MINING Stuart Kirsch is uniquely qualified to examine the relationship between mining corporations and their critics. He spent two decades as an anthropolo- gist doing ethnographic research and participating in an indigenous political movement opposed to the Ok Tedi copper and gold mine in Papua New Guinea. The first half of the book describes his experience in working with an alliance of indigenous peoples environmental activists and lawyers in an international campaign to stop the Ok Tedi mine from dumping their waste into the local river system. Up until quite recently the industry has been able to avoid responsibility for the costs of this destructive activity by shifting the burden of human and environmental costs onto society. That era came to a close in the 1990s when indigenous peoples and their allies in the environmental and human rights com- munity mounted successful campaigns to resist ecologically destructive mining projects like the proposed Crandon metallic sulfide mine in Wisconsin. This has forced the global mining industry to develop new social control technologies to manage their relationships with the public and allow continued access to mineral resources. Kirsch provides great insight into the political strategies of transnational action networks seeking greater accountability from mining companies. He describes a 1994 lawsuit in Australian courts against one of Australias largest mining corporations BHP brought on behalf of 30000 people living down- stream from the mine. The case established the important precedent that mining companies are liable for damage claims when their mining pollution deprives people of their subsistence practices such as fishing or farming. The second half of the book examines how the mining industry uses and manipulates science to convince its critics that the problems of the mining indus- try are being addressed without the need for additional oversight or regulation. Al Gedicks Emeritus professor of sociology University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Mining Capitalism A book review by Al Gedicks for Mazinaigan PAGE 9 MAZINAIGANSUMMER 2015 Mining continues to be a concern throughout the ceded territories.This article describes the status of current mining activity and the work that GLIFWC staff is conducting to review these projects. Wisconsin Penokee Iron Mine Gogebic Taconite GTac halted the collection of baseline water quality and quantity data in the Penokee hills in September of 2014. In January of this year GTac stated that all additional work at the site had been put on hold. Finally in March of this year the company officially withdrew its pre-application notice from the State of Wisconsin. The end of the GTac project means that the area of the former project is open for public access once again. Inthefallof2014staffbecameawarethatsomeoftheexplorationholesdrilled by GTac in early 2014 were leaking water to the surface and asked the WDNR to require GTac to either fix the casing on the exploration holes or else plug the holes with cement. Now that the project has ended GLIFWC will continue to work with the WDNR to make sure all areas disturbed by GTacs activities at the site are properly reclaimed. Exploration in ChequamegonNicolet National Forest Aquila Resources conducted exploration in the Forest in Taylor County in the winter of 2011-12 but has conducted no exploration since then. Aquila still has an active permit for exploration near ChequamegonWaters and Mondeaux Flowages. Other than GTacs exploration in 2013 and 2014 no other metal mineral exploration activity has occurred in Wisconsin. Michigan Eagle Mine Lundin Mining is now producing ore from the Eagle Mine on theYellow Dog Plains. The mine will primarily produce nickel and copper. Efforts to permit a 21-mile haul road for ore from the Eagle Mine site to the Humboldt MillprocessingfacilitythroughtheforestsnexttotheMcCormickWildernesswere abandoned in 2013.An alternative road was built over the route of existing county roads. During road construction there was a large release of construction site water into the Salmon Trout River that was investigated by GLIFWC and Keweenaw Bay Indian Community KBIC staff. The contractor received a citation from the state and the Environmental Protection Agency EPA exerted closer oversight until the road was completed in the fall of 2014. Hauling of ore and processing of ore at the Humboldt Mill began in late 2014. Humboldt Mill During 2012 2013 and 2014 the EPA conducted a site assessment at the Humboldt Mill site to identify contamination from previous mining. This assessment is a first step in determining whether the site should be listed as a Superfund site. In 2014 the EPA found that there was sufficient con- tamination to justify additional evaluation. The State of Michigan offered to take over evaluation of the site and the transfer of oversight from the EPA to the state will occur this winter. Lundin Mining began processing ore in 2014 and started discharging water from the milling into the Escanaba River. Review of the state water discharge permit by KBIC GLIFWC and the EPA is ongoing. OrvanaCopperwood In 2014 Highland Copper Company purchased the Copperwood project from Orvana Minerals. This mineral deposit is located near the Presque Isle River and Lake Superior in the western U.P. Under the ownership of Orvana permits that would allow the development and mining of the deposit were granted by the State of Michigan. Since purchase of the project Highland Copper Company has left the project dormant in order to focus its attention on the White Pine Mine. White Pine Mine This mine was purchased by Highland Copper Company in 2014 with plans to mine the deposit immediately northeast of the historic White Pine Mine. That mine was closed in 1997 when a proposal to extract copper by acid solution mining was withdrawn. Highland Copper has been focusing its resources on evaluating the ore body and developing a mine plan. In 2014 the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality DEQ discussed calling a series of meetings to plan monitoring at the proposed mine site and conduct scoping for the environmental impact analysis process. Exploration on the Ottawa National Forest Trans Superior Resources applied to the Forest for permits to explore for minerals within the National Forest at several locations and conducted exploration during the winter of 2013-2014. GLIFWC staff will continue to track mineral exploration activity in the National Forest. Minnesota Polymet The second draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Poly- metNorthmet project was released in the fall of 2013. The applicant has proposed more complete capture of water leaking from the existing tailings basins and other changes to reduce release of contaminants from the site. Polymet would use the existing basins for disposal of new tailings. The water escaping from the basins would be treated prior to discharge to area waterways or wetlands. Because the overburden and ore are expected to generate leachate containing substantial pol- lutants the closure of the project at the end of mining is expected to require active water treatment for at least hundreds of years. Comments on the Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement SDEIS were received in early 2014 and the lead agencies and the company have been working on responses and changes to the project to address the issues raised. A draft Final Environmental Impact Statement dFEIS is scheduled for release in the spring of 2015 and a FEIS is scheduled for release in mid-2015. GLIFWC staff and staff from Fond du Lac GrandPortageandthe1854TreatyAuthorityarereviewingtheproposedresponses and project changes. Inadequate baseline data and incorrect characterization of the site hydrology continue to be significant problems with the project. Mining activity in the ceded territories By John Coleman GLIFWC Environmental Section Leader Esteban Chiriboga GLIFWC Environmental Specialist Untreated water leaving the Minntac tailings basin. The water flows towards the Sandy Lakes visible in the background. The Sandy Lakes used to support tribal wild rice harvest but the rice has now mostly disappeared because of the effects of the mine. photo by Esteban Chiriboga Other sulfide ore deposits in Minnesota Near the PolymetNorthmet copper-nickel ore project are several other sulfide metal ore deposits that have been extensively characterized through exploratory drilling. These deposits are adjacent to the Mesabi Iron Range and extend northeast towards the Boundary Waters Canoe Area. Antofagasta PLC of Chile acquired several of those deposits in 2014. In 2014 Kennecott Minerals joined with a new partner Talon Metals to renew exploration activity at the Tamarack sulfide ore site approximately 20 miles west of the Fond du Lac reservation and 25 miles northeast of the Mille Lacs reservation. Minntac U.S. Steels Minntac project is a large iron mine near Virginia Minnesota. The total footprint of the mine is approximately 32 square miles and the tailings basins cover approximately 16 square miles. Minntac operated for many years with expired water discharge permits. The primary environmental issue is release of thousands of gallons per minute of mine wastewater into sur- rounding wetlands streams and rivers. The state was scheduled to issue a draft permit for public review in mid-February but this has been delayed indefinitely because MPCA wants to finalize a new standard for the protection of wild rice. A key issue in the permitting of Minntacs wastewater discharges is the pro- tection of wild rice. Historically the nearby Twin Lakes Sandy and Little Sandy produced many acres of wild rice.After more than forty years of discharge of mine wastewater to the lakes wild rice is only a remnant. In 2011 Minntac began a watercaptureprogramthatpreventssomeoftheminewastewaterfromenteringthe lakes. However substantial wastewater is still being transmitted from the basins to the Twin Lakes. GLIFWC and 1854 Treaty Authority have been collecting water samples downstream of the Minntac tailings basins and cooperating with the EPA to document changes in water quality. Minnesota has issued a draft standard to protect wild rice from sulfate. GLIFWC and Tribal staff are currently reviewing that standard. A preliminary reviewsuggeststhattheproposedstandardisnotprotectiveofmanoominandwould allow significant degradation of a wild rice bed before that degradation would be considered significant by the state. A detailed review of the proposal is ongoing.