MAZINA’IGAN PAGE 20 SUMMER 2017 • KID’S PAGE • Great Lakes Sea Lamprey Sometimes referred to as vampire fish, sea lampreys kill other fish by sucking their blood and other body fluids. They have been around since before the dinosaurs. Unfortunately, lampreys are invasive to the Great Lakes, andareabigproblem!Theyenteredthelakesthroughshipping canals built in the 1800s, allowing them to swim into Lake Ontario from the ocean. Sea lampreys were stuck in Lake Ontario because Niagara Falls blocked their path to Lake Erie. In 1919, the Welland Canal, which connects Lakes Ontario and Erie, was deepened, and sea lampreys used the route to swim into Lake Erie by 1912, then into Lakes Huron and Michigan by 1937, and finally Lake Superior by 1938. Sea lamprey life cycle Adult lamprey build horseshoe-shaped nests where they lay their eggs. Upon hatching, baby sea lampreys—called larvae— burrow into the stream bottom where they will live for 3 to 10+ years. Once they reach 5-6 inches in length, a metamorphosis occurs where the larvae develop a suction mouth, eyes, fins, and an appetite for fish blood. Now the sea lampreys are a parasite readytoeat!Amigrationintothelakesthenoccurswhereparasitic sea lampreys feed for up to a year-and-a-half, afterward returning to streams for spawning. Life cycle word scramble Reprinted with permission from the Great Lakes Fishery Commission. SEGG VAALER PEARAIST TORSOPMAIHEMS GIMITONRA 6 8 7 13 12 2 10 11 1 4 9 GSAINNWP 3 5 12-18 MONTHS One summer, fall and winter feeding on blood of host f ish Migration of adults into streams March —July Death of adults after spawning 3-10+ years Emergence from stream bed June —March Downstream migration to lakes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Y ! Sealampreysattachtomostspecies of large Great Lakes fish. Each sea lamprey can kill up to 40 pounds of fish in its lifetime! After invading the Great Lakes, sea lampreyquickly began to devastate sport and commercial fish species, particularly lake trout. Bythetimeitwasobviousthatsealampreyswereaproblem, it was too late for some lakes. Native populations of lake trout were gone from Lake Huron and Lake Michigan. However, controlmethodsbeganbeforesealampreyscompletelydepleted lake trout in Lake Superior. The native lake trout population in Lake Superior survived the sea lamprey invasion! SHOHREOSE Sealampreyareoftencalled “lamprey eels,” but they are not eels! Sea lampreys have a skeleton of cartilage (like sharks) and are jawless, whileeels(likesalmon)have a jaw and bony skeleton! 1. Unscramble each of the words below. (HINT: Words used are bolded in the story above.) 2. Copy the letters in the numbered boxes to the boxes at the bottom of the puzzle with the same number to reveal a hidden phrase. Hidden Phrase Did you know? Sea lampreys are a revered species for many nations situated on oceans,butlampreysthatliveintheGreatLakesareconsideredbadnews. They kill large amounts of Great Lakes fish and are inedible because they contain a lot of contaminants like mercury. Lampreys are a popular menu item in western Europe. And in the United States’ Pacific Northwest many tribes greatly admire lampreys, valuing the ancient fish as a food source and a relative, like a brother. Tribal members catch lamprey by hand in rivers where rapids and waterfalls form. Lamprey are eaten at feasts and play an important role in some ceremonies. ButlampreypopulationsintheColumbiaRiverbasinhaveplummeted since the 1900s and only a few places like Willamette Falls, Oregon still haveharvestablenumbers.RegionaltribesincludingNezPerce,Umatilla, YakamaandWarmSpringsareleadinganefforttorestorePacificlamprey back to their original home range. —C. Rasmussen Lake trout (upper photo) with sea lamprey wounds. Left: Lampreys have a large sucking disk for a mouth and it is filled with sharp teeth that surround a file-like tongue. Right: GLIFWC works with the other agencies to control the population of lampreys in Lake Superior.