspringaretag-gingpopulationestimatestomeasuretheabundanceofnorthernpikeandwalleye.ThiseffortwascoordinatedbetweenMNDNRGLIFWCFondduLacBandandUSFishandWildlifeService.GLIFWCandFondduLacareplanningtoconductalatespringjuvenilewalleyeelectrofishingsurveytogaugetheoverwintersurvivalofthe2013year-class.MeanwhileMNDNRwillcontinuetoevaluatedietsofpreda-torsinMilleLacsinordertoestimatepredationratesonyoungwalleyes.ByMarkLuehringGLIFWCInlandFisheriesBiologistMarkLuehringGLIFWCinlandfsheriesbiologistholdsupaniceogaacapturedandreleasedduringelectrofshingassessmentsonEver-greenLakeinSawyerCountyWis-consin.PhotobyButchMieloszykOdanahWis.GLIFWCcrewsinMinnesotaWisconsinandMichiganworkedwithpartneragenciestoconductfishpopulationassessmentson20cededterritorylakesthisspring.Thewalleyeassessmentswentfastandfuriousaswalleyeswerereadytospawnassoonastheiceleftcededterritorylakes.Theseestimatesconductedprimar-ilythroughnightelectrofishingprovidebiologistswithqualitydataonwalleyepopulationabundanceinimportantcededterritorywaters.InMinnesotaGLIFWCdodgedicefloeswithUSFWSMNDNRandFondduLactomarkspawningwalleyesandnorthernpike.GLIFWCparticipatedinarecapturenettingeffortstartinginlateMaytoestimatethepopulations.AnadditionalelectrofishingsurveyisscheduledforearlyJunetodetermineoverwintersurvivalofjuvenilewalleye.GLIFWCcrewspartneredwithSt.CroixMoleLakeandWDNRtoconductmark-recapturewalleyepopulationestimateson18lakesinWisconsinrangingfrom123-acreShermanLaketo2508acreNelsonLake.Over10000adultwalleyesrangingfrom10inchesupto29inchesweresampledintheseefforts.InMichiganGLIFWCconductedamark-recapturepopulationestimateonPomeroyLakeGogebicCountyforthefirsttimesince2005.Thetablebelowshowslakeswhereestimateswerecompleted.WorkatMilleLacsisstillinprogress.StateCountyLakeAreaacresMIGogebicPomeroyLake314MNMilleLacsMilleLacs132500WIBayfieldSiskiwitLake330WIDouglasAmniconLake426WIForestJungleLake177WIForestLilyLake213WILangladeSawyerLake149WIOneidaBearskinLake400WIOneidaSquirrelLake1317WIPriceButternutLake1006WISawyerMasonLake190WISawyerEvergreenLake200WISawyerNelsonLake2508WIVilasBigLakeMIBorder771WIVilasKentuckLake957WIVilasMamieLake400WIVilasOxbowLake511WIVilasShermanLake123WIVilasSquawLake785WIWashburnBass-PattersonLake188SurveycrewscommandthenightshiftByMarkLuehringGLIFWCInlandFisheriesBiologistOdanahWis.SpringharvestofogaawalleyefrominlandlakesisanimportantpartoftheAnishinaabebimaadiziwinlifeway.Formanytribalmembersogaaprovidestheirfamilywithhighqualityfoodthatisagoodsourceofleanproteinlowinsaturatedfatandcontainsotherimportantnutrientslikeselenium.Howevereatingfishoftencomeswithaconcernaboutexposuretomercury.GLIFWCsmercurymapsareanessentialtoolfortribalmemberstolimittheirexposuretomercuryfromeatingfishharvestedfromoff-reservationinlandlakes.Themapsofferaquickandeasyreferenceforharvesterstoselectcleanerlakesaswellasthesafenumberofogaamealspermonththesensitivepopulationwomenofchildbearingageandchildrenandgeneralpopulationmenandwomenbeyondchildbearingagecanenjoywithoutoverexposuretomercury.UnderfundingfromtheGreatLakesRestorationInitiativeGLIFWCupdatedthemercurymapsforitsmembertribeswiththemostcurrentmercurydataavailable.DatacollectedsincethelastupdateinMarch2012hasaddedinformationfor11lakesandatotalof446lakesharvestedbyGLIFWCmembertribesnowhavecolor-codedmonthlycon-sumptionadvice.Theupdatedmercurymapsareavailableforviewinganddownloadathttpglifwc.orgMercurymercury.html.Physicalcopiesofthemapswereprovidedtotribalregistrationstationsandotherlocationsonreservationforthespringharvest.UpdatedmercurymapsavailableByJenniferBurnettGLIFWCOutreachSpecialistLakesthatnowhavemorerestrictiveconsumptionadviceforwomenofchildbearingageandchildrenincludeGreenLakeChisagoCountyMinnesota4mealsor32oz.monthgreen2mealsor16oz.monthyellowBallardLakeVilasCo.Wisconsin1mealor8oz.monthorangeDonoteatredGrindstoneLakeSawyerCo.Wis.2mealsor16oz.monthyellow1mealor8oz.monthorangeSparklingLakeVilasCo.Wis.2mealsor16oz.monthyellow1mealor8oz.monthorangeFivelakeshavelessrestrictiveadviceforeitherthesensitiveorgeneralpopulationincludeChisagoLakeChisagoCo.Minn.4mealsor32oz.monthgreen8mealsor64oz.monthblueforthegeneralpopulationKawaguesagaLakeOneidaCo.Wis.4mealsor32oz.monthgreen8mealsor64oz.monthblueforthegeneralpopulationPresqueIsleLakeChainVilasCo.Wis.1mealor8oz.monthorange2mealsor16oz.monthyellowforthesensitivepopulationShellLakeWashburnCo.Wis.2mealsor16oz.monthyellow4mealsor32oz.monthgreenforthegeneralpopulationTwinLakeChainVilasCo.Wis.4mealsor32oz.monthgreen8mealsor64oz.monthblueforthegeneralpopulation MAZINAIGANPAGE4SPRINGSUMMER2014FURBEARERSOdanahWis.InternationalissuessurroundingtrappingmethodsbroughtGLIFWCWildlifeSectionLeaderDr.JonathanGilberttoYakuskSiberialastfalltoprovidenativeperspec-tivesontrappingandhumanetrappingstandards.HowdidthishappenItscom-plicatedGilbertexplains.Itallstartedbackin2007whentheEuropeanUnionEUpassedalawoutlawingtheuseoffootholdtrapsinEuropeandrequiredthatanyfurscomingforsaleintheEUmustbetrappedusinghuman-trappingstandards.Essentiallythislawwouldeffec-tivelycutoffinternationaltradeofwildfursamongtheUSCanadatheEUandRussia.In2008RussiatheEUandCanadasignedanagreementthattheywoulddevelophumanetrappingstandardsforwildfurbearersandrequiretrapperstousethem.HowevertheU.S.wasnotasignatorytotheagreementbecausethestateandtribesregulatetrappingheresothefederalgovernmentcouldnotsignon.InsteadtheUS.enteredintoanapprovedminuteoftheagreementtodevelopbestmanagementpracticesfortrappingandtestingtraps.ThefourinvolvedentitiesthendecidedtomeetannuallytodocumentprogresstowardshumanetrappingandestablishedtheJointManagementCom-mitteeJMCfortheimplementationofhumanestandards.TheUSdelegationtotheJMCiscoordinatedthroughtheUSAssociationofFishandWildlifeAgenciesAFWA.AFWAdeterminedaNativeAmeri-canperspectivewasneededsobeganthesearchforcandidatesandaskedGLIFWCfornominations.GLIFWCnominatedGilbertandthisnominationwasapprovedbytheVoigtIntertribalTaskForcedandsubmittedtoAFWA.GilbertwasacceptedasanadvisoronNativeAmericanperspectives.ThefirstmeetingthatGilbertattendedwassched-uledforfall2013inSiberiaGilbertfeltthiswasapositiveopportunitynotonlytoinvolvetribalinterestsinAFWAbutalsotorelatetribalperspectivesandconcernsonissuesregardingtrappingandmarketingfurs.Gilbertfoundthemeetingsveryformalandtightlyorganized.Hewasassigneda15-minuteslotfromtheUnitedStatesallottedtimetoprovideanoverviewontribesintheUSsohadanopportunitytotalkabouttribalsovereigntyself-regulationandtreatyrightsataninternationallevel.Ahighlightofthetripwasavisittoanoutlyingtribalvillageofreindeerherders.Theissuethatbroughtthecom-mitteetothesenativetribesdealtwithtrappingwolves.Beleagueredwithahighrateofhorseskilledbywolvesthetribesengagedinwolftrappingandthecommitteewasinterestedintheirmethodandperhapsencouraginghumanetrap-pingmethodologyforthetribes.Atthevillagetheyweregreetedintraditionalfashionenteringthroughanarchedarborwithfiresgoingoneitherside.Astheyenteredtheywerebrushedwithlightshrubberyandsmudgedwithcharcoalmarksontheirfaces.Thetribalchiefandhiswifegreetedthem.GilbertpresentedgiftsfromGLIFWCtribesincludingblackashbasketswildriceandasmallbrightlypaintedfishdecoyfromLacduFlam-beau.Thatcaughttheeyeofthechiefswifeandshequicklygrabbeditforherself.Latertheywereentertainedwithsongsfeastinganddance.OneoftheprimarymeatswashorsemeatwhichGilbertsaidwasservedinseveralfashionssomeappealingandsomeliketherawfrozenhorselivernotsoappealingManyofthefoodslikefishandhorsemeatwereservedfrozenbutrawsoyouwouldeattheminlittlefrozencubes.ThenextannualmeetingofthecommitteeissetforSt.LouisMissouriinSeptember.OdanahWis.CheckinghairsnaresforsignsofwaabizheshiwagAmeri-canmartensinavastswathoftheChequamegonportionoftheChequamegon-NicoletNationalForestCNNFbecameparticularlygruelingthiswinterwiththeextremecoldandheavysnowtestingendurance.NeverthelessGLIFWCWildlifeTechnicianRonParisienassistedbyRonJr.donnedsnowshoesandfacemasksandmadetheirweeklyroundsoffiftyhairsnaresseekingevidenceoftheelusivewaabizheshiinthefrozenforest.Forthreeyearsrunning2008-2010thirtyMinnesotawaabisheshiwagwerereleasedannuallyintheCNNFinanefforttobolstertheapparentlydwindlingpopulationwhichhasshownlowreproductionlevels.Withtheimportationof90MinnesotamartensinallmostofthemfemalesresearchersarenowtryingtofindevidenceofreproductionbetweenthenativeWisconsinmartensandthosereleasedfromMinnesota.DidtheMinnesotamartenspassongenesIsthereevidenceofbreedingbetweenthetwoThesearesomeofthequestionsthestudyhopestoanswersaysGLIFWCWildlifeSectionLeaderDr.JonathanGilbert.GLIFWCispartneringonthisprojectwithUW-MadisonWisconsinDepart-mentofNaturalResourcesandtheUSForestService.Eachhas50hairsnaresinsectionsoftheChequamegonForest.Thetwo-yearprojectwillconcludethissummerhoweverfundingisavailabletoperformasimilartwo-yearstudyintheNicolletportionoftheCNNF.ThiswinterGLIFWCssnareshadaverylowsuccessrateyieldingonlyafewsamplesoutofapproximately350snarechecks.WhileunsureofnumbersfromotherpartnersGilbertbelievessuccessratesmayhavebeenbetterintheotherprojectsectionsbutstillwouldbeconsideredlowcomparedtolastyear.ThesnaresalongwithfieldcamerasweresetoutduringthefirstweekinJanuaryinanareasouthofMellenWisconsinandnorthofClamLakeWis.andretrievedinearlyMarch.TheextremelycoldtemperaturesplayedhavocwiththecamerashoweverrequiringbatteriestobereplacedwithlithiumbatteriesinordertooperateinthoselowtemperaturesParisiensaid.Nomartensappearedinviewofthefieldcamerashoweverthepresenceofojigfisherandgidagaa-bizhiwbobcatwasrecorded.Extremecoldcouldalsofactorintothelowsuccessratewiththehairsnares.Typicallymartenstendtolaylowandlimittheirmovementincoldtemperatures.TrappingstandardsgoalofinternationalcommitteeBySueEricksonStaffWriterAtriptoaNativeSiberiancommunitywasahighlightduringDr.JonathanGilbertstriptoSiberiaforaninternationalmeetingabouttrappingmethods.GilbertGLIFWCsWildlifeSectionleaderispicturedherewithvillageleaderswhogavetheirvisitorsatraditionalgreeting.ElusivewaabizheshiwagavoiddetectionHairsnaresusedtoIDAmericanmarteninCNNFBySueEricksonStaffWriterWaabizheshiwaginthePenokeesAGLIFWCstudyofwaabizheshiwaginthePenokeesisexaminingAmeri-canmartensuseofacorridorthroughIronCountytomovefromWisconsinsChequamegon-NicoletNationalForestCNNFtotheOttawaNationalForestinMichigan.CurrentlyCaseyDayastudentfromPurdueUniversityhasundertakenthestudyforGLIFWCandisrecordingthismovementwiththeuseofcamerashairsnaresandgeneticstodocumentanexchangeofDNAbetweenWisconsinandMichiganwaabizheshiwag.DayhassucceededinobtainingsomesamplesbutthecatchrateremainslowlikeintheCNNF.Thetwo-yearprojectisdividedintotwopartsaone-yearfieldseasonin2013-14andayearofanalysisin2014-15.HairsnaresandcamerasaretoolsofthetradeforRonParisienGLIFWCwildlifetechnicianwhoplacedsnaresandcamerasinhabitatpreferredbyAmericanmartensaspartofanongoingstudy.PhotosbyRonParisienJr. PAGE5MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2014FISHERIESStampsandsmovetowardsBuffaloReefspawningbedsArmyCorpsproposesstonewalltointerveneFigure1.Distributionofon-shorestampsandinGrandTraverseBay.Thedottedlinerepresentsthedistributionofstampsandduring1938.ByBenMichaelsGLIFWCFisheriesBiologistGayMich.ItwasatribalcommercialfishermanwhofirstnoticedthatstampsandwasencroachinguponBuffaloReefanimportantspawningsiteforlakewhitefishandlaketroutalongtheKeweenawPeninsulasGrandTraverseBayknownlocallyasBigTraverseBay.WhenthefishermanexpressedhisconcerntoGLIFWCfisheriesstaffinvestigatedthesituationanddiscoveredapotentialthreattoimportantspawninghabitat.Stampsandsaretheby-productofarefiningprocesswhichinvolvesalargemachinethatpulverizeslargerocksintosmallerparts.Theprocessfacilitatestheextractionofmetalssuchascopperhoweverproduceslargequantitiesofextrane-ousmaterialakastampsand.Stampsandsareknowntocontainhighconcentra-tionsofmetalssuchasmercuryandcopperthesemetalscannegativelyaffectaquaticandterrestrialorganisms.Alsohabitatdegradationcanbecausedbytheencroachmentofstampsandintosmallcreviceswithinnaturalbottomsubstrates.TheKeweenawPeninsulawhichispartofthe1842CededTerritoryisaregionsubjecttoscoresofcopperminingoperationsthroughoutmininghistory.Manyofthecoppermineswereoperatedfromthemid-1800sto1968.By19684.8millionmetrictonsMtofcopperwassmeltedfromareasaroundtheKeweenawPeninsula.Unfortunately360Mtofstampsandweredepositedintoriversandlakesincluding64MtintoLakeSuperior.By1938anestimatedtotalof22.4MtofstampsandwasdepositedintoapileofftheshoreinGrandTraverseBay.SincethenstampsandhasbeenerodingfromthispileandspreadingsouthwestalongtheKeweenawshorelineFigure1.In2005GLIFWCconductedanexpandedgillnetsurveyonBuffaloReeftodeterminewhichareasofthereefcontainedimportantspawninghabitatforlakewhitefishandlaketrout.AdditionallyGLIFWCcontractedEnvironmentCanadatoconductsonarsamplinginordertodeterminethedistributionofstampsandwithinBuffaloReef.TheresultsofthesurveyrevealedthattheentireareaofBuffaloReefwasanimportantspawningareaforlakewhitefishandlaketrout.Alsothesonarsurveyshowedthatstampsandswereindeedmovingincloseproximitytoimportantspawninghabitatwithinthereefposingahabitatriskforspawningfish.InadditiontotheexpandedgillnetsurveyonBuffaloReefGLIFWChasconductedbeachseiningonareasofstampsandandnativesandontheshorelineareaofGrandTraverseBaytodeterminewhetheranyfishspecieswerethrivingonstampsandsubstrate.During20082011and2013severalspecieswerefoundinsamplestakenonnativesandhowevernofishwerefoundinsamplestakenonstampsandduringthesameyearsFigure2.Theabsenceoffishonthestampsandbeachessuggeststhereisinsufficienthabitatandorfoodforthesurvivalofsmallfishwhichareanimportantdietitemforlargerpredatorssuchaslaketrout.TheresultsfromGLIFWCsexpandedgillnetsurveyandbeachseinesurveyshowthatBuffaloReefissusceptibletohabitatlossviastampsandencroachmentandon-shorestampsandshavecreatedaninhospitableenvironmentforsmall-sizedfish.InresponsetothenegativeimpactsofstampsandtheArmyCorpofEngineersproposedconstructionofastonewallinGrandTraverseBaytheintentofthisprojectistopreventadditionalerosionanddispersalofthestampsandpilenearGay.OncethestampsandpileisstabilizedrestorationeffortswillbeundertakenbyremovingstampsandfromGrandTraverseBay.Afeasibilitystudyisunderwayfortheprojectandisexpectedtobecompletedbytheendof2014.MeanwhileGLIFWCwillcontinuetomonitorfishpopulationswithinandaroundBuffaloReef.Figure2.Catchpereffortnumber100fthaulofnativeshspeciesonnativesandandstampsand.Noshwereobservedinsamplestakenonstampsandsubstrate.Representativesfromthe1854AuthorityandtheCouncilofGreatLakesFisheryAgenciesCGLFAsignTheJointStrategicPlanforManagementofGreatLakesFisherieswhichrepresentsacollectivewillofthesherymanagementagenciestoprotectandwherenecessarytorehabilitatethesheriesoftheGreatLakes.The1854Authorityisthethirdinter-tribalandsixteenthgovernmentagencytosigntheagreementsinceitsinceptionin1981.PicturedaboveduringthesigningareSeatedDr.SethMooreGrandPortagewildlifebiologistMillardSonnyMyers1854AuthorityexecutivedirectorJimDexterCGLFAactingdirector.StandingTomSwaderGrandPortagetrustlandsadministratorE.J.IsaacGrandPortageshandwildlifebiologistChrisJohnson1854Authorityconservationofcer.PhotobyT.LawrenceGreatLakesFisheryCommissionMazinaigandigitalflipbookDoyoureceiveMazinaiganinthemailWouldyouratherreaditonlineYounowhavethisoption.Theonlineeditionisafull-colorflipbookthatcanbereadordownloadedtoaPDF.Flipbooksareenvironmentallyfriendlyandtheysavepostageandprintingcosts.IfyouchoosetheonlineeditionyouwillbenotifiedviaemailapproximatelyoneweekbeforetheMazinaiganismailedwhenitisavailableforviewing.TheemailwillcontainalinktoGLIFWCswebsitewhereyoucanviewtheflipbook.TosignuptoreceivetheMazinaiganeitherelectronicallyoramailedsubscriptiongotowww.glifwc.orgpublicationsmazinaiganMazinaigan.htmlandchooseeithernewsubscriptionorE-editionnotification. MAZINAIGANPAGE6SPRINGSUMMER2014MININGCHRONOLOGYGLIFWCinvolvementintheenvironmentalreviewoftheproposedPolyMetCopperMineByEstebanChiribogaGLIFWCGISMappingShouldtheStateofMinnesotapermititsfirstnon-ironmetalsmineWhatwouldtheenvironmentalimpactsbeAretheylikelytobeoutweighedbyeconomicbenefitsWhatwouldtheimpactsbetotribesthatholdoff-reservationrightstoharvestonthelandthatwouldbeexcavatedtodevelopthemineThesearesomeofthequestionsthattheStateofMinnesotaandseveralfederalagenciesareconsideringastheydecidewhethertoissuepermitsforthatstatesfirstsulfideminetheNorthmetprojectproposedbythePolyMetMiningCorporation.AlthoughMinnesotaishometoanumberofirontaconiteminesnomineshavebeendevelopedthatwouldextractmetalslikecoppernickelzincandgold.Thesemetalstendtobeboundtosulfurandso-calledsulfideminingposesaheightenedriskofmetalleachingandacidminedrainagewhenthemetalsaremined.Acidminedrainagehasdam-agedthousandsofmilesofstreamsinotherstatesintheUS.ConcernsaboutimpactstowaterqualitywetlandstreatyrightsandtraditionalpropertiesaswellasthecumulativeimpactsofminingontheIronRangepromptedtribestogetinvolvedintheevaluationoftheenvironmentalimpactsoftheproposedPolyMetmine.SinceifpermittedthePolyMetprojectwouldbethefirstsulfidemineinthestatetribeswerealsoawarethatthestateandfederalagenciesapproachtoenvironmentalanalysisandpermittingwouldbelikelytoinfluencetheevaluationoffuturesulfideminingproposals.GLIFWCstafffirstbecameinvolvedinanalyzingtheenvi-ronmentalimpactsoftheproposedPolyMetminein2005whentheArmyCorpsofEngineersACOEandMinnesotaDepartmentofNaturalResourcesMNDNRconductedpreliminaryscopingofenvironmentalissuesrelatedtotheproject.In2006GLIFWCbeganattendingtechnicalmeetingsrelatedtotheprojectattherequestoftheFondduLacBandofLakeSuperiorChippewaoneofitsmembertribes.AtthattimethePolyMetMiningCompanyhadbegunreleasingtechnicalminingdocumentsandtheACOEandtheMNDNRtheleadagenciesintheEnvironmentalImpactStatementEISprocessbeganmeetingstoinformtribesandotheragenciesaboutprojectissues.Duringtheearlymeetingsnumerousconcernsrelatedtowetlandlossimpactstowaterqualityandwatertabledrawdownwereidentified.TheFondduLacBoisForteandGrandPortageChippewabandsrequestedthattheArmyCorpsofEngineersACOEinvitethemtobecomecooperatingagenciesintheEISprocess.HowevertheACOEdidnotactonthisrequestuntilaftertheStateofMinnesotasscopingperiodhadended.Theeffectofthisdelaywasthatissuesadvancedbythetribesintheearlyperiodlikegroundwaterquan-tityandqualityweremostlyoverlookedbytheMNDNR.FondduLacandBoisForteeventuallybecamecooperatingagencies.SincethenGLIFWCstaffhavecontinuedtoprovidetechnicalassistanceinseveralareasastheenvironmentalanalysisoftheproposedPolyMetprojectwasdeveloped.Thishasincludedanalysisofmineinduceddrawdowneffectsonwetlandsanalysisofflowinlocalriverspredictionofnoiselevelsneartheminemappingofwildricebedsevaluationofalternativessuchasundergroundminingandminepitbackfillevaluationofcumulativeimpactsandmodelingofground-waterhydrology.Thoseanalyseshaveplayedaroleindevelopingcommentsontheprojectandpointingtoareasthatneedadditionalclarificationandbaselinedata.Projectproposal2007In2007aformalprojectdescriptionwassubmittedbyPolyMetMiningCorp.Itproposedsevenunlinedanduncappedwasterockstockpilesallowingforreleaseofcontaminatedwaternotreatmentforwaterescapingthetailingsfacilityminimalstormwaterandtailingswaterseepagecollectionover1000acresofwetlandfillandnobackfilloftheopenpits.MinimalcoverforaportionofexposedVirginiaformationaformationwiththepotentialtogenerateacidwasproposed.Therewasnodoubtthatifthisinitialproposalhadbeenpermittedseriouspollutionwouldhaveoccurredtothesurroundingenvironment.Inaddi-tionPolyMetsuggestedthatperpetualwaterqualitytreatmentwaslikelytobenecessary.Theprojectleadstatedthatwatertreatmentwouldlikelybeneededforforeverandaday.JimScottPolyMetprojectmanagermeetingofJanuary302007St.PaulMN.Theprojectproposalwasanalyzedforenvironmentalimpactsoverthenexttwoyears.Unfortunatelytheapplicanthadnotcollectedadequatebaselinewaterqualityandquantitydatasoconclusionsaboutpotentialimpactswerebasedonmodelsthatdidnotadequatelydescribethebaselinehydrologyofthesite.GLIFWCandothertribalstaffarguedbeginningin2008thatthebasichydrologyoftheminesitewaspoorlycharacterizedmakingconclusionsregardingwaterqualityquantitywetlandimpactsandwatertreatmentneedsunreliable.DevelopmentoftherstDEIS2008-2009Between2008and2009GLIFWCstaffreviewedseveraliterationsofthePolyMetEISdocument.InJulyof2009theCompletePreliminaryDraftEISDEISwasreleased.GLIFWCandtribalstaffcommentedextensivelyonthisdraftandafirstDEISwasissuedinOctoberof2009.TheOctober2009DEISpresentedchallengesfortribalagenciesandstaff.Oneofthebenefitsofcooperatingagencystatuswasthatdifferencesofopinionwiththeleadagencieshadtobeincludedanddiscussedinthedocument.Howeverexactlyhowthosecommentsandopinionswouldberepresentedwasnotclear.Tribalstaffdevelopedextensivecommentsonthe2009DEIStextandtheanalysisunderlyingthedocumentandwasassuredbytheACOEthattribalperspectivesandanalysiswouldbeincludedverbatiminthedocument.Aftersignificantdis-cussionandnegotiationtheACOEwasabletofacilitatetheinclusionoftribalcommentsasbothfootnotesandinaseparatechapter.ThisepisodeunderscoredthedifficultiesthatGLIFWCandtribalagencystaffencounteredwhileadvocatingforamorerobustenvironmentalanalysisoftheproject.Thereviewofthe2009DEISbythepublicandotheragencieswasextensive.GLIFWCandothertribalstaffreissuedmanyofthecommentsthathadbeenpreparedforpreviousversionsoftheDEISandwerestillrelevantaswellasnewinformationandanalysis.UltimatelytheEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyEPAwhichreviewedtheEISgaveittheworstapprovalratingavailableindicat-ingthatintheEPAsopinionboththeproposedprojectandthedocumentthatwassupposedtodescribetheimpactsofthatprojectwereunacceptable.TheEPAexpressedmanyofthesameconcernsthattribalstaffhadbeenraisingforthepre-vioustwoyears.TheEPAsratingmeantthatanewDEISneededtobepreparedbeforeafinalEIScouldbecompleted.DevelopmentoftheSupplementalDEIS2010-2013Thefailureofthe2009DEISmotivatedtheleadagenciestomakestructuralchangestotheprocess.FirsttheU.S.ForestServicejoinedtheprocessasaleadagencybecauseofthelandexchangethatisanintegralpartoftheproject.TheprojectisproposedtobebuiltonwhatiscurrentlyForestServiceland.Inthe2009DEISitwassimplyassumedthatthelandexchangewouldoccur.InadditiontheEPAandGrandPortagejoinedtheprocessascooperatingagencies.ACom-municationandCoordinationProtocolCCPwasdevelopedduringthistimeinanattempttodescribeeachagencysroleandresponsibilitiesbutthetribalcoop-eratingagenciesfoundittoorestrictiveanddidnotendorseit.Neverthelesstheyremainedcooperatingagenciesactivelyparticipatingintheprocess.Thefirststepin2010towarddevelopingtheSupplementalDraftEnviron-mentalImpactStatementSDEISwastoformImpactAssessmentPlanningIAPgroupsthatwouldproviderecommendationstoPolyMetontheanalysisthatwouldGLIFWCanalysisofwetlandsimpactedbygroundwaterdrawdownattheproposedPolyMetmineinMinnesota.AportionoftheprocessingfacilityatthePolyMetplantsite.Theoldtaconiteprocessingfacilitywouldbeconvertedtoprocesscopperore.SeeGLIFWCassessesimpactpage8 PAGE7MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2014SUGARBUSHINVASIVEPLANTSOdanahWis.Severalhundrednon-nativeterrestrialandwetlandplantsarenowestablishedwithintheOjibwecededter-ritories.Thesenon-nativeplantsvaryintheirpotentialtospreadanddegradenativeplantcommunities.Withlimitedresourcesavailabletomanageinvasiveplantsobjectivetoolsareneededtohelpidentifywhichspeciesposethegreatestthreatstonativeplantcommunitiesandaprocesstoprioritizeandtargetinvasiveplantmanagementefforts.Thegoaloftheinvasiveplantriskassessmenttotribalresourcesprojectwastoquantifytheriskofnon-nativeinvasiveplantstoculturallyimportantnativeplantswithinsixcontiguouscountiesofWisconsinandwesternUpperMichiganborderingLakeSuperior.Modelsweredevelopedbycorrelatingspeciesoccurrencedatawithenvironmentalvariablessuchassoiltex-turelandcoverannualprecipitationandtemperatureextremestopredictthedistributionforseveralnon-nativeandnativeplants.Theriskofanon-nativeplanttoanativeplantwasevaluatedbycombiningthemodelsinGIS.Theresultingmodelidentifieswherebothplantsaremostlikelytothriveandhencecompeteonthelandscape.ThestandardGISformatofthemodeloutputfacilitatestheoverlayofadditionalspatialdatarelevanttomanagement.Inthecaseofinvasivespeciesthesedataincludeintroductionpointse.g.portscampgroundstrailheadsvectorse.g.roadsriversutilitycorridorsknowninvasivespeciesoccurrencesandlandownership.GIScanbeusedtovisualizethisinformationanddiscernpatternsinintroductionandspreadthatcanbeusedtoplananappropriatemanagementresponse.Thegraphicrightillustratestherelativeriskthatleafyspurgemayposetolowbushblueberryacrosstheprojectarea.Thedarkredareasindicatewhereconditionsaremostsuitableforbothleafyspurgeandlowbushblueberry.Pastsurveysforinvasiveplantsaredisplayedinblack.Thewhitecircleshowswhereadditionalsurveysforleafyspurgemaybewarrantedbecauseitishighlysuitablehabitatandpastsurveysdidnotcoverthisarea.Thegreencircleidentifiessomerelativelysmallleafyspurgesitesinthemiddleofalargeareaofsuitablehabi-tat.Thesesitesshouldbeahighpriorityforcontrolbecausetheyaresmallandrelativelyeasytocontrolbutcouldspreadfarintheabsenceofanymanagement.GLIFWCprojectassessesriskofinvasiveplantstonativeplantsByMilesFalckGLIFWCWildlifeBiologistOntheBadRiverWis.NestledinthehardwoodriverbottomssouthofOdanahanoldiskigamizigansugarbushisnewagainwiththearrivaloffourtribalmembersandalotofgear.FromawindingwoodlandtrailofslushandsnowdownasteepgradetotheriverittakessomeefforttogettotheHighLandingcamp.Oncethereittakesnotimetosettlein.ItsniceoutheresaysDanWigginshigh-steppingthroughtheAprilsnowpackunderaskeletalcanopyofhardmaple.Totheleftacherry-chocolatethreadofmovingwaterseparatesthefrozenriverfromitsnorthbankabeaverlodgebulgesofftotherightemergingfromafrozenback-water.Easyaccessisnicetoo.Wevedonethat.WigginsVincentBenderandJeromePowlessallintheir30senteredtheirthirdsugarbushseasontogetherinsearchofproductivegroundsawayfromplowedroadsandfrequentedsites.TheyfoundagoodoneatthevenerableHighLandingandrecruitedDanPowlessJr.Jeromesyoungerbrothertohelp.Weeksbeforethefirstdropofsaplandedthecrewset-upcamputiliz-ingthedeepsnowtosled-inequipmentincludingaheftyevaporatorunit.Atthebaseofthehighbanktheyfashionedaplankofwoodenpalletsbridgingawateryrecesstoabentwoodfifteen-foothoophousethatprovidedstorageandshelter.ThefirstdaysofAprildeliveredthebestsapflowsatthesugarbushfollowedbyon-again-off-againactivitydependingontemperatures.Whentempsdipbelowthefreezingmarkatnightandrisebackuponsunnydayspressuredevelopsinsidethetreedrivingwiishkobaaboowmaplesapthroughthenarrowtaps.YouappreciatemaplesyrupalotmoreafteryouveputintheworkWigginssaysunhookingablueplasticbagfromunderametalspile.Thesmallheavy-dutybagcontainsafewpintsofsap.Wigginsemptiesitintoanearby30-galloncontaineroneofseveralthatserveasawaystationforcollectedsap.Morethan200bluebagssetatchestheightappearthroughoutthehardwoodsahandfuloftreesfeaturesapcollectionapparatusJeromePowlessjerry-riggedwithtubesPVCpipeandemptyCulligancontainers.Backatcampanglingsunlightcatchesthedensewhitesteambillowingfromtheevaporator.Acastironstoveboxbeneaththepandeliverswoodheatkeepingthesapatasteadysimmer.WigginsreturnstocontributemorewishkobaaboowtothesteelevaporatorpantheyoungerPowlessproducesawhitet-shirtwhichtheyemploytostrainstraybitsofdebrisfromthesapbeforeaddingtothethickeningliquid.EveryyearwemakeadjustmentslearnatrickortwotomakeitgomoresmoothlyWigginssaid.Thisisthefirstyearweveusedbags.Ilikethem.Metalbucketsrusttheydontlastunlessyouimmediatelycleanthemout.WigginshaschildrentotendtothateveningandworkinmorningheleavesPowlesstotendtotheevaporatorfeedingitsplitfirewoodwellintothenight.Thewholecrewrotatesinandoutonadailybasis.Mostdaysafterschooltheirkidsswarmthesugarbushtotingcontainersofsapbacktocamp.Onweekendsthemenboilsaparoundtheclocksharingstoriesandconsultingmobilephonesfornewsfrombackhome.SeeNortherniskigamiziganpage8TimelessrewardsinanorthernsugarbushByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffWriterDanPowlessJr.loadssplitrewoodintoamaplesapevaporatorneartheBadRiverinearlyApril.Ittypicallyrequires35-40gallonsofrenedmaplesaptomakeonegallonofsyrup.PhotobyCORBlueplasticcollectionbagshangfrommapletreesasDanWigginssurveystheHighLandingSugarbushalongtheBadRiver.PhotobyCharlieOttoRasmussenSeeInvasiveplantspage8 MAZINAIGANPAGE8SPRINGSUMMER2014MININGbeneededfortheSDEIS.TribalstaffwereincludedintheprocessofidentifyingissuesthatneededtobeaddressedintheSDEISbutformostIAPgroupswereexcludedfromdecision-makingontheactualdatacollectionandanalysisthatwouldbeneededtoaddressthoseissues.Consequentlymanyofthesameweak-nessesthatwereevidentinthe2009DEISsuchasalackofbaselinehydrologicdataandwaterqualitymodelingdeficienciesarestillpresentinthe2013SDEIS.Oneexamplewastheanalysisneededtoassessimpactstowetlandsfromdrawdownofthewatertable.ThebroadconsensusofthewetlandIAPgroupwasthatthisimpactneededtobecharacterizedthroughrobustmodelingofgroundwaterdrawdown.Thisisabasicanalysisthatisdoneformanyotherminingproposals.ThethreecooperatingtribesGLIFWC1854TreatyAuthorityMinnesotaPollu-tionControlAgencyU.S.FishandWildlifeServiceandU.S.ForestServiceallsupportedtheidea.UltimatelytheanalysiswasdeemedbytheleadagenciestobetoodifficultandwasnotapartoftheSDEIS.AftertheinitialidentificationofissuesintheIAPprocesstheleadagenciesdevelopedtechnicaldatapackagesandmanagementplans.Thosewerethefoun-dationaldocumentsonwhichtheSDEISwasbased.Graduallytheproposedprojectchangedfromtheinitialproposalof2007andtherevisedproposalof2009.Awatercollectionsystemaroundtheproposedstockpilesandthetailingsbasinwasincludedandthecollectedwaterwaspro-posedtoberoutedtotwowatertreatmentplants.Themostreactivewasterockwasproposedtobebackfilledintooneoftheminepits.TheEPAaskedfortheinstallationofgroundwaterwellsattheminesitetobettercharacterizewaterqual-ityandadditionaldatacollectionforsurfacewaterqualitywasconducted.Despitetheseimprovementstheproposedprojectwasstillexpectedtorequireperpetualcaptureandtreatmentofwaterinordertoavoidviolatingwaterqualitystandards.Inadditionthewatercapturesystemsmustoperateatextremelyhighefficienciesgreaterthan90effectivenessinordertoavoidviolatingwaterqualitystandards.Theseefficiencyrateswerenotsupportedbyavailableliteratureorexamples.DespiteobstaclesGLIFWCandtribalstaffwereabletoprovideextensivecommentsonmanyofthedatapackagesandmanagementplansusedindevelopingtheSDEIS.In2013staffbegandevelopingindependentanalysisoftheprojectforinclusionintheSDEIS.TheSDEISreleasedinNovemberof2013wasnotableinthatitincludedachapterChapter8thatwasdevotedentirelytodetailingthemajordifferencesofopinionbetweenthetribalagenciesandtheleadagenciesonthepotentialimpactsoftheproject.SDEISAppendixCincludedsupportingmaterialsandindependentanalysispreparedbythecooperatingtribesandthetwointertribalagenciesonbaselinehydrologywaterqualityandperpetualtreatmentcumulativeimpactsmercuryimpactswildricedewateringofwetlandsnoiseandvibrationimpactstoculturalresourcesandalternativestothemineplan.NewissuesariseAfterthereleaseoftheSDEISGLIFWCstaffidentifiedadditionalissuesthathadnotbeencommentedonpreviously.ForexamplenewinformationfromtheMNDNRconfirmedGLIFWCscontentionfirstarticulatedin2008thathydrologyattheminesitewasnotwellcharacterizedandthattheamountofwatermovingthroughthesystemwasunderestimatedbyafactorofapproximatelythree.Theimplicationsofthiserrorweresubstantialinthatitcastdoubtoncalculationsofsurfaceandgroundwaterimpactfromminepitdewateringwatertreatmentneedsandtheassumptionthatwetlandsarenotconnectedtogroundwater.InreviewingtheSDEISsectionsdealingwiththehydrologyofthetailingsbasinareastaffdiscoveredthatinaccurategeologyhadbeenusedinthemodelthatwasusedtopredictseepageratesatthetailingsbasin.ThiscastdoubtontheestimatesintheSDEISofseepageflowratesandflowdirectionsfromthetailingsbasins.Becauseofthisthetransportofcontaminantstosurfacewaterstotheeastofthetailingsbasinswasnotconsidered.Researchintothefunctioningofseepagecapturesys-temsatotherprojectsintheUnitedStatesledGLIFWCtoquestiontheefficiencyoftheengineeredseepagecapturesystemsandpointoutthatthesesystemsmustfunctioninperpetuity.Withoutnearlycompletecaptureofseepagefromtheprojectwaterqualitystandardsinsurroundingsurfaceandgroundwaterwouldbeviolated.TowardsafnalEISAtthistimetheleadagenciesaresortingthroughapproximately50000commentssubmittedbythepublicandtribalstateandfederalagencies.Oncethecommentsaresortedtheleadagencieswillevaluatethecommentsanddraftresponses.FinallyanyadditionalanalysisandordatacollectionpromptedbythecommentswillbeplannedandexecutedpriortothereleaseoftheFinalEnviron-mentalImpactStatementFEIS.ThroughoutthePolyMetEISprocessGLIFWCandtribalstaffhaveworkedcloselywiththefederalandstateagenciestodevelopabetterunderstandingofthepotentialimpactsoftheproject.ThatcooperationhasresultedinthecollectionofadditionalwaterqualitydataforgroundwaterandthesmallerpublicwatersintheareaidentificationofwaterssubjecttotheMinnesota10mgLsulfatestandardestablishmentofwaterqualityevaluationandcompliancepointsatmostofthepublicwatersintheareamonitoringofthetransportationcorridorsforspillageoforeandreevaluationofthequantityofflowinthePartridgeRiver.GLIFWCstaffwillcontinuetoworkwithtribesandwithstateandfederalagenciestoassesstheenvironmentalimpactsofthisprojectandtheimplicationsofthoseimpactsontreatyrightsandresources.NortherniskigamiziganContinuedfrompage7MeltwaterjumpedthebanksofBadRiverinmid-Aprilandendedtheseasonwithahurriedwithdrawalbackuptheslipperybank.Intheendtheydrew600gallonsofsugarywaterfromthemaplesmaking16gallonsofprizedsyrupforfamilyandfriends.SaidWigginsafterbottlingthelastquartinaglassjarWhenthatsyrupisinyourhandthatssomething.InvasiveplantsContinuedfrompage7ThisprojecthasenhancedthecapacityofGLIFWCstafftounderstandandevaluatetherelativethreatsofinvasiveplantstoculturallyimportantnativeplantspecies.Atotalof23invasivespeciesmodels12nativemodelsand16invasivenativeco-occurrencemodelswerecreated.ThemodelsmetadataandfinalreportareavailableonGLIFWCswebsiteathttpinvasives.glifwc.orgmodels.GLIFWCassessesimpactofPolymetproposalontreatyrightsresourcesContinuedfrompage6NorthfaceoftheLingTemcoVoughtLTVtailingsbasin.PolyMetwoulddeposititstailingsontopofthisexistingbasin.Thousandsofgallonsperminuteofhighsulfatewateriscurrentlyseepingoutofthisfacilityandintothesurroundingwetlandsandstreams.IfPolyMettailingsaredepositedonthetopwaterfromthosetailingswouldseepoutaswell.Aseepagecapturesystemisproposedtotrytolimitthatdischarge.LingTemcoVoughtLTVEmergencyoverowbasin.PolyMetproposestodisposeofitshydrometallurgicaltailingsatthislocation.Thehydrometallurgicaltailingsarethemosthazardousandreactivematerialsthatwouldbeproducedatthemineandwouldrequireperpetualmaintenancetopreventenvironmentaldamageinthiswetenvironment.FindusonFacebookhttpswww.facebook.comGLIFWC PAGE9MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2014NATIONALFORESTCAMPINGGLIFWCmembertribesexercisingtheirtreatyrightsmaycampforfreeonmostcampgroundsintheChequamegon-NicoletOttawaHiawathaandHuron-ManisteeNationalForests.PermitsareissuedthroughtheNativeAmericanGameFishApplicationsNAGFA.ThereiscurrentlynocampingagreementforMichiganstatepropertiesWisconsinstatepropertiesMinnesotastatepropertiesorcountypropertiessoyourtribalcampingpermitissuedthroughtheNAGFAsystemisvalidONLYfortheabovefourNationalForestcampgrounds.Itisyourresponsibilitytoknowtheownershipofthecampgroundwhereyouplantostay.IfyouhavequestionswiththispleasecontactAlexandraWrobelatGLIFWCat715-682-6619.PriortocampingYoumustobtainatribalcampingpermitthroughyourtribalregistrationsta-tionorGLIFWC.Youwillbeissuedapaperpermitsimilartopreviousyears.Thispermitwillincludeatribalcampingpermitnumberseebelowthatyouwillusetofillouttheenvelopeatthecampground.IfyouwillbeusingotherareasoftheNationalForestthatrequireaparkingpermityoucanalsoobtainthisfromyourregistrationclerkorGLIFWC.TheparkingpermitsarehungfromtherearviewmirrorandhavetheGLIFWClogoonthem.Thesedonotexpireandcanbeusedbeyondthisseason.ThenumberthatisonyourparkingpermitisanumberuniquetoyouintheNAGFAsystem.YoucanfindthisnumberatthetopofyourpaperpermitnexttoNAGFAID.Thisisdifferentthanthenumberyouwilluseforthecampingenvelope.ArrivingatthecampgroundFollowthecampingregistrationproceduresatthecampground.Generallythisinvolvesprovidinginformationrequestedonaregistrationformorenvelope.Youdonotneedtoplaceanythinginsidetheenvelope.SeeillustrationonhowtofilloutthefeeenvelopebelowATTENTIONCampersByAlexWrobelGLIFWCForestEcologist4.Enterpermitholdersvehicleplate5.Stateofplate6.Homezipcode1.Fillintribalpermithere10.NAGFAPermitNumber2.Indicatenumberofdays.Maximumis14days.3.Fillindateofarrival7.UnithereSpecifynumberofdaysregisteredforsite.Dateofregistration11.Specifydeparturedate1.EnterTribalPermit.2.Indicateonlythenumberofdaysyouplantostay.Donotenter14daysifyoudonotintendtostayfor14days.Letthecampgroundconcessionaireknowifyouplantobegoneduringthedays.3.Enteryourdateofarrival.4.Inspaces4-6enterthepermitholdersvehicleinformation.7.Enterthecampgroundunitwhereyouwillstay.10.Thisiswhereyouwillenterthenumberlocatedonyourpermitnexttoyourcampingstamp.Examplepermit11.Enteryourdateofdeparture.DuringyourstayYouarerequiredtofollowallpostedcampgroundrulesandregulationsandnotethatsomerulesmaydifferbetweencampgrounds.BelowareexamplesofpostedrulesCampgroundRulesandRegulationsThefollowingrulesandregulationsapplywithinthisForestServiceCampground.Registrationandpaymentoffeesforuseofacampingunitmustbedonewithin30minutesfromtimeofarrival.Atleastonepersonmustoccupyacampingunitduringthefirst24hoursaftercampingequipmentissetup.Campingforlongerthan14consecutivedaysisprohibited.Leavingcampingequipmentunattendedformorethan24hoursisprohibited.Enteringorremaininginacampgroundbetween10PMand6AMexceptforpersonswhoareoccupyingsuchcampgroundsisprohibited.Parkingorleavingavehicleoutsideaparkingspaceassignedtoonesowncampunitisprohibited.Noparkingontheshoulderoftheaccessroadanywhereinthecampground.Usingadevelopedcampunitbymorethaneight8peoplepersiteisprohibited.Nocampingoffdesignatedsiteswithincampground.Possessingparkingorleavingmorethantwovehiclesexceptformotor-cyclesorbicyclespercampunitisprohibited.Pleasefollowpostedper-mittedvehiclesforcampunitsattheregistrationstation.Beingpubliclynudeisprohibited.Saddlepackordraftanimalsareprohibitedinthecampground.Quiethoursarefrom10PMto6AM.Pleaserespectyourneighbors.Noradiosgeneratorsorlouddiscussionsduringthistime.DischargingorignitingafireworksorexplosivesonNationalForestSystemlandsandsitesisprohibited.Alldogsmustbeonaleashorcratedandunderphysicalcontrol.Theymaynotbeleftunattendedonacampunit.Dogsandsaddlepackordraftanimalsareprohibitedonpublicbeaches.Violationsoftheseprohibitionsarepunishablebyafineofnotmorethan5000foranindividualor10000foranorganizationorimprisonmentfornotmore.than6monthsorboth.16USC55118.USC3559and3571 MAZINAIGANPAGE10SPRINGSUMMER2014MOUSEEDBANKTheheadforesterintheEasternRegionparticipatedintheTribalForestServiceMOUmemorandumofunderstandingmeetinglastFebruary.TherichhistorybetweentheForestServiceandareatribesisimpressivesaidKathleenAtkinsonattendingherfirstgather-ingwithOjibwetreatybands.Ilookforwardworkingwiththetribestocontinuallyimproveourgovernment-to-governmentrelationships.AtkinsonassumedtheforesterpostayearagoafterthreedecadesofworkonnationalforestsinGeorgiaFloridaLouisianaArizonaandSouthDakotasBlackHillsplusdutyinWashingtonDC.ShesaidrelationsbetweentheForestServiceandAmericanIndiantribeshaveimprovedsignificantlyduringhercareerpoint-ingtothesuccessoftheMOUasanexample.Itsnotaneasyprocessdoingthingsthatworkforeverybodyshesaid.Werefocusedonmeetingneedsnotjustcompletingagoal.TheMOUwasforgedinthelate1990stooutlinetheexerciseoftreatyrightsonnationalforestswithinthe18361837and1842Treatycededterritories.TribalandUSDAForestServiceofficialsmeetannuallytoreviewprogressimplementingtheagreementwhichincludesforestproductharvestingandcooperativeresearchprojects.NowstationedattheRegionalOfficeinMilwaukeeAtkinsongrewupona120-acrefarminsouthwestMichigan.HereducationincludesaBachelordegreeinForestryfromtheUniversityofMichiganandaMasterinPublicAdministra-tionfromtheUniversityofSouthDakota.RegionalForestercompletesfirstyearjoinstribesatMOUtableKathleenAtkinson.PhotobyCORasmussenByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffwriterVITFmovestopursuegatheringandsavingseedsBySueEricksonStaffWriterTribalrepresentativesopenedtheMOUmeetingwithapairofsongsontheGLIFWCdrum.USDAForestServiceofcialsappearseatedinthebackground.PhotobyCORCooperativeNationalForestmanagementharvestshapesMOUcallthepracticetimberstandimprovementbutinthiscaseculledtreesleavetheforestfortribalwoodstoves.ItsanicewaytofilltheneedforhomeheatingintribalcommunitieswhilecompletingforestrypracticesonnationalforestlandssaidMaryRasmussenUSForestServicetriballiaison.Dramaticfluctuationsthispastwinterinthepriceofpropanegascommonlyusedtoheatnorthwoodshomesmakeswoodanotablealternativefueltoconsider.LacduFlambeaumembersfiredupchainsawsatthefirsttribalgatheringtractinlate2012removingselecthardwoodsfromtheChequamegon-NicoletNationalForest.RasmussenandLdFrepresentativesmarkedtheoccasionwithanoutdoorpipeceremony.ContactWrobel715.682.6619ext.2125togetstartedonatribalfirewoodparcel.LacduFlambeauWis.FifteenyearsafterforgingtheTribalForestServiceMemorandumofUnderstandingMOUitsadministratorssaidthatthehistoricagreementhashelpedelevaterelationsbetweenGLIFWCmemberbandsandNationalForestmanagersinthecededterritory.OurMOUissomethingIbragaboutsaidMicIshamGLIFWCBoardofCommissionersChairmanattheFebruary5annualmeeting.Imtryingtogetcountiestolookatitasamodel.WhiletheMOUpactisnotapplicabletocountyforestsitdoesspell-outguidelinesforthetreatyharvestofwildplantsandotherforestproductsonNationalForestsitalsoprovidesafoundationforcooperativeworkbetweenagencybiolo-gistsandlawenforcementofficers.TheworkthatthisMOUrepresentsisamazingsaidKathleenAtkinsonUSDARegionalForester.UndertheMOUinteragencybiologistscarryoutmartenwaabizheskiresearchandstudytheimpactsofloggingonherbaceousplants.Lawenforcementofficersconductjointpatrolsandworktostopillegalgrowersfromdestroyingforestlandtoproducemarijuana.TheUSDANorthernResearchStationisalsoasignatorymemberoftheMOUandhelpstoincorporateTEKortraditionalecologicalknowledgeintohowforestsareunderstoodandmanagedbyallstakeholdersMOUannualmeetingsaretypicallyheldinOctoberhoweverschedulingconflictsandultimatelythefederalgovernmentshutdownforcedofficialstopostponethe2013meetinguntilFebruary.FirewoodPlannowforhomeheatingFollowingthesuccessfullaunchofatribalfirewoodgatheringsiteonNationalForestlandGLIFWCofficialsareencouragingwoodcutterstoplanforthe2014-15seasonassoonaspossible.ItsaprocessthattakesconsiderablecoordinationbetweenthetribalcommunityandpropertymanagerssaidAlexandraWrobelGLIFWCForestEcologist.Treatyharvestersshouldfirstdeterminetreespeciesfire-woodvolumeanddesiredlocation.Throughaprovisioninthe1999TribalForestServiceMemorandumofUnderstandingthecededterritorysfournationalforestsprovidefirewoodgatheringopportunitiesinWisconsinandMichigan.GLIFWCstaffisalsoconsultingwithtribalelderstolearnmoreappropriateapplicationsofTEKintofirewoodharvestplans.Recentlysometribalfirewoodlocationsweresitedwithinplannedtimbermanagementactivities.Forexampledesignatedrestorationparcelscharacterizedbyovercrowdedorcrookedtreescanbeanidealspottocutandcollectfirewood.ForestersByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffwriterOdanahWis.TheVoigtInter-tribalTaskForcepassedamotionatitsAprilmeetingtopursueaMemorandumofUnderstandingMOUwiththeUniversityofMinnesotasNorthCen-tralResearchStationasasteptowardspreservingnativeseeds.ThemovetopreserveseedsisstimulatedbythedestructionofmillionsofnativeashtreesbothaagimaakblackashandbaapaagimaakwhiteashbythevoraciousemeraldashborerEABanexoticbeetleoriginatinginAsia.In2013thebeetlewasfoundinSuperiorWisconsinintheheartofthecededterritoriessothethreattonativeashisimminent.Collectingseedsandputtingtheminlong-termstorageisawayofpreservingthegeneticdiversityneededtorecreatelocationpopulationsintheeventtheEABcompletelydestroystheashresourceinthecededterritoriesstatesGLIFWCForestEcologistAlexWrobel.Wrobelexplainsthatseedscanremainviableforupto20yearsifproperlydriedandstoredataconstanttemperatureandrelativehumidity.NativeseedscanbecollectedandsenttotheNorthCentralResearchStationwheretheywouldbecleanedanddriedandultimatelysenttoalargenationalseedbanktheNationalCenterforGeneticResourcesPreservationinFt.CollinsColorado.TheMOUessentiallyassuresthatthetribesretainownershipoftheseedandalsowillbetheonlycontactforrequestsforseedwithdrawal.Ashtreescontinuetobeanimpor-tantresourcefortheOjibwepeoplewhohaveincorporatedashintoavarietyofutilitarianandartistichand-crafteditemssuchasbasketspushpolesbowsskisandcradleboardsWrobelsays.Whilethethreattonativeashisattheforefrontofconcerncurrentlytherehasbeenamovementunderwaytosecureseedsfromavarietyofnativeplantssuchaspumpkinssquashandcornwhoseintegritycanbethreatenedbygeneticallymodifiedvarietiescur-rentlybeingsoldandplanted.ToaddressthisissueafederalbillstemmingfromtheNewMexicodelegationwasintroducedinDecember2013thatwouldprovidefederalgrantsforresearcheducationandtrainingtopreservetheintegrityofNativeAmeri-canseedsusedforculturalreligiousagriculturalandotherpurposes.TheNativeAmericanSeedsProtectionActH.R.3782anditscompanionintheSenateS.2116wouldalsoprovidemoreseedstoragefacilitiesiftheyarepassed.ForapowerfulpresentationontheimportanceofnativeseedsviewWinonaLaDukespresentationSeedstheCreatorGaveUsonYouTube. PAGE11MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2014WILDLIFEOdanahWis.Thereisnodoubtaboutitthatthiswinterhasbeenlongandcold.Eventhosehardyindividualswhoenjoyoutdoorwinteractivitieswerereadytoseespringcomethisyear.Myguessisthatourungulatedenizensthosedeerandelkofthenorthwoodswerealsoeagertoseegreengrassandyoungleavesafterthedeepandlastingsnowcoverchallengedtheirsurvivalthroughoutthecededterritories.ThisincludesthecededterritoryinMinnesotaandstretchestotheeasternUpperPeninsula.Everyonewondershowlargeatollwintertookonthesevaluableherds.ThemethodsusedtomeasurewinterseverityvaryasonemovesfromMinnesotatoWisconsinandthentoMichiganbuttheyalluseacombinationofsnowdepthandminimumtemperatures.InWisconsinthenumberofdaysthesnowisdeeperthan18inchesandthenumberofdaysthattheminimumtemperatureisbelowzeroaretallied.IfthesumofthesetwomeasuresfromDecember1throughApril30isabove100thewinterisclassifiedassevere.Ifabove120itiscalledverysevere.ThisyearaverageWinterSeverityIndexWSIvaluewas135amongthehighesteverrecorded.WhenWSIvaluesreachtheveryseverelevelweexpecttolosedeerandotherwildlifetooverwintermortality.Generallythefawnsaremostsusceptiblefollowedbyadultbuckswholosetheirfatduringtherutandthenadultdoes.Overwinterstressalsocaninfluencethenumberoffawnsproducedthefollowingspringandtheirsurvivability.Wintercanbehardondeerthisfarnorth.Deerandelkthatliveinthenorthmustbeadaptedtosurvivelongcoldwin-terswithlotsofsnow.Severewinterslikewehavejustexperiencedserveapurposetoweedoutmaladaptedanimalsthosewhocannotsurvivetheseharshcondi-tions.Itistheseconditionswhichmakethedeerherdstrong.Butitisimportantalsothatwildlifemanagerscanrespondtotheseconditionswhenconsideringharvestlevelsinthecomingyear.WisconsinwaawaashkeshiwagdeerTherehavebeenchangesimplementedinWisconsindeermanagementthisyearasaresultoftheDeerTrusteeReportandtheimplementationoftherecom-mendationsitcontained.Oneimportantchangeinvolvedtheadoptionofcountiesasdeermanagementunitsdiscontinuingtheuseoftheoldunitsystem.Thisinvolvedchangingpopulationestimatesfromtheoldunitstothenewcounty-basedunits.Thiswasacomplextaskbutdidnotchangetheapparentoutcomeoftheeffectsofwinterondeerpopulations.Deerpopulationswillbelowerinthefallof2014thantheywereinthefallof2013inmostofthecountiesinthecededterritorythiswillnotbetrueinfarmlandcounties.Inmostyearsasdeerpopulationsgofrompostseasonearlywinterthroughallofthewinterdeerpopulationsdeclineasdeerdie.Whenspringtimecomesandfawnsarebornthepopulationtakesajumpupwards.Thenfawnsdiedur-ingthesummerandthepopulationdeclinesagain.Usuallytherearemoredeeralivejustpriortothehuntingseasonthanwerealivejustafterthepreviousyearshuntingseason.HoweverthisyearitisexpectedthattherewillbefewerdeerinSeptemberthanwerehereinlastDecember.Theresultsoftheseverewinterandtheeffectsonpopulationlevelsmeansthatantlerlessdeerharvestsshouldbereduced.TheWisconsinDepartmentofNaturalResourcesWDNRandGLIFWCareworkingtogethertoensurethatthenewmanagementsystemwhichisinplaceaftertheDeerTrusteeReportimplemen-tationcontinuestoprotectandenhancedeerpopulationsinthecededterritory.WisconsinomashkoozoogelkInmuchthesamewaythatwinterseverityaffectsdeeritcanhavesimilareffectsonelk.Butelkcantoleratedeepersnowandcoldertemperaturesthandeer.Theyhavelongerlegstonavigatethedeepsnowandtheirlargebodysizeprovidesforalargersurfaceareavolumeratiowhichhelpstoconserveenergy.Buteventheelkfelttheeffectsofwinterthisyear.Severalyounganimalshavediedduetostarvationoneoftheonlyyearsinwhichstarvationmortalityhasbeendocumented.InMarch2014biologistsfromtheWDNRUSForestServiceGLIFWCandseveraltribesmettoreviewtheWisconsinelkpopulationstatusandtomakearecommendationforahuntingseasonin2014.AccordingtotheWDNRrulestheelkstipulationbetweenthetribesandDNRnoelkhuntingseasoncanoccuruntiltheelkpopulationexceeds200animals.AssimpleasthistaskappearsitisHighwinterseverityindexinWis.suggestshigherthannormaldeerelkmortalityByJonGilbertPhDGLIFWCWildlifeBiologistChi-biboonsparksemergencydeerfeedinginMinnFondduLacrezAFondduLacNaturalResourcestechnicianandawhite-taileddeereyeeachotheratanemergencyfeedingsiteontheFDLreservation.MikeSchragephoto.InsetCommerciallyprocesseddeerfeedcontainsvitaminsandmixedgrains.CORByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffWriterSeeDeerElkmortalitypage23CloquetMinn.AfterthreemonthsofunyieldingheavysnowsandfrigidtemperaturesresidentsoftheFondduLacReservationFDLcametothesameconclusionthelocaldeerherdneedsahelpinghand.Withvocalsupportfromtribalmembersbackedbynon-nativeslivingontheeasternMinnesotareservationFDLofficialsjoinedthestatesemergencydeerfeedingprogram.ItsimpressivetoseethenumberofpeoplewantingtohelpdeerthisyearsaidMikeSchrageFDLwildlifebiologist.TherehavebeenallsortsofpeoplethatIwouldntnormallyhavecontactwith.Onesuretakeawayisthatmanynorthlandersarepartialtowhite-taileddeer.Themorenebulousdeductionistheimpactemergencyfeedingwillactuallyhaveonlocalherdnumbers.SomedeerdiedinspiteofourfeedingwhileotherswouldhavemadeitanywaySchrageexplained.Somedeerwecertainlyhelpedandpregnantdoesmayhavegoneintofawningseasoninbettercondition.InspiteofsomeinitialconcernsthatwolveswouldfindthedeerfeedingsitesandtakeadvantageofthesituationIveheardnoreportsofwolveskeyingintothosesitesatFondduLac.Thefeedlookslikerabbitpelletsandothercommerciallyavailableanimalforagebutitsspecificallyformulatedwithvitaminsandmixedgrainsforwilddeer.BeginninginearlyMarchFDLNaturalResourcesstaffandcommu-nityvolunteersdistributed5000-6000poundsoffeedeachweekuntillateApril.Morethantwentybackwoodsdrop-spotsscatteredacrossthe101000-acrereservationreceivedweeklyallocationsofthedeerchow.Schrageestimatesthat300-400deervisitedthesitesonaweeklybasis.Wepunchedintrailswithsnow-mobilesawayfromroadsgenerallyinareaswithheavyconifercover.ForthemostpartitdidnttakedeerlongtolocatethefoodSchragesaid.TheMinnesotaDeerHuntersAssociationcoordinatedfeedingeffortsinhuntingzoneswheretheWinterSeverityIndexWSIexceeded100byFebruary15.Theareaincludespubliclandsinboththe1837and1854Treatycededterritories.InMinnesotatheWSIisfactoredbytallyingdayswithsnowdepthgreaterthan15plusthenumberofdayswithtemperaturesbelowzero.Thebulkoftheemergencyfeedwenttolocationsnorth-by-northwestofthereservationbypassingtheArrowheadregionwherewildlifemanagerswanttokeepdeerdensitieslowtohelpreducediseasetransmissionfromwhitetailstomoose.Minnesotasemergencydeerfeed-ingprogramwasbornoutoftheseveredouble-whammywintersof1995-96and1996-97whennorthernresidentscalledontheDepartmentofNaturalResourcesDNRtorushfeedsnow-boundwhitetails.Thestatetackedona50-centsurchargetoeachdeerhuntinglicenseandearmarkedthemoneyforemergencyfeedandwhitetaildiseasetesting.DNRauthoritieshowevergavethe2014initiativealukewarmrecep-tioncitingconcernsaboutthespreadofdiseaseamongconcentrateddeerandtheinabilityoftheefforttomakemuchofadifferenceinthedeerpopulationatthebroadlandscapelevel.SaidSchrageWedonthaveanypositivediseaseresultstoworryaboutinthispartofMinnesota.Themoneywasalreadythereandfeedingcertainlyhashelpedsomedeer.OverallIthinkitsbeenapositiveexperience.Peoplefeelbetterfortryingtohelp. MAZINAIGANPAGE12UpdateoncliinthecededOdanahWis.Backinthespring2006issueoftheMazinaiganwetriedtopresentanoverviewoftheclimatechangeissue.NamelywhatisitHowwillitaffecttribesandtreatyresourcesWhyshouldweworryAtthattimethebestwecoulddowasprovideanoverviewandsomegeneralizedconclusionsaboutwhattoexpect.Nowwecandoabitbetter.Therehavebeenvastadvancesinthescienceofmodelingandpredictingclimatechangeeffectsandtherehavebeenadvancesintheabilitytodescribetheexpectedchangesatscalethatmakessensetomostofus.Sadlytherehasalsobeenanincreaseinthelevelofnoiseandconfusionregardingtheissuethatistheresultofanefforttodenythatclimatechangeisoccurring.ThisarticlewillattempttoprovidesomeclarityonbothoftheseissuesandwillprovideasummaryofGLIFWCsworkonclimatechange.IsclimatechangerealOrisitahoaxFromascientificperspectivetheongoingdenialoftherealityofclimatechangeisdisturbing.Therefusaltoacceptclimatechangeisbasedonanumberofirrationalbeliefsthatarenotworthyofaresponsethingslikegovernmentconspiraciesandecoterrorism.Therearetwoargumentsagainstclimatechangepredictionsthatareworthyofaresponse.FirstthatcomputermodelsthatareusedtomakepredictionsareincorrectandsecondthatthewarmingthathasbeenrecordedoverthelastfewdecadesispartoflongtermnaturalcyclesoftheEarth.Onthefirstargumentallcomputermodelshaveerrorandnosinglemodelcanclaima100accuratetrackrecordonpredictingchangesinclimate.Thatiswhythepredictionsoffutureclimatesalwaysrelyonacombinationofdozensofthesemodelsbasicallyanaverageoftheiroutput.Thesemodelshavebeenavailableformanyyears.Comparisonsbetweenaggregatedmodelresultsandactualmeasureddataacrosstheworldhavevalidatedthemodelingeffort.Inanutshellsomemodelspredictlowertemperaturesandsomemodelspredicthighertemperaturesthanwhathasbeenobserved.HoweverdespitethisvariabilitytheoverallpredictedclimatechangesignalisaccurateFigure1IPCC2014.Thesecondargumentalsofailswhenscientificallyexamined.Extensiveanaly-sishasshownthatthereisa0.1chancethatMotherNatureissolelyresponsibleforthedegreeofglobalwarmingthattheplanethasexperiencedsince1880.Putanotherwaythereisa99.9confidencethatclimatechangeisrealandcausedbyhumanactivity.Lovejoy2014Lovejoyisnotaloneindrawingtheseconclusions.FromNovemberof2012throughDecemberof2013approximately2200climatechangearticleswerepublishedinpeer-reviewedjournals.Onlyoneoftheseconcludedthatmanmadeclimatechangedidnotexist.Powell2014SowhywasthiswintersocoldByallaccountsthispastwinterseasonwasverycold.AnishinaabegGichigamiwascompletelyfrozenformuchofthewinteranddangerouslycoldairtemperaturesof-30Fwerenotuncommon.Ataglancethiscoldseemstocontradicttheassertionthattheplanetisgettingwarmerandthatclimatesarechanging.HoweverwhiletheGreatLakesregionwasverycoldtheplanetasawholestillexperiencedverywarmtemperatures.InfacttheJanuary-Marchglobaltemperatureaveragewinterwasthe4thwarmesteverrecorded.Eventhecoldweathercouldbeanindicationthatclimatesarechanging.Oneofthemostobvioussignsofclimatechangeisincreasinginstabilityintheatmosphereandanincreaseinextremeweathereventsincludingextremecoldtemperatures.Thislastwinterthemediagavealotofcoveragetothepolarvortexthatwasblamedforthecold.Whileitsaccuratetosaythatthecoldwastheresultofpolarairmovingintothecededterritoriesthepolarvortexisadifferentfeaturealtogether.Thepolarvortexisanamegiventoawindpatternthatcirclesaroundthearctic.Thewindpatternformsattheborderofthefrigidarcticairmassandthewarmerairmasstothesouth.Onceinawhilethevortexbecomesweakerandthisallowsthearcticairtomovefurthersouththanusual.Thecriticalpointisindescribingthereasonsthatcausethepolarvortextoweaken.Dataindicatesthatthemorearcticicemeltsduringthesummertheweakerthepolarvortexbecomesthefollowingwinter.ThisisbecauseliquidwaterradiatesmoreheatintotheatmospherethanicedoesandthisheatdisruptsthepolarvortexFigure2.Itiswellknownthatarcticicehasbeendisappearingmoreandmoreeverysummerduetoclimatechange.ThistrendisexpectedtocontinuebecausethearcticiswarmingveryquicklyandthereforeitisreasonabletoexpectmanyreturnvisitsoffrigidarcticairtotheLakeSuperiorregioninthefuture.Greene2012ClimatechangeinthecededterritoriesTheWisconsinInitiativeonClimateChangeImpactsWICCIwasoneofthefirstgroupsintheworldtoattempttocharacterizetheeffectsofclimatechangeonspecificplacesandresources.Untilrecentlymodelsofclimatechangescenarioshavebeenglobalinscalewhichisnotofmuchuseinnaturalresourcemanagement.ScientistsfromtheUniversityofWisconsinhavedownscaledtheglobalclimatechangemodelstospecificallyassesstheexpectedchangesinclimateacrossthecededterritories.Thedataconsistsoftwoparts.FirstProfessorDanVimontofUW-Madisonconductedthedownscalingof12globalclimatemodelstoamuchfinerscale.Theresultsprovideinsightintotheclimatechangeimpactsthatthecededterritorieswillexperienceoverthenext100years.SecondProfessorChrisKucharikofUW-Madisondevelopedacollectionofmostoftheavailableclimatedatae.g.temperatureandprecipitationrecords.Thisdatasetofweatherobservationswasusedtoinvestigateclimatechangesthathaveoccurredfrom1960tothepresentandtoprovideacomparisonforthedownscaledmodels.Theresultshavebeenpeer-reviewedandthereisverygoodagreementbetweentheobserveddataandthemodeledpredictions.Theresultsindicatethatthecededterritoriesarelikelytoundergosomesignifi-cantchangesinthenext50years.UsingWisconsinasanexamplesince1950thestatesaveragetemperaturehasincreasedby1FhoweverthisstatewidenumberByJenVanatorGLIFWCGreatLakesProgramCoordinatorandEstebanChiribogaGLIFWCGISMappingSpecialistFigure1.Graphcomparingclimatemodeloutputwithobservedtemperaturedata.Themeasuredtemperaturesblacklinefallswithintherangeofvariabilityofthevariousmodeloutputsandprovidescondencethatthemodelsprovidereasonablepredictionsoffutureclimates.Figure2.Anillustrationoftheweakpolarvortex3whichleadstoarcticairmovingfurthersouththannormal4.Thereisa99.9confidencethatclimatechangeisrealandcausedbyhumanactivity.Lovejoy2014CLIMATE PAGE13MAZINAIGANClimatechangethreatensthesoulofWisconsintribesByGregoryHitchNicholasHunterForMazinaiganatechangeerritoriesdoesnotreflectsomeregionaldifferencesintheeffectsthroughoutthecededter-ritory.ThewesternhalfoftheWisconsincededterritoryhaswarmedmorethantheeasternhalf.PrecipitationhasalsochangedwithageneraltrendtowardsdryconditionsalongLakeSuperior.Thedataindicatesthatclimatechangeeffectswillbecomemorepronouncedoverthenext50years.Thereisa95probabilitythata4to6degreeaveragetemperatureincreasewilloccurinthenext50years.Themostpronouncedeffectsarepredictedtooccurduringthewinterseasonwhereanincreaseintemperaturesof6to8degreesisforecast.Summertemperaturesarepredictedtoincreaseby4to6degrees.Changesinprecipitationarealsoexpectedwithageneraltrendtowardsdriersummersanddecreasedsnowinwinter.ThesenumbersvarydependingonthescenariosusedtoestimatetheamountofCO2intheatmospherebutitisclearthatsomechangeshavealreadyoccurredandmoresignificantchangeswilloccurWICCI2011.Aninteractivewebpagewww.wicci.wisc.eduisavailablewhereonecanviewthedifferentscenariosandthepredictedeffectsduringdifferentseasons.Asmentionedearlierinthisarticleextremetemperatureandprecipitationeventsareexpectedtobecomemorecommon.InadditiontomanyotherclimatechangeinitiativesGLIFWCstaffarecurrentlyworkingonaprojectthatwillcharacterizewhattheexpectedchangesintemperatureandprecipitationmeanformanyoftheresourcesthattribesharvestwiththehopethatthiswillprovidemanagersatGLIFWCandtribalnaturalresourcesagencieswithatoolthatcanbeusedtopreparetribesforfutureclimates.MoredetailsontheotherprojectsGLIFWCisundertakingareprovidedbelow.GLIFWCworkonNationalandBinationalclimatechangeinitiativesGLIFWCstaffwasactiveintheproductionoftheNationalFishWildlifeandPlantsClimateAdaptationStrategyanationalgovernment-widestrategymeanttocoordinatefederalstatetribalandlocalactivitiesaddressingtheexpectedclimateimpactsonfishwildlifeandplants.TheStrategywaspubliclyreleasedlastyearandGLIFWCstaffhassincebeenworkingaspartoftheStrategysImplementa-tionWorkingGrouptodevelopaplantoimplementtheStrategy.ThegoaloftheimplementationplanistoencouragetheStrategytobeincorporatedintoasmanyclimatechangeplansandactionsaspossiblethoseoffederalstateandtribalgovernmentsaswellasanyotherentitydevelopingaplan.GLIFWCstaffhasbeenassistingthechairwomanofoneofitsmembertribesChairwomanKarenDiveroftheFondduLacBandofMinnesotainherroleontheWhiteHousesStateLocalandTribalLeadersTaskForceonClimatePreparednessandResilience.TheTaskForcewascreatedtoproviderecommenda-tionstothePresidentonhowthefederalgovernmentcanhelptriballocalandstategovernmentsprepareforandrecoverfromtheeffectsofclimatechange.GLIFWCstaffhasalsobeenactiveinaddressingclimatechangeintheimple-mentationofthenewGreatLakesWaterQualityAgreementGLWQAbetweentheUnitedStatesandCanada.TheGLWQAestablishedaGreatLakesExecutiveCommitteeGLECtohelpimplementcoordinateandreviewprogramsandactivitiesthatareundertakenpursuanttotheAgreement.TheGLECismadeupofrepresentativesfromthetwofederalgovernmentsstateprovincialtribalandAculturallyimportantresourcemanoominwildricecouldbeimpactednegativelybyclimatechange.PhotobyCORasmussenOdanahWis.ForthousandsofyearsindigenouspeopleinWisconsinhuntedfishedandgatheredforsubsistenceandtrade.TheseactivitiesinpartdefineWisconsintribalculturesincludingtheLakeSuperiorOjibwe.Howeverscientificandobservableevidenceindicateshuman-inducedclimatechangeisuponusandistearingattheculturalandecologicalfabricthatknitsOjibwecommunitiestogether.ManoominorwildriceiscitedintheOjibweoriginstoryandiscentraltotheirspiritualitybutmaybethreatenedbyclimatechange.ForourEnvironmentalStudiesCapstoneCourseattheUniversityofWisconsin-MadisonwetraveledtotheBadRiverOjibwereservationandmetwithtribaleldersHilaryButlerandJohnDenomietobetterunderstandthehumanandculturalimpactsofclimatechange.TheBadRivercommunityisexperiencingthefrontlineofclimatechangeimpactsifthisisnotaddressedtheircultureeconomyandidentitycouldbeirrevocablyaltered.Fishingandgatheringtranscendsimplesubsis-tencepractices.Theyarespiritualaswellaseconomicbringingthecommunitytogetherthroughstoriesandthesharingofecologicalknowledge.Howeveraccord-ingtotheLakeSuperiorClimateChangeImpactsandAdaptationReportmoreintenserainfalleventswilltriggerincreasedrunoffpollutionmakingwaterlesssuitableforwildricehabitat.Thisrunoffalsofacilitatestheintroductionofinvasivespeciesandincreasessilt-ationthreateningtheKakagon-BadRiverSloughsaRamsarWetlandofInternationalImportance.Extremechangesinwaterlevelsduetodroughtandfloodinghavealreadyoccurredonthereservationandareprojectedtointensify.ButleralongtimewildriceharvesterspokeofthefirsttimetheKakagonSloughswereclosedIn2012wehadbigstormsthatuprootedtheplantsbeforetheyhadestablishedthemselvesTherejustwasntanyriceoutthereforpeopletohar-vestImsurethathadtodowithclimatechange.ElderssuchasButlerhaveTraditionalEcologicalKnowledgeTEKfromexperiencespanningdecadesandgenerations.TEKiscrucialtounderstandingtheprofoundchangesoccurringandwillhelpguidefuturerestorationprojects.LakeSuperiorcoastalsloughsarealsothreatenedbydroughtThefirstyeartheyclosedKakagonSloughthewaterlevelswerewaydownButlertoldusyoucouldwalkonthemuckwhereusuallytherewasopenwater.Furthermorewarmerwatertempera-turesininlandlakescanimpactwildrice.FinallytheecologicalresourcestheOjibwereliedonforcenturiesaresimplynolongerdependable.AsDenomiealsoalongtimewildriceharvestersharedOneyearitmightbeexcellentplentyofriceforeverybody.ThefollowingyearitcouldbeabadseasonbecauseofwaterfluctuationsclimatetemperatureespeciallyinnorthernWisconsin.Human-inducedclimatechangeisuponusandwillbefeltbyallbuttheBadRiverOjibwearealreadyfeelingtheimpacts.Thisisanissueofenvironmentaljusticeasclimatechangeisfallinghardestuponthoseleastculpableforpollutingtheatmosphere.TheBadRiverOjibwehaveresistedindustrializationontheirreservationtopreservelandwaterandwildlifehabitat.Neverthelesstheirculturalidentityandeconomicliveli-hoodisatriskduetopollutionfromtheindustrializedworld.Thisisjustanotherreasononamountinglistoftheabsolutenecessityforactiononclimatechange.EditorsnoteThisarticlewassubmittedaspartofaNelsonInstituteforEnvironmentalStudiescapstoneentitledWaterStewardshipandSovereigntyintheBadRiverOjibweCommunityinstructedbyJessieConaway.ProjectedChangeinWisconsinsannualaveragetemperatureFfrom1980to2055.SeeClimatechangeinitiativespage23CHANGE MAZINAIGANPAGE14SPRINGSUMMER2014YOUTHOUTREACHIshpaagoonikaaDeepSnowCampteacheswintersurvivalByJordanMcKellipsGLIFWCWardenLacduFlambeauWis.Imaginesnowshoeingintheglisteningnorthwoodsenjoyingtheawesomesurroundingswhenyourealizethatyouarelostdeepinthesnow-coveredforest.WouldyoubeabletosurviveForhowlongYouthfromsixdifferenttribesacrossWisconsinandMichigannowhaveabetterunderstandingofhowtheywouldsurviveinaharshwinterenvironmentifcircumstancesrequiredit.TheyspentaweekendontheLacduFlambeauLdFreservationinearlyFebruaryexperiencingoutdoorwintersurvivalandtraditionalecologicalknowledgeduringGLIFWCsthirdannualwinterculturalcampIshpaagoonikaaDeepSnowCamp.Thecampsgoalistogetyouthunpluggedfrommoderntechnologythatcanfailandgetthempluggedintotheoutdoorsandtheirgrandfathersandgrandmotherswaysoflivingwiththelandtosurviveharshnorthernwinters.Youthengageintreatyharvestsandtraditionalskillsthatwillpromotetheirrelation-shipwiththeEarthandallitsrelativesandalsowiththemselvessaidGLIFWCOutreachOfficerandCampDirectorHeatherNaigus.Youthwhoweresplitintothreegroupshuntersfishersandgathererslearnedhowtosurvivetheele-mentsofharshwintersbyfindingfoodmakingheatandcreatingshelter.Thecampencourageshealthyeatingsocampersalsolearnedhowtopreparetraditionallyharvestedfoods.LdFTribalChairmanTomMaulsonwelcomedthestudentstothereservationwithanopeningceremonyonSaturday.BobShimekoftheWhiteEarthreservationinMinnesotaalsosharedastoryonhowthesnowsnakegamewasstartedanditsculturalimportancetotribalpeoples.Shimekhasbeenteachingthetraditionalwayofthesnowsnakesince1992.OutsideintheelementsGLIFWCofficersguidedyouthintraditionalspearingthroughtheice.Theyalsolearnedabouttrap-pingandfurswiththeassistanceofretiredDNROfficerMikeMack-enzie.LacVieuxDesertmemberandwisdomsharerRogerLaBineengagedstudentsinfishingusingtraditionaltip-upsmadefromacedardecoy.Theeveningwasfilledwithpre-colonialcookingfromtheGLIFWCTraditionalFoodsPro-gramandEthnicTheater.ShimekandFondduLacmemberNikkiCroweassistedthestudentsincreatingtheirownsnowsnakesmadefromredmaple.OnSundayimmersedinthecrispfrigidaircamp-erscreatedwintersheltersbuiltfiresandparticipatedinanexcitinggameofsnowsnakewheretheirnewlycreatedsnakeswereputtothetest.NextyearGLIFWCsIshpaagoonikaaCampwilltraveltoanewreservationasitwillrotatebetweenGLIFWCtribalcommunitieseveryyear.DontforgetaboutsummercampOnji-AkiingSummerCulturalCampiscomingupJuly21-252014seepage15.GLIFWCEnforcementChiefFredMaulsondemonstratesre-startingaspartofthelessonsinsurvivalduringtheIshpaagoonikaaDeepSnowCamplastwinter.PhotobyJordanMcKellipsWintergamesreturntoLdFLacduFlambeauWis.WhiletheWinterOlympicsproducedplentyofdramaandexcitementinRussiaawholelotofkidswilltellyoutherealactionwasinnorthernWisconsinatthethirdBibooni-Ataadiiwin.Wehaveagreattime.Itsalwaysfuntodothesekindofculturalactivi-tiessaidNicoleStaley-WaymanLacduFlambeauPublicSchool7thgrader.Ienjoycomingbackhereeveryyear.Staley-Waymanplusnearly400localstudentsparticipatedinthisyearsOjibweWinterGamesBibooni-Ataadi-iwinatYMCACampNawakwaonBigCrookedLake.Theold-schooloutdoorcompetitionincludingthesnowsnakegameatlatlspear-and-hooparcheryandsnowshoeraceswelcomedfifth-eighthgraders.Buttoneddowninfullwinter-wearstudentsfromtheLacduFlambeauLdFSchoolviedfortrophiesawardedtothetopthreeboysandgirlsineachevent.ThekidsarelearningourhistoryourlanguagegettingexerciseandatlunchhavingahealthytraditionalmealsaidLdFsWayneValliereaprogramcoordinator.OnFebruary19LdFseventhgradersworkedupheartyappetitesforalunchthatincludedveni-sonwildriceandpotatoesindigenousfoodshomemadebyPattiandAmberMitchell.Programcoordinatorsoutfittedcontestantswithstunninghardwoodgeargatheredfromnearbycededterritoryforests.LacduFlambeausoakridgesyieldedrawmaterialforatlatllaunchersandarrowssnowsnakeswerebornfromChequamegon-NicolethardmapleandreservationwoodlandsprovidedblackashforlacrossestickswhichfeaturedwovenleathernettingAneweventtoBibooni-Ataadi-iwinlacrossemadeitsfirstappearanceonthereservationincentury.Vallieresaidthelastorganizedlacrossematchoccurredin1910whenLacduFlambeauhostedBadRiver.Itdidnttakelongforthepresentgenerationtopickupthegamesfundamentalstocatchcarrypassandultimatelyshootaballintotheopponentsgoal.TheytooktoitlikeaducktakestowaterVallieresaid.Theyhadablast.Duringawinterthatlaunchedpolarvortexintotheregionallexiconthe2014gameswereespeciallywelltimedastemperaturesmadearareclimbintotheteensduringmuchofcamp-week.Kidshavebeenstuckindoorsalotthiswinter.Thisissomethingtheyreallyneededhesaid.OndayfivehoweverOldGaa-biboonikedtheonewhomakeswinterstagedacomebackclosingareaschoolsandpreventingstudentsfromnearbyLakelandSchoolDistrictfromjoiningthegames.TrappingItsnogameAtonestopontheround-robinstyleBibooni-Ataadiiwincompetitivespiritswereputasideasstudentstookinafurtrappingdemonstration.Thehow-totalkcoveredequipmentandcommontrap-pingscenariosonnorthwoodstraplines.InstructorsRileyBrooksfromGLIFWCandDepartmentofNaturalResourcesJulieBrooksbothconser-vationofficersstressedtheimportanceofavoidingnon-targetanimals.Aleg-holdtrapsetinashallowdirtholeforexampleisoneofthemostcommonmethodsforcatchingcarnivores.Thewardenssaidthatbaitusedtolurefoxandcoyotesmustbeconcealed.YoucanthaveexposedbaitlikevenisonmeatscrapssaidRileyBrooksashecoveredthecircularimpressionofatrapsetinthegroundwithanever-greenbranch.Abalsambranchdoesanicejobcoveringitup.Wedothistoprotectbirdsofpreyhawkseaglesowlsthatcouldspotitfromtheair.Througheducationandcloselyfol-lowingregulationsyoungpeoplecansuccessfullypursuealifetimeoftrappingandenjoyagreatwinteractivityintheoutdoors.Trapsmustbecheckedatleastevery24hourstopreventunduesufferingfortheanimal.Ifanon-targetanimallikeadoggetscaughtinaleg-holdtrapyoullbeabletoreleaseitingoodshapeBrookssaid.ByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffWriterLaunchingasnowsnake.CORGLIFWCOfcerRileyBrookscenterexplainshowbirds-of-preyusetheirexcellenteyesighttolocatefood.Rileytoldtheseventh-graderstocoverbaitedtrapswithanevergreenboughtoavoidunintentionallycatchingbirdslikehawks.JulieBrooksWisconsinDNRofcerleftjoinedBrooksatthetrappinginstructionstation.PhotobyCharlieOttoRasmussen PAGE15MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2014YOUTHOUTREACHGLIFWCisexcitedtoannounceour2014CulturalSummerCampProgramOnji-Akiingforgrades5-7AcollaborativeeffortbetweenGLIFWCandtheUSFSOnji-AkiingFromtheEarthisaculturaloutdooradventure-basedcampthatfocusesonnaturalresourcecareerexplorationandtreatyrights.ThiscampisheldatbeautifulCampNesbitnestledintheheartoftheOttawaNationalForestinSidnawMichiganalsohometothecallingloonsofLakeNesbit.Leadershipandservicelearningactivitiesareimportantaspectsofthisprogram.Activitiesalsofocusongroupcooperationandcommunicationproblem-solvingself-confidenceleadershipphysicalexercisespiritualgrowthsocialskillsaswellasrespectandresponsibilitytoselfandcommunity.Hands-onexperientialactivitiesincludeagroupobstaclecoursehighropescoursesweatlodgefishingarcheryswimmingcanoeinganimalandplantwisdomculturalexplorationandcooperativegames.CenteredontheMedicineWheelthiscampexploresNativeAmericantradi-tionalwaysandtraditionalecologicalknowledgebutalsolearningintheareasofforestrybiologyfisheriesandbotany.YouthwillworkwithstafffromGLIFWCandtheUSFS.Thiscampisfreeofcost.DeadlineforacceptingapplicationsisJune202014anditfillsupfastsoearlyapplicationsarewelcomed.RegistrationFormLakeNesbitEnvironmentalCenterSidnawMichiganJuly21252014ParticipantName_______________________________________Address______________________________________________City____________________State__________Zip__________Email__________________________________________Grade______________Age__________TribeAffiliation_______________________ifnoneleaveblankPhone___________________Pleaseattachanothersheetofpaperwithashortessayatleast100wordsonwhyyouwanttoattendCampOnji-Akiing.Includeanyspecialachieve-mentsandhowthiscampmighthelpyouinschoolyourcommunityandwithanylifegoals.Pleaseattachoneletterofrecommendationfromanadultnotrelatedtoyouaboutwhytheythinkyoushouldattendthecampandwillbenefitfromit.Studentsareacceptedonthebasisoftheiressaysrecommendationsandspaceavailability.Intheeventyouareacceptedyouwillbeexpectedtosignastatementsayingthatyouwillparticipatefullyinallactivitiesandparentsguardianswillhavetocompleteandsignhealthformsandpermissionsforallcampactivities.ForquestionsorconcernspleasecontactHeatherNaigusFredMaulson906-458-3778715-682-6619ext.113hnaigusglifwc.orgfmaulsonglifwc.orgMailapplicationessayandletterofrecommendationtoGLIFWCAttnCampRegistrationsPOBox9OdanahWI54861orHeatherNaigus253SilverCreekRoadMarquetteMI49855DeadlineforacceptingapplicationsisJune202014CampOnji-AkiingJuly21-252014ClipmailFdLReservationMinn.Therewerealotofsnowdaysthisyear.OnoneoftheminsteadofcrammingalgebraintomyheadItraveledtotheFondduLacFdLreservationinMinnesotaforalessononthetraditionalwaysofmypeoplesnowshoemakingThroughthissnowshoemakingexperienceImetmanywonderfulpeopleandlearnedsomuchmoreaboutthehonorableblackashtree.Thishands-onclasswasputtogetherbyNikkiCroweanFdLmemberwhoistheThirteenMoonsFondduLacCollegeExtensionProgramDirector.SheiscuteasabuttonandherprogramhelpsconnectthecommunitytoournaturalrelativeswhohavestrongtiestoOjibweculture.ThemaininstructorwasJohnGeisslerDirectorofBoulderLakeEnvironmentalCenter.HealsoworkswithNikkithroughtheMinnesotaMasterNaturalistProgram.Geisslersaidthathisinterestinsnowshoemakingstartedasanexperimentalhobby.Withoutanyplanshemadeacooljigforbendingwoodjustbyliningupsnowshoesonaplatformandthenhammeringinlittlepiecesofwoodaccordingtothecurveofthesnowshoe.Theblackashtreewasusedtomakeoursnowshoesframes.Firstthestraightgrainissoakedforsevendays.Nextitmustsetinaboxfullofhotsmokelikewhenapersongoesintoasauna.Thiswillhelpbendthewoodintothejigtocre-atetheframe.Thismustbedonewithin10minuteswhilethewoodisstillhot.Thepiecesarethendrilledtogetherusingcoppernailsaftertheyarefittedtothesnowshoeshape.Aftertheprocessofshapingthesnowshoeitmustsit2-3daysifinthewintermonthsoramonthifinthesummer.GeisslerandFondduLacElderBobDanielsonmadetheblackashsnowshoeframesweweregivenovera3-weekspan.Ialongwith21attendeeshadfunchattingawayaboutourOjibwewaysaswesowedtheinsideofourframeswithtoughparacord.IwillsayittakesalotofpatienceatfirstbutonceIfoundmyrhythmIstartedreallyenjoyingtheprocess.AninterestingfactIlearnedaboutblackashtreesisthattheyweremostprevalentinMichiganbutnowbecauseoftheemeraldashborerEABMinne-sotahasthemosthealthytrees.EABfirstarrivedfromAsiainDetroitMichiganin2002anddecimatedthehealthyashpopulation.Thisforestpestlovesashtreesandhasnonaturalpredatorshere.EABareashkillersIlovelearningaboutmycultureandthisclasstaughtmesomuchmostofalltobeproudofmyheritageandtotreateverythingasapreciousgift.ItslikeDanielsonsaidThepasthelpsusmaintainouridentityandwemustkeepspreadingourtraditions.Itismyresponsibilitytokeeppracticingmytraditionspassitontoothersandpromoterespectforallmyrelativeshumanandother.SnowshoesnowdayByNativeYouthAuthorMarandaMaulsonEnforcementhappeningsIn-servicetrainingAllGLIFWCwardensparticipatedintheannualin-servicetrainingwiththeWisconsinDepartmentofNaturalResources.HeldatFortHoodonFebruary11-13thetrainingisrequiredandfulfillsthetrainingstandardsfortheDepartmentofJustice.Thetrainingfocusedonevasivedrivingarresttacticsandqualifyingwithfirearms.LdFYouthExpoChiefFredMaulsonandWardenRogerMcGeshickparticipatedinthe2014YouthExpoatLacduFlambeauonMarch26.Theeventattractsmanycommu-nitymembersandisagoodopportunityforoutreach.GLIFWCofficershadtheGLIFWCairboatpresentandprovidedinformationalmaterialstoattendees.InadditiontoEnforcementLaTishaCoffinandOwenMaroneyfromGLIFWCstraditionalfoodsprogramMinoWiisinidaaLetsEatGoodwerealsopresentwithnutritionalinformation.IcecavesGLIFWCwardensassistedtheApostleIslandParkServicewithmonitoringtherecordnumberofvisitorstotheicecavesnearCornucopiaWisconsinthiswinter.Wellover100000visitorsfromallovertheworldmadetheirwaytothisnaturalwinterwonder.WardensmadetheGLIFWCairboataccessibleifneededandalsoprovideditsmobilecommandtraileraroundtheclockatMaryslandingincaseofemergencies.GLIFWCwardenswerealsopresentontheweekendstoassisttheParkServiceinassuringpublicsafety.Communityone-on-oneEnforcementOutreachOfficerHeatherNaigusdidatourofGLIFWCmemberreservationsrecruitingyouthforCampOnjiAkiingthissummer.ShetouchedbasewiththekidsattribalschoolsortribalBoysandGirlsClubs.Shesaidafirsthandaccountandalittleone-on-onehelpskidsandparentsunderstandwhatcampisallabout.Thecampisdesignedforabout40-50participants.BySueEricksonStaffWriterJohnGeisslerDirectorofBoulderLakeEnvironmentalCenterinMinnesotaworkswithMarandaMaulsonassheconstructsapairofsnow-shoes.Theworkshopattracted22attendeesandwasorganizedbyNikkiCroweFondduLacs13Moonsprogram.PhotobyHeatherNaigus MAZINAIGANPAGE16SPRINGSUMMER2014TREATYRIGHTSSquaxinWash.Theygassedusclubbedusdraggedusbeatus.ThosewerehardtimessaidPuyallupelderRamonaBennettrecallingthebrutaltreat-mentoftribalfishermenandtheirfamiliesbystateenforcementofficersduringthetreatyfishingrightsstruggleofthe1960sand70s.Thestruggleledtothelandmark1974rulingbyfederalJudgeGeorgeBoldtinU.S.v.Washington.Boldtsrulingupheldthetreaty-reservedsalmonharvestrightofthetribesestablishingthemasco-managersoftheresourceandaffirmingthetribalrighttohalfoftheharvestablesalmonreturningtotheirhistoricfishingsites.TribesgatheredinearlyFebruarytocelebratethe40thanniversaryoftheBoldtdecisionwithadaylongsymposiumlookingatthepastpresentandfutureofU.S.v.Washingtonandtribaltreatyrights.ThiswasthesametimeasthepeacestrikesandthecivilrightsmovementBennettsaid.Therewasachangegoingonandwegottobepartofthatchange.TheFishWarofthe1960sand70swasactuallythesecondTreatyWarsaidMuckleshoottribalmemberGilbertKingGeorge.ResearchhasshownthatfamilieswhofoughtinthesecondTreatyWarareinmostcasesdirectdescendantsofthewarriorsthatfoughtinthefirstTreatyWarof1855to56.Wewonbothwarsnomatterwhattheytellyouinhistory.MuckleshootelderLeoLaClairrecalledhelpingtogetthewordoutaboutthetreatyfishingrightsstruggle.SeekingwitnessestotheviolencebeingshowntotreatytribalfishermenandtheirfamiliesheinvitedDr.EvansRobertsoftheAmericanFriendsServiceCommitteeandUniversityofWashingtonMedicalSchooltoattendaFish-InprotestontheNisquallyRiver.WhathesawwasaterribleviolentconfrontationLaClairsaid.Itwasahorrificscene.TheexperiencesparkedRobertstodraftUncommonControversythefirstbooktodetailthetreatyfishingrightsstruggle.AcompanionbookTrea-tiesonTrialsoonfollowed.TogetherthetwobooksprovideacomprehensivelookatthetreatyfishingrightsstruggleandtheBoldtdecision.AttheBoldt40celebrationIndianactivistHankAdamswhoorganizedmostoftheFishWarprotestssharedastoryaboutaconfrontationontheNisquallyRiverinvolvinghisgoodfriendNorthwestIndianFisheriesCommissionChairmanBillyFrankJr.Frankhadbeenfishingoff-reservationjustupriverfromhishomeatFranksLanding.Hewasreturningwithhiscatchwhenhesawafewdozenstatefishandgameenforcementofficersliningtheoppositebank.WhentheofficerslaunchedtwofastboatstointercepthimFrankgunnedhisskifftowardthelandingandyelledtoAdamsonshoreGetthegunGetthegunAdamsgrabbedtherifleandheadedtowardtheland-ingbutstoppedwhenhesawtheenforcementofficersanddivedforcoverbehindanabandonedcar.IusedmymilitarytrainingtousemyriflebutttobreakthefallbutwhenIhitthegroundthegunwentoffhesaid.ThenmyhandslippedfromtherifleandIcutitonabrokenbottle.AtthesoundoftheshotofficersonthetwoboatsdivedforcoverandbeganmotoringblindlydowntheriverrightpastFrank.AsFrankwasunloadinghiscatchthecountysheriffandahalf-dozendeputiesarrivedatthelandingwithlightsandsirens.UrgingcalmhenoticedAdamsbleedinghandandprovidedfirstaidthenleftwithhisdeputies.ThatdayBillywasabletohangontohisfishandhisnetsbutthatwasntusuallythecaseAdamssaid.ItwasthetestimonyofeldersduringtheU.S.v.Wash-ingtontrialthathelpedclinchBoldtsrulingsaidprofes-sorCharlesWilkinsonanIndianlawexpertwhoteachesattheUniversityofColorado.Mostspokeintheirownlanguages.JudgeBoldtrulingonthebasisofjusticeinitsmostluminousdimensionsacceptedtheelderstestimonyandtookitintoconsideration.Theelderstestimonybroughtthewholestorytogether.ThetruestandmostprofoundfactabouttheBoldtdecisionisthatitwasconceivedandaccomplishedbyIndianpeople.ThetranscendentmeaningoftheBoldtdecisionwastoupholdthetreatyrightsofNorthwesttribesbutitwasalsoanationalcaseaboutnationalobligationsandvalues.ThedecisionwasagifttoallofAmerica.ExcerptreprintedwithpermissionfromtheNorthwestIndianFisheriesCommission.Boldt40WisconsinOjibwetreatyactivistsLCOsMikeandFredTribblealongwithgaiashkibostraveledtoWashingtonstatelastFebruarytosalutetheeffortsofNisquallymemberBillyFrankJr.andothersduringthe40thanniversaryoftheBoldtdecisionafederalcourtrul-ingthataffirmedoff-reservationrightsfortreatytribesinwesternWashington.AuthoritiesarrestedFrankmorethan50timesinthe1960s-70sforexer-cisingreservedrightsoff-reservation.DuringthatperiodWashingtonstateofficialsimposednettingrestrictionsonPugetSoundtributariestolimitsalmonharvests.Frankandothertribalmembersintheregionignoredthestateruleslead-ingtoarrestsprotestsandsometimesviolentconfrontations.TheerabecameknownastheFishWarsandculminatedwiththe1974Boldtdecision.LessthanamonthafterBoldttheTribblebrotherswerearrestedforspear-ingwalleyejustoutsidetheLacCourteOreillesreservationinWisconsinlaunchinglitigationthatledtotheLCOv.WisconsinorLCOdecision.FortribesthatcedednorthernWisconsintotheUnitedStatesthroughtreatiesthe1983LCOdecisionpro-videdcourt-protectiontohuntharvestandfishoff-reservation.ThefollowingyeartreatytribesinWisconsinMinne-sotaandMichigancreatedGLIFWCtoimplementtreatyharvestsandmanagenaturalresourcesintheOjibwecededterritory.NorthwestIndianFisheriesCom-missionasisteragencytoGLIFWChostedtheBoldteventatSquaxinIslandonFebruary5.CORasmussenTreatyrightsiconsmeetatBoldtcelebrationLacCourteOreillesOjibwetreatyactivistsMikeandFredTribblerightandgiaiashkibosformerLCOchairmanfarlefttraveledtoWashingtonstatelastFebruarytocelebrateBoldt40andsalutetheeffortsofNisquallymemberBillyFrankJr.whowalkedonthreemonthsago.PhotobyDeborahL.PrestonItstartedbeforemeandbeforemyparentsbeforeallourmomsanddadsandgrandmasandgrandpas.Theyknewwhattheyhadtodo.Theylivedheretheynevermoved.Thisistheirhome.Thatsourfoodsalmonthatcomesuptheriver.BillyFrankJrNisquallytribalmemberTribesremembertreatystruggleaffirmationinWashingtonstateWhenHenryBuffaloJr.ayoungRedClifftribalattorneyembarkedonasearchfornativepeoplesuccessfullymanagingoff-reservationnatu-ralresourcesintheearly1980shefoundBillyFrankJr.andtheNorthwestIndianFisheriesCommissionNWIFC.BuffalowaslayingthegroundworkforwhatwouldultimatelybecometheGreatLakesIndianFishWildlifeCommissionGLIFWCandinFrankJr.foundamentorwhoopenedupaworldofpossibilitiesfortribesdevelopingtheinfrastructuretoexercisetreatyrights.FranklongtimeNWIFCChairmanandmemberoftheNisquallyTribewalkedonMay5atage83.FromBuffaloGLIFWCsfirstchair-mantocurrentchairMichaelJ.IshamFrankisrememberedasunselfishgraciousanddynamic.IndianCountryhaslostagreatleadersaidIshamGLIFWCBoardofCommissionersChair-man.Ihavelostagreatfriendandteacher.HisimpactpromotingIndiantreatyrightsisimmeasur-ableandthepositiveimpactforIndianNationswillbeeverlasting.AsisteragencytoNWIFCGLIFWCcel-ebratesthemanandthesubstanceofhismessage.ThroughouthisexceptionallifeBillyarticulatedthesymbioticrelationshipbetweenpeopleandtheirhomelandsacrossTurtleIsland.ConsiderFranksemblematicworldviewIdontbelieveinmagic.Ibelieveinthesunandthestarsthewaterthetidesthefloodstheowlsthehawksflyingtheriverrunningthewindtalking.Theyremeasurements.Theytellushowhealthythingsare.Howhealthyweare.Becauseweandtheyarethesame.ThatswhatIbelievein.Frankchampionedco-managementofnaturalresourcesbuildingbridgesbetweenindividualsandgoverningagenciesforthebettermentofeco-systemsandallthecherishedresourcescontainedwithin.Intheearlyyearsofathree-decadeNWIFCchairmanshiphebroughtthatmessagetotheOjibwetreatytribesoftheGreatLakesinthe1980s.BillygavepeopleavisionofwhatcouldhappenandthevalueofworkingtogethersaidGeorgeMeyercurrentExecutiveDirectoroftheWisconsinWildlifeFederation.AsformerattorneyandleadnegotiatorfortheWisconsinDepartmentofNaturalResourcesMeyerandadelegationoftriballeadersandstatelegislatorstraveledtowesternWashingtoninSeptember1988toseeco-managementinaction.ItwasachanceforustospendtimetogetherinarelaxedsettinganddiscusstheresourcesMeyersaid.Weknewitallcamedowntotheresourcesaboutfishandhabitatandwildlife.ThatlegacylivesontodaybothinthePacificNorthwestandupperGreatLakesregions.SaidGLIFWCExecutiveAdministratorJamesZornBillyhelpedfostermodernmanagementstructuresthatallowforanunprecedentedhighlyvaluableunderstandingofsharednaturalresources.Forthatwecanallbegratefulandcelebratehislifeswork.CORasmussenWalkingonCo-managementvisionaryBillyFrankJr.leftmarkinOjibweCountry PAGE17MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2014TRIBALPROGRAMSLCOstudentsseekgiigoonyagthroughtheiceLacCourteOreillesWis.ThecoldweathersubsidedlongenoughforthestudentsofLacCourteOreillesLCOK-12schoolstotacklethefro-zenwatersofGrindstoneLakeSawyerCounty.OnFebruary18thmiddleschoolandhighschoolstudentstooktotheiceandtriedtheirhandatharvestinggiigoonyagfish.TheFebruaryfishingeventisanongoingcurriculumatLCOSchoolsthatblendsamainstreamcurriculumtoaculturallyrelevantevent.ThefirststepintheprocessistohavestudentsandteachersjustobservetheeventstatesJasonBisonettewhoworksasacurriculumdeveloperfortheschool.HecontinuesManyofourstudentsandteachershaveneversatinadarkshackandseenhowadecoyworksinthewater.Creatingacurriculumthatrevolvesaroundwinterspearingtakesinputfromallofthestakeholdersattheschool.Discussionswiththescienceteachersrangedfromhydrologyandwaterqual-itytomolecularbondsthatarerequiredtoformice.OfferingasemaatobaccobeforesteppingontheiceonFebruary19th3rdthrough5thgraderswereabletodontheiraagimagsnowshoesjigwithpolesaswellassitinthedarkshackwithaseasonedwinterspearerGeorgeMorrowJr.ManyofouryoungerstudentshavenevericefishedbeforeBisonetteaddedwhenaskedoftheimportanceofaschool-widefieldtrip.Ourchallengeistobuildacurriculumthatisrelevanttothefederalmandatesbutmoreimportantlyisbuildingacur-riculumthatteachesyoungpeoplehowtobeOjibwe.Bisonettelaterexplainsthatmanystudentsattheschooldonothaveaccesstothenecessarygearequipmentandknowledgethatiscriticaltomanytraditionaloutdooractivities.ThedayconcludedwithGLIFWCWardenLaurenTuoriprovidingaquicklessonabouticesafety.Wearinghercoldwatersafetygearshejumpedintothefrigidwaterthroughaholethatwascut.Sheexplainedtothestudentsthattheyshouldnevertravelontheicewithoutanadultandtoalwaysbeverycautiouswhenontheice.GrantlaunchedtogetNativeyouthintoscienceeldsReadyforblast-offwithNASAatFondduLacBySueEricksonStaffWriterFondduLacReservationMinn.Workhasalreadybegunonlaunchinganexcitingthree-yeargrantawardedtotheFondduLacTribalandCommunityCollegeFDLTCCfromtheNationalAeronauticsandSpaceAdministrationNASA.ThegrantfocusesonclimatechangeimpactsandimprovingtheSTEMskillsofNativeyouthwhileencouragingthemtoenterSTEMrelatedcareers.STEMreferstosciencetechnol-ogyengineeringandmathandtheseareareaswhicharesignificantlylackinginNativestudentswhilealsobeingcareersneededbythetribalcommunities.WeproposetoincreaseknowledgeofclimatechangeimpactsonOjibwelifewaysandencouragestudentsfrommiddleschooltocollegetoenterSTEMfieldsbuildingonpastsuccessesincor-poratingNASAresearchandopportu-nitiesandcreatingnewpartnershipsstatesCourtneyKowalczakprincipleinvestigatorforthegrantandFDLTCCEnvironmentalInstitutedirector.ThegrantwilluseFondduLacsFdLexistinggidakiimanaaniwigamiggidaacampsthathavebeenongoingatFondduLacandfeaturemonthly3-daycampsforyouthaswellasaweeklongcampduringthesummer.ItalsointendstouseandbuildupontheG-WOWmodelthatexplorestheimpactofclimatechangeontribesusingbothmodernscienceandtraditionalecologi-calknowledgeTEK.PartneringwiththeNASANorthStarAISESGLIFWCFdLResourceManagementCedarCreekLongTermEcologicalResearchCenterLTERandGikinoowizhiweOnjiWaabanGuidingforTomorroworG-WOWthegrantwillpursueimmersingstudentsinSTEMactivitiesthroughresearchsciencefairprojectsandinvolvementassummerinternsinSTEMcareers.Studentswilldeveloptheirprojectsandalsobenefitfromcontactwithresearch-ersasmentorsandrolemodelseitheratthecampsorinthefield.InthecourseofthethreeyearsthegranttargetsNativestudentsandeduca-torsacrossthecededterritories.Studentsfromgrades5-12andundergraduateswillparticipateinresearchaddressingtheeffectofclimatechangeoncededterritorynaturalresourcesaddingtheirfindingstotheG-WOWonlinedata-base.KowalczaknotesthatitiscriticaltogearlearningstrategiestotheneedsofNativeAmericanstudents.Shesaysresearchindicatesthesupportoffamilyandmentorstheconnectionwithnatureandseeingthevalueofanecologicalcareerwerekeyfactsintheacademicpursuitofthestudentswhoweremoti-vatedtopursueecologicalfields.Inthethirdyearthegrantalsoincludesaone-weekprofessionaldevel-opmentinstituteforteachersfromNativecommunitiesintheUpperMidwestregion.Theinstitutewillstrengthenteachersclimatesciencecontentknowl-edgeaswellashelpthembuildtheircapacitytoengageNativestudentsandtheircommunitiesinclimatescienceeducation.TheworkshopswillutilizeglobalnationalandregionalclimacticdataprovidedbyNASA.Thisisahugeandextremelyexcit-ingprojectsaysKowalczak.TohaveNASAresearchavailableforourkidstoworkwiththesescientistsaswellastheresearcherswithintribalagenciestobeabletooutreachthroughoutthecededterritoriesandultimatelytobringbackmoreunderstandingofclimatechangethisisaphenomenalopportunityWearereadytolaunchEnjoyingadayontheiceLacCourteOreillesyouthgetacquaintedwiththeskilloficeshing.FromtheleftareNateQuaderer4thgradeIsaiahTainter4thgradeSageStands-Christianson5thgradeandSabrinaHudson5thgrade.PhotobyLindaTennisStudentsfromFondduLacsgidakiimanaaniwigamigprojectstudycoresamplestakenfromwildricelakesintheregion.Photoreprintedfromhttpgidakiimanaaniwigamig.isd2142.netAttentionteachersWanttoaddressCLIMATECHANGEinyourclassroomCheckoutthe4-dayG-WOWChangingClimateChangingCultureInstituteheldattheNorthernGreatLakesVisitorCenterAshlandWisconsin.Greatinformationgreatideasforplace-basedlearningandSTEMSeepage23fordetails. MAZINAIGANPAGE18SPRINGSUMMER2014initiativesareonlyastartingpoint.Alljurisdictionsmustworktogethertoeffectmeaningfulchange.Tribesexistaspartofbroadercommunities.Whathappensintribalhomelandscanthappeninvacuumshesaid.GetgreenerWhileclimatechangeisalreadyunderwayresearcherssaythatwithoutreininginfossilfuelemissionsannualtemperatureswillcontinuetoriseandalterecosystems.ForOjibwepeoplethelossofhallmarkplantandanimalspecieskeyunderpinningsofseasonalhuntingandgatheringcycleswoulddisrupteverythingfromculturaltradi-tionstofoodsystems.Tribesaresohomelands-based.WecantjustfollowresourceslikemooseupintoCanadasaidDiverhopefulthatactioncanbetakentostave-offthemoredisruptiveeffectsofawarmingakiintheupperGreatLakesregion.Thewholepointofourforefatherscreatingthecededterritorywastohaveaccesstoresourcesthatsupportourculturalandreligiouspractices.MeanwhiletheTaskForceonCli-mateChangeandResilienceiscurrentlywrappingupitspreliminaryrecom-mendationsdueoutinspringandwillissueafinalreporttotheAdministrationinAugust.Formoreinformationonclimatechangeandthecededterritoryvisittheaward-winningGikinoowizhiweOnjiWaabanGuidingforTomorroworG-WOWInitiativeatwww.g-wow.org.Continuedfrompage1DiverleadstribalplanningNUTRITION2014GLIFWCEnforcementyouthactivitieseducationAlldatesaretentativeandsubjecttochange.Forupdatedinformationontheseeventsandotherspleasebesuretocheckourwebsiteatwww.glifwc.orgvisitusonFacebookorcallyournearestGLIFWCwarden.ClipSaveClassDatePlaceContactATVSafetyJune912RedCliffMikeSoulier715.209.0093JimStone715.292.3234ATVSnowmobileJuly21-15LacduFlambeauJonasMoermond715.562.0026RileyBrooks715.562.0300TakeakidfishingAugust2014MilleLacsRobinArunagiri715.889.0734HunterSafetyAugust182526LacduFlambeauJonasMoermond715.562.0026RileyBrooks715.562.0300HunterSafetyAugust18-19RedCliffMikeSoulier715.209.0093JimStone715.292.3234HunterSafetySeptember5-6MilleLacsRobinArunagiri715.889.0734HunterSafetySeptember81012151719StCroixBradKacizak715.562.0030HunterSafetySept.27-28LacCourteOreillesMikePopovich715.292.7535LaurenTuori715.292.8343ATVSnowmobileOctober68910St.CroixBradKacizak715.562.0030ATVSnowmobileDecember6-7LacCourteOreillesMikePopovich715.292.7535LaurenTuori715.292.8343OdanahWis.OverallitwasacoldandsnowywinterbutthatdidnotfreezetheMinoWiisinidaaproject.Despitethenumeroussnowstormsandsub-zerotemperaturesprojectstaffcompleted17fooddemonstrationsbetweenOctober1standMarch31stwithfivetribesinWisconsinandMichigan.Ineachcommunitytribalmembersalsobravedtheharshwinterweathertoattendthedemonstrationsandlearnmoreabouttraditionalfoodstheirhealthbenefitsandhowtopreparethem.OnMarch31stthefooddemonstrationportionofGLIFWCsAdministrationforNativeAmericansANAMinoWiisinidaaLetsEatGoodTradi-tionalFoodsforHealthyLivingprojectendedonahighnoteworkingwithLacVieuxDesertLVDyouthattherecreationcenter.Twentyyouthages5-13headedtotherecreationcentertolearnaboutwildricefromLVDtribalmemberRogerLaBine.Alsoduringthedemonstrationtheyhelpedmakesumacberryadealemonadeandberryflavoredbeveragemadetheirownwildriceberrysaladandenjoyeddecoratingtheirownchefhats.Thisdemonstrationsimilartotheotherfooddemonstra-tionsprojectstaffhavehostedoverthepastyearandahalfwasfullofgreatpeoplealotoflearningandgoodmemories.Asprojectstaffswitchesgearstofocusoncom-pletingthecookbookandaccompanyinginstructionalDVDMinoWiisinidaastaffwouldliketosayChiMiigwechtotheorganizationsandorganizersinallofGLIFWCs11membertribesthathelpedcoordinatemorethan40fooddemonstrationsandtoeveryonethatcameouttosupportandlearnNowistypicallythetimeofyearthathibernationendsbutinsomewaystheoppositewillbetrueforprojectstaffastheylockthemselvesawaytofuriouslyworkonthecookbookmakingeditsdesigninglayoutsandaddingphotos.FilmingfortheinstructionalDVDthatwillaccompanyeachofthe3000cookbooksisalreadyunderway.OntheDVDprojectstaffandguestchefswillguideyouthroughselectedrecipesfromthecookbookaddressfoodsafetyandteachthebeginnersomeadvancedculinaryskillsusedinthecookbook.CookingcanbeintimidatingatanylevelwhetheryouareexperimentingwithanewingredientstyleofcuisineorjuststartingoutsaysLaTishaCoffinprojectcoordinator.Formanypeopletheingredientsandmethodsinourcookbookwillbenew.TomakethislessintimidatingwearecreatinganinstructionalDVDsothataknowledge-ableguidewillbewalkingstepbystepwithaudiencestomaketherecipessuc-cessfullyandenjoyably.ThecookbookwithinstructionalDVDwillbereadytodistributethisfall.CheckoutthenextissueoftheMazinaiganandGLIFWCsFacebookpageformoreinformationabouthowtogetyourcopy.CantwaituntilthefallforsomerecipesNeithercanweKeepaneyeontheGLIFWCsFacebookpageforupcominginstructionalvideos.MinoayaagGiga-waabamigomdagwaagingBewellWewillseeyouinthefallLemonBakedFishOriginalconceptfromGregJohnsonLacduFlambeauPrepTime20minutesCookTime15minutesTotalTime35minutesServingSize4ouncesYield4Ingredients1tablespoonsunflowerseedoildivided1eachlemoncutintoslicesdivided1eachshallotdiceddivided1tablespoonfreshchivesminceddivided1tablespoonfreshdilldivided1poundskinlessbonelessfishfilletdividednorthernpikelaketroutwhitefishetc.Directions1.Usinga9x13bakingdishlayerhalftheoillemonshallotherbsandfilletandrepeat.2.Positiontheovenracksothatthefishwillbe4-5inchesbelowthebroiler.3.Broilonhighheatfor10-15minutesoruntilfishflakeseasily.BoldIndigenousfoodChefNotesJIfyouareusinganelectricovenpreheatthebroilerfor5-10minutesbeforebroilingfish.Ifyouareusingagasoventhereisnoneedtopreheattheoven.MinoWiisinidaademosendCookbookDVDinproductionByOwenMaroneyANASEDSCommunityDietitianChefsinthemakingatLacVieuxDessert.PhotobyOwenMaroneyWintergreenTeaOriginalconceptfromBeckyLemieuxBadRiverPrepTime15minutesCookTime45minutesTotalTime1hourServingSize112cupYield5Ingredients2quartsHotWater40eachDriedorfreshwintergreenleavesinchstripsDirections1.Pourwaterintoalargesaucepanandbringtoarollingboil.Onceboilingturnoffheat.2.Stirleavesintothewater.Steepuncoveredfor30-45minutesoruntilreddishincolorandflavorisasstrongasdesired.Stirringoccasionally.3.Aftersteepinguseastrainertoremoveleaves.4.Servehotorcoldsweetenwithmaplesyrup.5.Covertightlyandkeepforuptooneweek.Wintergreenoilwhichisontheleafbeforeboilingcontainsanaspirin-likecompound.Uponboilingthevolatileoilevaporatesleavingtraceamountsofthiscompound.Peopleonmedicationsaffectedbyaspirinshouldbeawarehoweverwhenconsumedinmoderationitisunlikelytherewillbeanyinteraction. PAGE19MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2014GLIFWCNEWSZornhighlightsGLIFWCstaffaccomplishmentsatannualmeetingEmployeerecognitionsforeach5-yearanniversaryAdditionstoGLIFWCsrare30yearclubSusanEricksonPublicInformationDirectorHenryButchMieloszykInlandFisheriesTechnicianandJonathanGilbertWildlifeBiologist.Eachonereceivedamonetaryawardinrecognitionoftheirservice.CORGLIFWCstaffwithemploy-mentanniversariesthroughthe20yearmarkJohnColemanEnvironmentalBiologist20yMissyBerlinAccountant20yMikeSoulierConservationOfcer15yandFredMaulsonChiefConservationOfcer10y.InsetAccountantAnnetteCrowereceivedaPendletonblankettomarkher25yearswithGLIFWC.photosbyCharlieOttoRasmussenMikeChristiansenaRedClifftribalmemberjoinedGLIFWCranksasthepropertyandprocurementofficeronJanuary62014.OneofhisfirstresponsibilitiesistodevelopatrackingsystemforGLIFWCspropertyandequipmentutilizingtheSAGEFixedAssetTrackingsoftware.Thesystemutilizesascannertoidentifytaggedprop-ertyChristianseniscurrentlytestingthesystem.HealsowillhandleaspectsofGLIFWCtravel.PriortocomingtoGLIFWCChristiansenworkedfortheRedCliffBandintheAccountingOfficeasagrantsaccountant.Whileworkingforthetribehealsohadsomeexperiencewithpropertyprocurementprocedures.ChristiansengraduatedfromLacCourteOreillesOjibweCommunityCol-legewithanassociatedegreeinsmallbusinessmanagementin2008.In2012hereceivedcertificationinfinancialadministrationoffederalgrantsfollowingatwo-daytraininginDenver.HealsoattendedaminiconferenceonOfficeofManagementandBudgetcircularsin2012.ChristiansenresidesontheRedCliffreservationanddevotesmuchofhisdowntimetohisfour-yearolddaughterAutumnenjoyingadventurestoavarietyofplaceslikeparksandfairs.HealsovolunteerstimeinthecommunitysuchaswithFoodShareandtheSalvationArmy.Bikesarehishobby.Heenjoysfree-stylebikingbuildsbikesandintendstogetonebuiltforAutumnthissummer.SENewprocurementofficerfocusesontrackingGLIFWCwelcomesnewstaffJourneymanwildliferesearcherNickMcCannislayingdownrootsinfarnorthernWisconsinasabiologistforGLIFWC.ThePurdueUniversityPhDgraduatebringsadiverseblendofworkexperienceandeducationtotheCommissionincludingresearchontheChequamegon-NicoletNationalForeststudyingwaabizheshiwagmartensandojiijagfishersforhisdissertation.ThenortheastIllinoisnativefirstearnedaBSBiologicalAspectsofCon-servationatUniversityofWisconsinthenwentontocriss-crossTurtleIslandtakingupshort-termwork.NearRhinelanderWisconsinhesurveyedmaangwagloonsstudiedgidagaa-bizhiwagbobcatsinsouthernIowawaabiziigtundraswansinNorthCarolinaheadeddownbytheequatortoworkwithseaturtlesoffCostaRicathenreturnednorthtoMontanatoparticipateinbizhiwlynxresearch.InnortheastMinnesotaMcCannconductedfieldresearchontheinterrelationshipbetweenwaaboozoogsnowshoeharesandbizhiwwhilecompletinghisMSdegreeatUniversityofMinnesota-Duluth.AtGLIFWCMcCannisoneoffourwildlifebiologists.Hesbecomingfamiliarwiththebroadscopeofcededterritorywildlifemanagementbeforetak-ingontakingonspecificresourceprojects.McCannandhiswifeMarissaarecentUniversityofMinnesotachemistryinstructorrelocatedtoAshlandWisconsin.CORWildlifebiologistbringsexperiencelocalknowledge MAZINAIGANPAGE20SPRINGSUMMER2014KIDSPAGEEABfactsTheEmeraldAshBorerEABisaninvasiveinsect.ThismeansthattheEABisnotfromthisareaanditcantakethefoodandwaterfromanotherspeciesthathasalwayslivedthere.Thebeetlesaremetallicgreenandare12inchlongand18inchwide.Theadultbeetlecanliveforonlytwotothreeweeks.Asyoucanseefromthepictureofthepennytheadultbeetlesareverysmallbuttheyarecaus-ingbigproblemsforashtrees.PhotoofEABonpenneybyHowardRussellMichiganStateUniversityBugwood.org.EABisabeetlethatcametotheUnitedStatesfromAsia.ThisbeetleprobablyarrivedintheUnitedStatesinwoodpackagingmaterials.TheEABhaskilledmillionsofashtreesthroughoutNorthAmericasinceitwasdiscoveredin2002.Thisbeetleattacksalltypesofashtrees.HowdoestheEABaffecttheashtreesTheEABfeedonlyonashtrees.TheEABaffectshealthyaswellasunhealthytrees.EmeraldAshBorereggshatchinsevento10days.AfterhatchingtheimmatureEABcalledlarvaepronouncedlahr-veecreateS-shapedtun-nelsunderthebark.Thesetunnelscutofftheflowofwaterandnutrientsthetreeneedstosurviveandeventuallythetreedies.EABlarvaedothemostdamagetothetrees.WhenadultbeetlesexitatreeinMaythroughJulytheyleaveaD-shapedexitholeinthebark.TheadultEABfeedsontheleavesoftheashtrees.CirclethefirewoodyourfamilyshouldchooseFirewoodyoubroughtwithyoufromalongwayawayFirewoodyouboughtnearoratthecampgroundSomethingbadmightbehidingunderthebarkofyourfirewoodConnectthedotstosee...ReprintedfromUnitedStatesDepartmentofAgricultureAnimalandPlantHealthInspectionService.OurtreesareunderattackJointhefighttostoptheEmeraldAshBorerEABEmeraldAshBorerlarvae.Reprintedfromemeraldashborer.infoTotheRightEABS-shapedtunnels.PhotobyC.AsaroVirginiaDepartmentofForestryBugwood.orgEABadultemergingfromD-shapedhole.PhotobyMissouriDepartmentofCon-servation.SKCATTAENJXSELLJVZEUEAHUEIVFENBADASABIREHAVAPEFRGAOSVREEGEXMFNATAGDWITIALRLLAOZSGETREENOSEDSHAPEDDTPWhatcanyoudoTheEABcanmoveshortdistancesonitsownbyflyingfromtreetotree.Itmoveslongdistancesbycatchingarideinashtreesorashfirewoodthatismovedbypeople.TheadultEABdonotusuallyflyfarfromwheretheyemergefromthetreeiftherearemoreashtreesnearby.TheEABismostlyspreadlongdistancesbypeoplemovingit.DontmovefirewoodTofindoutifEABisinyourstategotowww.emeraldashborer.infomap.cfmsthash.VbNfY8rK.dpbsTolearnmoreaboutEABvisithttpstopthebeetle.infohttpemeraldashborer.infohttpsdatcpservices.wisconsin.goveabhttpwww.youtube.comwatchvKJqnfWecZ9UADULTASHATTACKBEETLED-SHAPEDEABFIREWOODGREENLARVAELEAFPESTS-SHAPEDHINTHyphensarenotusedinthewordsearchpuzzle.EABWordSearch PAGE21MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2014Down1.Itiswarmingup.2.please3.later4.lake8.andAcross5.No6.Itismildweather.7.inthegarden9.farinthatdirectionIKIDOWINODAMINOWINwordplayTranslationsNiizh2A.Itisnight.Itistenminutesaftertwooclock.B.Openthewindowthere.ListenBestillC.Someoneistalkingfaroverthere.Iamscared.Itisfoggy.D.DontbescaredGetyourblanketDoyouhearE.Ihearhimherthattrainontraintracks.F.OhTheyaretherebirdsoutside.Iwasstartled.G.LookbeholdDoyouseethemthestarsStarssomany.HowmanyAthousand.Niswi3Down1.Abaate2.Daga3.Baanimaa4.Zaagaigan8.DashAcross5.Gaa6.Aabawaa7.Gitigaaning9.WaasaNiiwin-41.Iamhungry.Iamcookingitmeathere.Nin--aan.2.Theytakecareofitthewildriceatthelake.O--aanaawaa3.Weallcleanitthebathroomwhenitisdirty.Gi--min4.WherearetheygoingTodayhereIamstayingbehind.Iambringingitthewoodencrateinthehouse.Nim-5.Whenitissummerhetakescareofittheboatcanoe.Atthelakehefshesandhefxesthatboat.O--aanTherearevariousOjibwedialectscheckforcorrectusageinyourarea.NotethattheEnglishtranslationwillloseitsnaturalflowasinanyworldlanguagetranslation.Thismaybereproducedforclassroomuseonly.Allotherusesbyauthorswrittenpermission.SomespellingsandtranslationsfromTheConciseDictionaryofMinnesotaOjibwebyJohnD.NicholsandEarlNyholm.AllinquiriescanbemadetoMAZINAIGANP.O.Box9OdanahWI54861lynnglifwc.org.Niswi3DoublevowelsystemofwritingOjibwemowin.LongvowelsAAEIIOOWaaboozasinfatherMiigwechasinjayAaniinasinseenMoozasinmoonShortVowelsAIODashasinaboutIngiwasintinNiizhoasinonlyAglottalstopisavoicelessnasalsoundasinAaw.Respectfullyenlistanelderforhelpinpronunciationanddialectdierences.Nim-Nin--aanO--aanGi--minO--aanaawaendingininenoonMiijinEatitBiinitoonCleanitBiidoonBringitNanaaitoonFixitNimbiinitoonan.Icleanit.themGibiinitoonan.Youcleanit.themObiinitoonan.Shecleanit.themNimbiinitoomin.Wecleanitthem.Gibiinitoomin.Weallcleanitthem.Gimiijinaawaa.nYoualleatit.Omiijinaawaa.nTheyeatit.Theseonlyuseinanimatenon-livingnouns.Nimiijinanmiinan.Nimiijinwiiyaas.HowahMiiiw.GoojitoonTryitTranslationbelow.Niizh2Bezhig1OJIBWEMOWINOjibweLanguageNiiwin4521VTI-verbtransitive-inanimate3NiibinAnishinaabewakiing.Circlethe10underlinedOjibwewordsinthelettermaze.TranslationsbelowItisSummerinIndianCountry.NindedeikidoNoongomdagagichi-anokiidaaAbaatedashaabawaa.Naadiniiwbimiskwaigan.Ninanaaiaanaanwaawakikoons.Gaawiinbimibizosii.Ziibiingniwii-giigooyikemin.DagamiijimikanjigannaazhGaaZagapijiganingninabagijiishin.Niwii-naadinboodaajiiigan.Baanimaawii-bakazhaaweyaningiwgiigooyaggitigaaningniwii-binaakweige.Megwaayaakiwidiwaasaawesiiyaganokiiwag.Gibooniaawaag.Giganawenimaanaanig.Gimiigwechiwenimaanaanig.MiigwechMyfatherhesaysTodaypleaseletsalldogreat-workItiswarmingupanditismildweather.Gogetthatscrewdriver.Wewillxitthisoutboardmotor.Itisnotrunning.Ontheriverwearegoingshing.Pleasebaitgogetit.NoOnthetrailerIhaveaattire.Iwillgogetitthetirepump.LaterwhenyouwillcleanthoseshinthegardenIwillrake.Inthewoodsoverthereinthatfardirectionwildanimalstheyareworking.Youallleavethemalone.Wealltakecareofthem.Weallgivethemthanks.ThankyouADZBYHOIIDAEBDNZKANOMAOIAWIWISADNMANIOHABWDEGZGZKOIAIAIKEZIEYMOASNOGGBAAKINANIIGIWAABOOYAANDZOANAANGOOGA.Dibikad.Midaasodibaigaansishkwaaniizhodibaiganed.B.Baakinanwaasechiganimaa.BizindanBizaanC.Awiyagaagiigidowaasaiwidi.Ninzegiz.Awan.D.GegozegizikenNaadingiwaabooyaanGinoondaminaE.Nimbiizindawaaishkode-odaabaanishkode-odaabaanakanaang.F.HoAyaawagbineshiiyagagwajiing.Ningii-goshkokaa.G.InashkeGiwaabamaaginaanaangoogAnaangoogminik.AaniinminikNingodosagoons.7481.Nimbakade._____jiibaa-waad_____wiiyaasomaa.2._____ganawend_____manoominzaagaiganing.3._____biinitoo_____miiziiwigamigongwiindak.4.AaniindiezhaawaadNoongomomaanindishkwii._____biidoonmitigo-makakwaakaaiganing.5.Niibing_____ganawend_____jiimaan.Zaagaiganinggiigooyikedashonanaaitooniiwjiimaan.6GanawendanTakecareofprotectitNinganawendaanzaagaigan.Itakecareofthelake.Giganawendaanannibidashaki.Youcareandprotectwaterandland.Oganawendaananziibidashziibins.Sheprotectsthemtheriverandcreek.Giganawendaaminzaagaiganan.Weallprotectthemthelakes.Giganawendaanaawaanmaskiigoon.Youalltakecareofthemtheswamps.Oganawendaanaawaamanoomin.Theyprotectthewildrice.9OnlineResourcesojibwe.lib.umn.eduwww.glifwc.orgVTIRootCommandsOJIBWEMOWIN MAZINAIGANPAGE22SPRINGSUMMER2014WALKINGONNEWSBRIEFSCededTerritoryNewsBriefsLeoLaFernierlongstandingVITFrepresentativewalksonRespectedogichidaawarriorgekinooamaagedteacherOdanahWis.TheGreatLakesIndianFishWildlifeCommissionGLIFWCrecognizesthemanycontributionsofLeoLaFernierSr.RedCliffsrepre-sentativetotheVoigtIntertribalTaskForceVITFandahumblebutlegendarywarriorwhopassedJanuary13attheageof80.HisservicetotheVITFspannedthirtyyearsincludingtheformativeandstrife-riddenyearsasGLIFWCsmembertribesfirstexercisedtheiroff-reservationtreatyrights.AffectionatelyknownasUncleLeohewasaquietbutstrongadvocateforNativepeopleNativerightsandthenaturalresources.LeowasagreatfriendarealmentorandrolemodelformesaidLacCourteOreillesLCOTribalChairmanMicIshamwhoisalsotheChairmanofGLIFWCsBoardofCommissioners.OnbehalfoftheLCOTribeandGLIFWCwethankLeoandacknowledgehismanyyearsoffightingforandprotec-tingtreatyrightsonbehalfofRedCliffandallofthegreatOjibweNation.LeoisalegendLaFernierwasalsoelectedtotheRedCliffTribalCouncilfornumeroustermsservingasvice-chairmanformanyofthose.ThelossofLeoisdeeplyfeltbytheRedCliffTribesaidRedCliffTribalChair-womanRoseGurnoe-Soulier.Ourcommunitywassofortunatetobenefitfromhistalentsandwisdom.Hewastrulygiftedveryfair-mindedandanexcellentmediatorandambassadorforourTribe.AmanofhighintegritywewereproudtohavehimrepresentusLaFernierwhogrewupontheRedCliffreserva-tionanddependedonhuntingandfishingforsubsis-tenceasayouthwasdeeplyrespectfulofnatureandcarriedthatrespectalongwithhisspiritualityintothemanyGLIFWCfunctions.Hisprayersopenedmanymeetings.Hesatvigilatnumerousfour-daySacredFiresforGLIFWCeventshesharedhisPipe.Hebroughtsoundreasonandvisiontodiscussions.Hewasalwaysthere.Leogarneredtherespectandadmirationofhiscolleaguesasanogichidaaprotectorofthecom-munity.Thisisevidencedbya2012VITFresolutionrecognizinghisaccomplishmentsanddedication.WehavelostabelovedfriendandwiseteacherwhoselegacywillendurewithallofushereatGLIFWCstatedGLIFWCExecutiveAdministra-torJamesZorn.HehadonlyloveandrespectforallpeopleandMotherEarth.Ourworldisamuchabetterplacebecauseofhisvisionandleadershipinprotectingthelandthewaterandalllivingthings.SEMinnesotaSenateWolfDataBillstalledincommitteesSt.PaulMinn.MinnesotasSenateCommitteeonEnvironmentandEnergypassedtheWolfDataBillSenateFile2256inmid-March.ThebillprovidestheMinnesotatribestheopportunitytoallowordisallowhuntingandtrappingofwolvesontriballands.ThebillwouldalsotemporarilysuspendthemaiinganwolfhuntinthestateinordertoimplementMinnesotasWolfManagementPlan.Thiswouldincludeprovidingdataonallknownwolfdeathsandillnessesamapofwolf-livestockconflictsandestablishinganddisseminatingBestManagementPracticestobeusedbythelivestockownerstoreducewolf-livestockconflictstoincludenon-lethalmethods.Italsoprovidesforanannualcensusandanassessmentofthepublicknowl-edgeandattitudestowardsmaiingan.Abottom-linewolfpopulationfigureissetat1600wolvesinthestate.ThebillwasreferredtotheSenateCommitteeonStateandLocalGovernmentwhereitwasamendedtoincludeaStateWolfPlanReviewAdvisoryCouncilandpassedasamended.TheAdvisoryCouncilwouldbecomposedof17representa-tivesfromavarietyofsectorsincludingtwofromtribes.Viewthebillatwww.revisor.mn.govbillsbill.phpbSenatefSF2256ssn0y2014KlapelappointedasnewMilleLacsCommissionerofNaturalResourcesMilleLacsMinn.TheMilleLacsBandappointedSusanKlapelastheBandsnewCommissionerofNaturalResourcesanofficeformerlyheldbyBradleyKalkwhoiscurrentlyservingastheexecutivedirectorofthedepartment.KlapelbringswithherexperienceinenvironmentalissuesaswellaslawenforcementhavingservedtheBandbothasapoliceofficerandaconserva-tionwarden.ShealsoservedasaninvestigatorfortheMilleLacsBandGamingRegulatoryAuthority.KlapelwillbeoverseeingtheBandsDepartmentofNaturalResourcesandEnvironmentstaffandactivities.BothsheandKalkwillbeworkingdirectlywithGLIFWConissuespertainingtooff-reservationtreatyrightsandresources.TribalhatcheriesreceivestategrantscommittostockingMadisonWis.ThreeGLIFWCmemberstribalhatcheriesandsixprivatehatcheriesreceivedgrantsfromtheWisconsinDepartmentofNaturalResourcesWDNRtoimprovetheirhatcheryoperationsthisyeartoproducemoreogaawalleye.ThegrantsarepartoftheWisconsinWalleyeInitiativeaimedatenhanc-ingthewalleyefisheryinWisconsinlakes.RecipientsmustcommittostockinginWisconsininthenextthreeyears.TribesreceivingthegrantincludetheMoleLakeSokaogonBandfor298900theSt.CroixBandfor283255andtheLacduFlambeauBandfor432154.GLIFWCworkedwiththeWDNRinrecommendinglakesforstockingin2014.MoosemaintaintenuousholdinNEMinnesotaCloquetMinn.MoremoozmooseshowedupinthelatestaerialsurveyconductedinnortheastMinnesotabutresearcherscautionthattheone-yearuptickdoesnotrepresentimprovingconditionsforthestrugglingherd.Whatsveryclearfrom10yearsofdataisthatwehaveamooseherdindeclinesaidFondduLacWildlifeBiologistMikeSchrage.Resultsfromthe2014surveyconductedbytheMinnesotaDepartmentofNaturalResourcesFondduLacBandand1854TreatyAuthorityproducedapopulationestimateof4350animals.Biologistsapproximatedmoosenumbersataroundtwicethatnumberjusteightyearsago.StateandOjibwetreatytribescancelledtheirmooseseasonslastfalloutofconcernforthehealthoftheherd.Biologistsagreethathuntinghasnotbeenasignificantdriverintheherddeclineamixoffactorsincludingheatstressfromwarmerannualtemperaturesparasiticbrainwormsandticksarebelievedtobetakingatollonmoose.WhiletheBoisForteBandhasalreadyclosedtheoff-reservationmooseseasontoitsmemberfor2014FondduLacGrandPortageandstateauthoritieshaveyettoannounceadecisiononissuinganyharvesttags.GichigamibarrelprojectupdateRedCliffReservationWis.Fromthelimitedamountofpreliminarydataresultsshownoimmediatecauseforconcernregardingthesafetyofwaterandfishconsumption.Thereforecitizensoftheregionshouldcontinuetofollowexist-ingguidelinesforLakeSuperior.HoweverthetribefullyintendstoaddressanyconcernslistedintheFinalResultsandSummaryReportexpectedtobepublishedinAugustof2014.AsiancarpeggsfoundinLynxvilleWisconsinLynxvilleWis.Asiancarpeggsincludinglate-stageembryosnearlyreadytohatchfromtheeggwererecentlyidentifiedinsamplescollectedbyU.S.GeologicalSurveyUSGSscientistsin2013fromtheUpperMississippiRiverasfarnorthasLynxvilleWis.ThisdiscoverymeansthatAsiancarpspawnedmuchfarthernorthintheMississippithanpreviouslyrecordedsaidLeonCarlUSGSmidwestregionaldirector.Thepresenceofeggsinthesamplesindicatesthatspawningoccurredbutwedonotknowifeggshatchedandsurvivedorwhetherfuturespawningeventswouldresultinlivefish.GreatLakesGovernorsandPremierstakestepstocombataquaticinvasivespeciesChicagoIll.TheGreatLakesGovernorsandthePremiersofOntarioandQubecrecentlyannouncedboldactionstocombatthethreatofaquaticinvasivespeciesintheGreatLakes-St.LawrenceRiverBasin.AtthecenteroftheseactionsistheannouncementofaMutualAidAgree-mentthatwillempowertheStatesandProvincestoactcollaborativelyandsharestaffandexpertiseintheeventofaseriousregionalthreatfromaquaticinvasivespeciesAIS.ThisinnovativeagreementprovidestheStatesandProvinceswithapowerfultooltocombattheintroductionandspreadofaquaticinvaders. PAGE23MAZINAIGANSPRINGSUMMER2014EDUCATIONALMATERIALSEducationalmaterialsHavingfunwiththelanguagePerfectforchildrenofallagesMino-doodaadingisacollectionofOjibwemowinstoriestoldbyfirstlanguagespeakers.ThemonolingualformatofthebookisperfectforuseinOjibwemowinimmersionsettingsandasausefulresourceforvocabularyandgrammarpatternsforthoselearningOjibwemowin.Thissequeltotheaward-winningAwesiiyensagMino-doodaadingfeaturesthreeoriginalstoriesthatshowcasetraditionalAnishinaabevalueswithamoderntwistsuchastheimportanceoffamilyfriendshipandrespectingelderswisdomrelatabletopeopleofallcultures.EditedbyapanelofhighlyesteemedOjibwesecondlanguageprofessionalsworkingincollaborationwithfirstlan-guagespeakersthisbookexemplifiesthemovementtoencourageindigenouslanguagestudyandexpressioninwriting.Mino-doodaadingisdelightfullyillustratedbyGLIFWCLanguageSpecial-istWesleyBallingerandmakesthebookenjoyableevenforthosewithlimitedOjibwelanguageknowledge.CopiesofthebookcanbepurchasedfromBirchbarkBooksinMinneapolisMinnesotaororderedonlineatwww.birchbarkbooks.comfor16.ByJenniferBurnettGLIFWCOutreachSpecialistRecentlyupdatedGLIFWCsOjibweTreatyRightsOftenreferredtoasTreatyRights101OjibweTreatyRightshasbeenupdatedandhasanewlook.This55-pagebookletprovidesbasicinformationaboutthetreatyrightsofGLIFWCselevenmem-bertribeswhoretainedtherighttohuntfishandgatheroncededterritories.ItrelatestreatyhistorylegalbackgroundandexplainshowtreatyrightsarecurrentlymanagedinthestatesofMinnesotaWis-consinandMichigan.Appendicesincludethetreatiesaswellasachronologyoflegalproceedings.AvailableonlinethroughGLIFWCfor3.00plusshippingandalsodownloadable.Gotowww.glifwc.organdclickEducationMaterialsonthemenubar.G-WOWChangingClimateChangingCultureInstituteJuly14-172014NorthernGreatLakesVisitorCenterAshlandWIA4-dayprofessionaldevelopmentinstitutetohelpeducatorsincreasetheirclimateliteracyandabilitytoguidestudentsininvestigatingclimatechange.InthisInstituteyouwilllearnhowtoIntegrateplace-basedevidenceofclimatechangewiththelatestclimateresearchEvaluatetheimpactsofclimatechangeontheenvironmentculturesandcommunitiesGuidestudentsindevelopingclimatechangeservicelearningprojectsDevelopandshareclimatechangecurriculumwithothereducatorsInfuseOjibwetraditionalecologicalknowledgeandlanguagecomponentsWhereNorthernGreatLakesVisitorCenterAshlandWIsurroundingcoastalcommunitiesandtriballandsWhoClassroomteacherscommunityyoutheducatorsEnrollmentlimitedto25participants.ApplicationsdueJune6thWhatWillYouLearnDay1BuildingClimateChangeCompetenciesNorthernGreatLakesVisitorCenterAshlandWIExplorewhatsupwithourclimatewithscientistsresourcemanagersandculturalspecialists.Investigateclimatechangeusinghistoricandprojectedresearchandlearnhowtoapplythesetoolsinyourteaching..Day2InvestigatetheIssue-FieldResearchChequamegonNationalForestandBadRiverKakagonSloughsOdanahWIInvestigatescientificresearchbeingconductedonclimatechangeimpactsonnorthernforestsandinvestigatecoastalclimateimpactsontheBadRiverKakagonSloughswildriceandtheculturalpracticesoftheLakeSuperiorOjibwe.Day3ExploringClimateChangeStocktonIsland-ApostleIslandsNationalLakeshoreBayfieldWISortouttheclimatechangecontroversy.TakeaclimatewalktolearnhowclimatechangeisaffectingLakeSuperiorandtheApostleIslands.WhatcanwedotoadapttoachangingclimateDay4TakingActionRedCliffTribalFishHatcheryandLegendaryWatersRedCliffWIHowareweplanningforclimatechangeimpactsoncoastalresourcesandpeopleLearnhowtoapplytheG-WOWmodelasonetooltoteachaboutclimatechange.Developaclimatechangeservicelearningproject.CostFREE400teacherstipendcreditisavailable.Morningcoffeesnackslunchesprovided.EducatorscompletingtheInstituteareeligibleforfinancialsupporttobringtheirstudentstoaCoastalClimateCampfieldexperienceQuestionsFormoredetailedinformationdetailedagendaandregistrationmaterialsgotohttpfyi.uwex.edunglvcandclickonG-WOWInstituteorcontactCathyTechtmannUW-Extension715.561.269emailcatherine.techtmannces.uwex.edudifficult.ThereisnosimplewaytocountorestimatethenumberofelkaroundClamLake.Managersstruggledwiththisdecisionandexaminedseveraldifferentmethodstoestimatetheelkpopulation.Althoughtheywereallslightlydifferentnonehadanestimateabove200elk.Thustherecommendationfromthecommit-teewasnottoholdanelkhuntin2014.Therewassomeuncertaintyaboutthisrecommendationascertainassump-tionsaboutelkmortalityandcalfproduc-tionweremade.AtthatpointinMarchinformationtosuggestthatwintereffectswouldbesignificantthisyearwasnotavailable.Inthesixweekssincethatmeetingevidencehasbeenfoundthatwinterdidtakeatolloncalfsurvivor-shipthisyearandthatlikelytherewillbeeffectsonthisyearscalfproduction.Allofthisreducestheuncertaintybiolo-gistshadabouttheirassumptionsandrecommendation.WhileboththedeerandelkherdsarecurrentlyenjoyingthereturnofgreenfoodonthelandscapethereisnodoubtthatoldmanwinterputthemaswellasustothetestasnorthwoodsresidentsDeerelkmortalityContinuedfrompage11municipalgovernmentsFirstNationsandMtis.TheGLEChasdevelopedtensubcommitteestoperformtheworkrequiredbytheGLWQAincludingaSubcom-mitteededicatedtoclimatechange.TheclimatechangesubcommitteeisdirectedtocoordinateeffortstoidentifyquantifyunderstandandpredictclimatechangeimpactsontheGreatLakesandshareinformationthatGreatLakesresourcemanagersneedtoproactivelyaddresstheseimpacts.ThisworkincludescompilinginformationaboutGreatLakesclimatechangeknowledgecoordinatingacrossthetenannexestoassessandidentifycriticalhydroclimateandclimatechangeinformationneedsengagingonaregularbasiswithothersubcommitteesandkeydecisionmakersintheGreatLakesbasinandaddressingidentifiedprioritiesandgapsinhydroclimateandclimatechangeinformation.WhileGLIFWCstaffdoesnotsitdirectlyontheclimatechangesubcommitteeGLIFWCwillmonitoritsworkbothbyvirtueofitsseatontheGLECandthroughstaffparticipationonthesubcommitteethatservesacoordinationandoversightroleamongtheotherninesubcommittees.GLIFWCstaffwasalsoinstrumentalindevelopingandservesasco-leadofaTraditionalEcologicalKnowledgeteamtoworkwiththesubcommitteededicatedtosciencewhichwillalsocoordinatewiththeclimatechangesubcommittee.SourcesCitedIntergovernmentalPanelOnClimateChangeIPCCClimateChange2013ThePhysicalScienceBasisJanuary2014.LovejoyShaun.Scalingfluctuationanalysisandstatisticalhypothesistest-ingofanthropogenicwarmingClimateDynamicsApril2014.PowellJamesLawrence.WhyClimateDeniersHaveNoScientificCred-ibilityOnly1of9136RecentPeer-ReviewedAuthorsRejectsGlobalWarmingwww.Desmogblog.comJanuary2014.GreeneCharlesH.ExtremeWinterWeatherExplainedScientificAmericanVol307Issue6December2012.WisconsinInitiativeonClimateChangeImpactsWICCI.WisconsinsChangingClimateImpactsandAdaptation2011.ClimatechangeContinuedfrompage13SandyLakeCeremonysetforJuly30JoinusasGLIFWCcommemoratethesacrificesofAnishinaabeances-torsatSandyLakein1850whenover400perishedaspartofanefforttoforceremovaltotheMinnesotaterritory.TheannualSandyLakeCeremoniesareslatedforJuly30attheSandyLakeRecreationSitenearMcGregorMinnesota.TheceremonyandfeastarescheduledfornoonandareprecededbyapaddleacrossSandyLakewhichissetfora900a.m.start.Allarewelcome.ForinformationContactGLIFWCat715-682-6619.MikwendaagoziwagTheyareremembered SusanErickson..............................EditorLynnPlucinski..............................AssistantEditorCharlieOttoRasmussen................WriterPhotographerMAZINAIGANTalkingPaperisapublicationoftheGreatLakesIndianFishWildlifeCommissionwhichrepresentselevenOjibwetribesinMichiganMinnesotaandWisconsin.SubscriptionstothepaperarefreetoUnitedStatesandCanadianresidents.Subscribeonlineatwww.glifwc.orgwriteMAZINAIGANP.O.Box9OdanahWI54861phone715682-6619ore-maillynnglifwc.org.Ifyouhavemovedorareplanningtomovepleasekeepusinformedsowecankeepourmailinglistcurrent.Ifyouplantobeawayforanextendedperiodoftimepleaseletusknowsowecansuspendyoursubscriptionuntilyoureturn.AlthoughMAZINAIGANenjoyshearingfromitsreadershipthereisnoLetterstotheEditorsectioninthepaperandopinionstobepublishedinthepaperarenotsolicited.Queriesastopotentialarticlesrelatingtooff-reservationtreatyrightsandorresourcemanagementorOjibweculturalinformationcanbedirectedtotheeditorattheaddressgivenabove.FormoreinformationseeGLIFWCswebsitewww.glifwc.organdourFacebookpage.MAZINAIGANSTAFFPronouncedMuhzinahigunNONPROFITORGPOSTAGEPAIDPERMIT203EAUCLAIREWIPrintedbyEAUCLAIREPRESSCOMPANYEAUCLAIREWI54701RETURNADDRESSGLIFWCP.O.BOX9ODANAHWI54861OjibweCededTerritoriesandMemberTribesofGLIFWCTreatyCededAreas1836183718421854CHANGESERVICEREQUESTEDNIIBIN2014