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PAGE11MAZINAIGANWINTER2013-2014ANAFORESTPESTSForestsunderthreathighlightsfromGLIFWCsone-yearscientificreviewOdanahWis.Theforestsofthecededterritoryareunderthreatlikeneverbefore.Europeanearthworminvasionsandhighpopulationsofnativewhite-taileddeerarealreadyinhibitingseedlingestablishmentespeciallybysugarmapleandhemlock.Freedfromtheirnaturalpestsanddiseasesandoftenadaptedtolivingwithearthwormsintroducedinvasiveplantscontinuetoinvadenaturalhabitatsanddisplacenativeplants.Humanpopulationgrowthandtheescalatingdemandforresourcesplaceincreasingpressureonever-shrinkingforests.Thewarmingclimatewillleadtogreaterfrequencyofdroughtsfiresmajorwindstormsandoutbreaksofnativeandintroducedinsectsanddiseases.Eventuallyadulttreeswillbelostatagreaterratethantheycanbereplaced.Borealandnorthernhardwoodforestswillbepushednorthtobereplacedbysavannasoftreesshrubsandforbsfromfurthersouth.RapidchangewillallowaggressiveinvasiveplantssuchasEurasianbushhoneysucklesLoniceraspp.JapanesebarberryBerberisthunbergiicommonbuckthornRhamnuscatharticaandglossybuckthornFrangulaalnustorapidlyinfiltratenaturalhabitats.FormoreseeUniversityofMinnesotaresearcherLeeFelichspowerpointatwww.slideshare.netmaeeconferencelee-frelichs-climate-change-forests-presentation.Aspartofathree-yearAdministrationforNativeAmericansANAforestpestgrantGLIFWChasproducedascientificreportaimedatassessingoneofthesethreatstheriskofforestpeststofivegroupsoftreesusedbyOjibwetribalmembersinthe18361837and1842cededterritories.Thesefivetreegroupsareoaksashmaplebalsamandbirch.BecauseoftheirenvironmentalandculturalimportancesectionswerealsoincludedforeasternhemlockAmericanbeechandwhitecedar.OaksandoakwiltAstheclimatewarmsandlatesummerdroughtsintensifyoaksQuercusspp.collectivelyMitigomizhiigpluralOjibwearelikelytobecomeanincreasinglyimportantcomponentofcededterritoryforests.Themostdestructivediseasecur-rentlyfacingoaksinthecededterritoryisoakwilt.Theoakwiltfungusspreadsundergroundthroughrootgraftsbetweentreesandisalsocarriedbysapbeetlesfrominfestedtreestoinjureduninfestedtrees.RecentinfestationsinnorthernWisconsinhavebeenlinkedtolandownerswhodamagedoakswhilebuildingvacationhomesandwhoalsobroughtwilt-infestedfirewoodfromsouthernWisconsin.Whiteoaksaregenerallymuchmoreresistanttooakwiltthanredoaksbuttheycanstillbekilledbythedisease.Thespreadofoakwiltisverycontrollableprovidedpeopledonotmoveinfestedfirewoodtouninfestedareasandavoidpruningorotherwisedamagingoaksespeciallyinspringandsummer.TheemeraldashborerTheemeraldashborerEABisthemostdestructiveforestpesteverintroducedtoNorthAmerica.FirstdetectedinDetroitin2002theEABisnowestablishedin21statesandtwoCanadianprovinces.NativetoeasternAsiathisbeetlehasdevastatedashFraxinusspp.includingwhiteandgreenashAagimaakoogandblackashBaapaagimaakooginsouthernLowerMichiganOhioandIndianakillinganestimated60millionashtreesineasternNorthAmericasofar.HeroiceffortsarebeingmadetoslowthespreadofthisinsectandsavesomeofeasternNorthAmericasashtreeswithverylimitedsuccess.Asystemicin-secticidecalledTREE-geemimectinbenzoateappearstoprovidelong-lastingatleasttwoyearshighlyeffectiveprotectionfromtheEAB.Thispesticideisderivedfromasoilbacteriumandappearstobesafeforpeopleanimalsandeveninsectsthatmaysimplylandonashtrees.Biologicalcontroleffortsarealsounderway.Threetinyparasitoidwaspshavepassedtestingforhost-specificitybytheUSDepartmentofAgricultureandarebeingreleasedacrosstheintroducedrangeoftheEAB.AdditionalbiocontrolinsectsparticularlythosethatcanbettersurvivecoldwintersarebeingsoughtintheEABsnativerange.InUpperMichigantheSlowAshMortalitySLAMprojectattemptstousebiocontrolinsectsTREE-getreatmentofaportionofthetreesgirdledtraptreesandothermanagementtoolstotryandlowertheEABpopulationenoughsothatnativeashtreescansurviveonthelandscape.TheEABusuallyonlyspreadsaboutmileperyearonitsownsoifpeopleavoidedmovingashfirewooditwouldbedecadesbeforetheEABcouldreachalltheashstandsinthecededter-ritory.SlowingthespreadoftheEABbuystimeforresearcherstofindnewwaystofightthishighlydestructiveforestpest.TheAsianlonghornedbeetleMaplesAcerspp.arepotentiallyunderthreatfromtheAsianlonghornedbeetleALB.TheALBisalargewood-boringbeetlefromChinathatregularlybeganshowingupatportsofentryinthe1990s.LiketheEABithitchesarideinsolidwoodpackingmaterial.ItfirstbecameestablishedintheNewYorkCityareain1997.SubsequentinfestationsshowedupinChicago1998NewJersey2002andToronto2003.WhiletheseearlierinfestationshavebeeneradicatedfederalstateandlocalagenciesarestillfightingALBinfestationsinNewYorksuburbanMassachusettsandsemi-ruralsouthernOhio.UnlikeearlierinfestationswhichoccurredinurbanareastheMassachusettsandOhioinfestationshavespreadintonaturalforests.InitsnativerangetheALBattacksawidevarietyoftreesincludingmaplehorsechestnutelmbirchaspenandwillow.InNorthAmericathoughtheALBhassofaralmostexclusivelyattackedmapletreesincludingredmapleandsilvermapleZhiishiigimewanzhiigsugarmapleIninaatigoogboxelderAajaagobi-imagoonandtheintroducedNorwaymaple.ThelarvaeoftheALBburrowthroughthewoodleavingtunnelsandexitholesthediameterofadimeandweakeningthetreestothepointofcollapse.UnliketheEABtheALBisalargeshowybeetle.Theadultsnormallydonotflyanyfartherthantheyhavetoinordertofindasuitabletreeofteninfestingthesametreefromwhichtheyemerged.Eradicationeffortshavebeencostlyintermsoftimeefforttreesandmoneybutfortunatelyhavebeensuccessful.ThebalsamandhemlockwoolyadelgidsInNewEnglandandtheAppalachianregionbalsamfirAbiesbalsameaZhingobiigandhemlockTsugacanadensisGaagaagimizhiinareunderat-tackbythebalsamandhemlockwoollyadelgidrespectively.Theseintroducedaphidplantlicerelativesbuildtohugenumbersextractingstoredfoodreservesfromtheirrespectivehostsandbasicallystarvingthem.WhilethecoldwintertemperaturestraditionallyexperiencedinthecededterritorymayridtheforestsofalargeportionoftheseinsectsinsomeyearstheirabilitytosurviveundertheBySteveGarskeANAForestPestEnv.GrantCoordinatorKnowndistributionofoakwilt.OakwiltwasfoundinRuskCountyWisconsinaswell.USDAForestServiceForestHealthPro-tectionandpartnershttpfores-thealth.fs.usda.govportalFlexAPE.TotherightBuroakleavesafictedwithoakwilt.Brownar-easaremoistandexiblenotdrylikefallleaves.Oaksinfestedwithoakwiltoftendroptheirleavesinsummerwellbeforetheendoftheseason.FredBakerUtahStateUniversityBugwood.orgNorthAmericandistributionofemeraldashborerasofOctober12013.Itisillegaltomovehardwoodrewoodoruntreatedashlogsoutofstate-quarantinedincludingwhiteareasorfederallyquarantinedbluelinesareas.www.emeraldashborer.infolesmultistate_eabpos.pdfAdultAsianlonghornedbeetle.JoeBoggsBugwood.orgThenativepinesawyerissometimesconfusedwiththeALB.ThisbeetleattacksonlydeadanddyingbalsamrandotherconifersJosephBergerBugwood.orgSeeForestsunderthreatpage19