Page 1
Page 2
Page 3
Page 4
Page 5
Page 6
Page 7
Page 8
Page 9
Page 10
Page 11
Page 12
Page 13
Page 14
Page 15
Page 16
Page 17
Page 18
Page 19
Page 20
Page 21
Page 22
Page 23
Page 24
MAZINAx19IGANPAGE8WINTER20122013ExoticforestpeststargetedbyANA-fundedprojectByJimThannumNaturalResourceDevelopmentSpecialistandSueEricksonStaffWriterFORESTPESTSOdanahWis.x14InordertoaddressissuesrelatedtoexoticforestpestsespeciallytheemeraldashborerEABGLIFWCappliedforandrecentlyreceivedathree-yeargrantfromtheAdministrationforNativeAmericansANAACFUSHHS.Theimpactofthesepestsinthecededterritoriesrelatestotribalmembersx19continuingabilityundertheirtreatyrightstogathermiscellaneousforestproducts.Ojibwepeoplecontinuetorelyonavarietyofforestproductsthathavebeentra-ditionallygatheredtouseforspiritualmedicinalculturalsubsistenceandcommercialpurposes.Afewoftheseproductsincludebirchmaplesapbalsamboughsginsengcedarandash.HoweverexoticpestsbroughtinfromforeigncountrieshavealreadyproveddevastatinginareasofthecontinentalUnitedStatesthreateningforestresourcesvaluedbytribalmembers.EABparticularlyhasalreadyreekedhavoconthenationx19sashtrees.LookingattheproblemBeforeJuneof2002EABhadneverbeenfoundinNorthAmerica.ItsnaturalrangeiseasternRussianorthernChinaJapanandKorea.TheemeraldashborerattacksallspeciesofNorthAmericanashandwasfirstthoughttooccurinsoutheasternMichigan.IthassincespreadtoOntarioandOhioin2003Indianain2004Illinoisin2006Wisconsinin2008Minnesotain2009.Emeraldashborerdestroysthewaterandnutrientconductingtissuesunderthebarkofashtrees.One-thirdtoone-halfofthebranchesmaydieinoneyear.Mostofthecanopywillbedeadwithintwoyearsofwhensymptomsarefirstobserved.SinceitsdiscoveryEABhas1killedtensofmillionsofashtreesinsoutheasternMichigan2causedregulatoryagenciesUSDAAnimalandPlantHealthInspectionServicex14APHIStoenforcequarantinesinMichiganWisconsinandotherstatesandestablishfinestopreventpotentiallyinfestedashtreeslogsorhardwoodfirewoodfrommovingoutofareaswhereEABoccurs.TheAsianlonghornedbeetleALBisnativetoeasternChinaJapanandKoreaandnowhasbeenaccidentallyintroducedtotheUnitedStateswhereitwasfirstdiscoveredin1996.AlertworkershaveuncoveredandreportedALBsinwarehousesinMichiganWisconsinandotherstates.ALBinfestationshaveresultedin1quarantines2cuttingdownallhealthytreesofthepotentialhostspecieswithinaone-eighthtoone-quartermileradiusofinfestedtrees3havingallinfestedtreeschippedandburned4grindingstumpsofinfestedtreestobelowthesoillevel5increasinginsecticidetreatments.Asforestpestsmoveintothecededterritorytheycouldbeaccidentlyspreadbyindividualscollectingandmovingfirewoodincludingtribalmembers.TribalmemberscurrentlyexercisefirewoodgatheringrightsundereitheraformalTribalForestServiceMemorandumofUnderstandingMOUestablishedin1999ortribalcodesgoverningfirewoodharvestonstate-ownedlands.Thechallengeishowtomaximizeopportunitiesfortribalmemberstoharvestandutilizefirewoodtoheattheirhomesandboilsyrupwhileminimizingthespreadofforestpestsonpubliclandsorintoreservationcommunities.WhatcanbedoneAproactiveapproachandresponseplanwillbedevelopedwithtribestoprepareforthespreadofEABandotherexoticforestpestsinthecededterritories.Furthermorecooperationwithstateandfederalpartnersisnecessarygivenintergovernmentalrequire-mentsestablishedunderstipulationsfederalcourtordersandinteragencyMemorandumsofAgreement.GLIFWCwillfirstcompleteareportprovidingthescientificfoundationtoassessrisksfromEABandfourotherforestpestsuponfivecommonlyharvestedtreatyforestryspeciesi.e.ashbalsambirchmapleoakthroughoutthecededterritories.Thiswillprovideacomprehensivescientificfoundationonwhichriskassessmentswillbebasedinyeartwoandharvestingregulationsrevisedinyearthree.InthesecondyearGLIFWCwillcompleteariskassessmentofthreatstotreatyre-sourcesfromEABandfourotherforestpestsintegratingTraditionalEcologicalKnowledgeTEKonashuseashqualityneededforbasketsandwoodfuelharvestpatternsaswellasTEKinformationrelatedtotribaluseofbalsambirchmapleandoak.TheactivitiesofthisobjectivewillintegratescientificriskassessmentsandTEKprovidedbytribaleldersandharvesterstoenabletribestomorefullyunderstandthepathwaysforintroductionandspreadofexoticforestpestsandhowtheseinfestationsmayimpacttreatyforestryresourcesandtheexerciseoftreatyrights.InthethirdyearGLIFWCwillworkwithmembertribestodevelopandrecommendfortribalapprovalasystemofregulationsandplansthataddresspreventingintroducingorspreadingEABandforestpestswithinthecededterritories.Inadditioncommunityoutreachandeducationofforestresourcethreatsandupdatedrevisedx1cmiscellaneousforestproductsx1dgatheringregulationswillbeprovidedintribalcommunities.PreventingthespreadofEABwhenharvestingfirewoodAdultbeetlesaremetallicgreenandabout12-inchlong.AdultsleaveaD-shapedexitholeinthebarkwhentheyemergeinspring.WoodpeckerslikeEABlarvaeheavywoodpeckerdamageonashtreesmaybeasignofinfestation.FirewoodcannotbemovedindesignatedareasofMichiganMinnesotaandWisconsinbecauseoftheEABquarantine.Whytheremaybeanincreasedneedforgatheringx18rewoodTheEnergyInformationAdministrationEIAprojectsaveragehouseholdex-pendituresforheatingoilandnaturalgaswillincreaseby19percentand15percentrespectivelythiswinterOctober1throughMarch31comparedwithlastwinter.Projectedhouseholdexpendituresare5percenthigherforelectricityand13percenthigherforpropanethiswinter.Averageexpendituresforhouseholdsthatheatwithheatingoilareforecasttobehigherthananypreviouswinteronrecord.Sourcehttpwww.eia.govforecastssteoAsianlonghornedbeetle.photocreditKennethR.LawUSDAAPHISPPQ.EmeraldashborerEABlarvaefeedontheinnerbarkofashtreesdisruptingthetreex19sabilitytotransportwaterandnutrients.photocourtesyJeffreyHahnUniversityofMinnesotaInsetphotoLarvaofanemeraldashborer.Thelarvaearethedestructivestageofthepest.photocourtesyDavidCappaertMichiganStateUniversity.Emeraldashborer.photocourtesyofDavidCappaertMichiganStateUniversity