PAGE 23 MAZINA’IGAN SUMMER 2017 Ogichidaa Storytellers video release Monday, May 22, 2017 @ 5:30 pm Legendary Waters Convention Center, Bayfield, WI Come and screen the new GLIFWC short video on the Gurnoe Decision! Learn about the rich history of Anishinaabe treaties and the warriors that stood up to defend them. Hear from some of the warriors in a community dialogue. Students and youth are highly encouraged to attend. Can’t make the event? There will be a second Ogichidaa Storytellers video screening at the Northern Great Lakes Visitor Center, Ashland, WI on Thursday, May 25 at 5:30 pm in the theater. This event is sponsored by GLIFWC and the Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa. ThisprojectwasfundedinpartbyagrantfromtheWisconsinHumanitiescouncil,withfundsfrom the National Endowment for the Humanities.Any view, finding, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this project do not necessarily represent those of the National Endowment for the Humanities. The Wisconsin Humanities Council supports and creates programs that use history, culture, and discussion to strengthen community life for everyone in Wisconsin. Finger foods will be served! Life Cycle Word Scramble (answers from page 20) eggs larvae parasite metamorphosis migration spawning parasite horseshoe Hidden Phrase: Stop Sea Lamprey • HUNTING/OGICHIDAA STORYTELLERS VIDEO • Perhaps harvest data from natural waters would provide more clarity? Well, it turns out that, there are challenges with using that data as well. The best data of that kind available anywhere in manoomin’s range comes right from the annual Wisconsin harvest survey GLIFWC conducts each year in cooperation with the Wisconsin DNR. Does that data suggest a cycle? I would say (drumroll, please): no—at least on a state-wide scale (Figure 1). But there are some reasons why this data might not detect a cycle even if it were there. First off, we are using harvest as an index to abundance, and while the two are certainly related, the match is far from a perfect one. While harvest cannot be (very) high when abundance is low, harvest can be low when rice is abundant. Poor, or ideal, weather during the harvest season may affect harvest levels as much as abundance. Inaddition,humanharvestingpressurecanvaryappreciablyfromyeartoyear; good crops tend to increase state license sales, for example. Pressure may even drop after a particularly good year simply because some folks still have enough left in their pantry to get them through another year. Figure 2 depicts estimates of rice abundance and harvest from Pacwawong Lake. While the relationship between harvest and abundance is pretty strong, some years don’t match up; in 2010 for example, rice plants were abundant, but an outbreak of brown-spot disease lead to a near complete failure in harvest. In contrast, the particularly high harvest seen in 2009 was likely as much a product of ideal weather during the harvest season as it was rice abundance. And again there is the question of scale. While state-wide harvest estimates could hide cycling taking place on a local level, the Pacwawong figure is typical of our annual surveys of individual lakes in not suggesting a regular cycling in abundance either. Of course, if manoomin were cycling, there would be the question of what is causing it. Dr. John Pastor at the University of Minnesota Duluth has explored how nutrient levels affect rice abundance. In particular, Dr. Pastor and his students have found evidence that nitrogen taken up by the plants and stored in the roots is not available to fuel growth of the next year’s crop due to insufficient over-winter decay. Under carefully controlled experimental conditions, it appears this nutri- ent cycling can lead to a cycling in manoomin abundance at the local level. And these observations seem consistent with the observations of many ricers that river beds of manoomin seem to vary less than lake beds—presumably because of the constant influx of nutrients that occurs on rivers. Nevertheless, on real-world rice lakes, nutrient cycling is only one of several factors that affects rice abundance in any given year. Water levels, over-winter conditions,competingvegetation,stormeventsanddiseaseoutbreaksarejustsome of the myriad of factors that can influence whether a fall harvester finds a sea of grass or just a few scattered stalks on her favorite lake. In the end, the interplay of all these factors, and the variability of each of them, leave me to conclude that while wild beds of manoomin vary greatly from year to year, they likely do not cycle in a regular way. Finally, if there is one message hidden in all of our monitoring, it may be this: When it is a really good year on a lake you favor, you may want to put your tobacco down and get out there, because there is a good chance next year will not be as good! Making sense of good years, bad years on manoomin waters Figure 1. Estimated Wisconsin off-reservation manoomin harvest, in pounds of green rice. (Continued from page 5) Figure 2. Estimated abundance and reported harvest from Pacwawong Lake. Pounds Pacwawong Lake, Sawyer Co. 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1992 1993 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Harvest Abun. Index The Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs organized an “Elders Gathering on Hunting,” on March 6. The intent was to solicit advice from Manitoba elders and knowledge carriers on the values, practices, and protocols on hunting. Another big discussion item sur- rounded the safety and teachings per- taining to night hunting. Many elders, hunters, and Manitoba Provincial Representatives gathered at the Turtle Lodge at Sagkeeng First Nation, every- one eager to both listen and speak for their communities. GLIFWC accepted an invitation to speak and Mole Lake Chairman Chris McGeshick gave a presentation on night huntingwithinGLIFWCcededterritory. Many of the representatives and harvesters had questions related to night hunting regulations and course work. Overall the gathering began on a positive note and ended with the calm- ing sense of gratitude and strengthened relationships. –Dylan Jennings Sagkeeng First Nation hosts Elders Gathering on Hunting William Young from Bloodvein First Nation, Manitoba, Canada speaks at the Elders Gathering on Hunting. (DJ)