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PAGE19MAZINAIGANWINTER2013-2014FORESTPESTSBALSAMsnowandrapidlymultiplyinthespringmeansthatifandwhentheyarrivetheywillalwaysbeathreattothesetwoconifers.ThestatesofMichiganandWisconsinhemlockbarelyreachesMinnesotawhereitisveryrarebothhavequarantinesonthemovementofinfestedhemlocknurserytreesboughslogsandothermaterialsintothestateandMichiganispreparingtoimplementaquarantineonfirtreematerialsfrominfestedareasaswell.Publiccooperationiscriticaltokeepingthecededterritoryfreeofthesedestructivepests.Thebenefitsofpublicawarenessandearlydetec-tionwereillustratedwhenthehemlockwoollyadelgidHWArecentlyshowedupatseveralsitesinLowerMichigan.TheadelgidarrivedoninfestednurserytreesthathadbeenshippedfromtheeasternUS.OneinfestationwascaughtbyaMichigannurseryinspec-torandseveralotherswerereportedbylocalcitizens.PromptactionwastakenandMichiganofficialsnowbelievetheseinfestationshavebeeneradicated.BeechscaleandbeechbarkdiseaseAnotheraphidrelativethebeechscalehasnowinvadedMichiganandWisconsin.SpreadofthisEuropeaninsecthasbeenlinkedtothemovementoffirewoodbycampers.ThebeechscalepiercestheouterbarkofAmericanbeechFagusgrandifoliaAzhaawemizhiigtofeedonthesapslightlydamagingthebarkintheprocess.Thisallowsentrybyoneormorefungithatcausebeechbarkdisease.Beechbarkdiseasekillsthetrunks.Inresponsetherootssendupnumeroussuckerscreatingbeechthickets.ThebeechbarkscalehasnowspreadalmostasfarwestastherangeofAmericanbeechincentralUpperMichiganandeasternWisconsin.Thegoodnewsisthatabout1-2ofthebeechtreesappeartohavesignificantresistancetothebeechscaleinfestationandasmallpercentageofthemmaybecompletelyimmune.ThustheAmericanbeechisdownbutdefinitelynotout.Forestrypracticescanplayamajorroleinpromotingtheeventualrecoveryofbeechbyleavingresistanttreesinthewoods.BirchdeclineBirchdeclineisofgreatconcerntotribalmembersinpartbecauseofthegreatimportanceofbirchtreesandbirchbarktoOjibweculture.Changesinlandusepracticesandforestmanagementappeartobeprimar-ilyresponsibleforthedecreaseinwhitebirchBetulapapyriferawiigwaasatiginthecededterritory.Thesechangesincludefiresuppressionandexcessiveloggingofbirch.Whitebirchisafairlyshort-livedtreeandstandsthatwereinitiated60-75yearsagomaydeclinesimplyduetooldage.Whitebirchisalsosensitivetoelevatedsoiltemperaturesanddroughtconditionsthatawarmingclimatewillonlymakeworse.WhitebirchandmostothernativebirchspeciesarehostsforacloserelativeoftheEABcalledthebronzebirchborer.Thisnativeinsectonlyattacksstressedanddyingbirchsowhileitmaycontributetobirchdeclineitisrarelytheprimarycause.ItattacksandkillshealthyEurasianbirchspeciesthoughsotheEuropeanUnioniswritingregulationstotryandpreventitfrombeingimportedintoEurope.ThecedarlonghornedbeetleThesmallJapanesecedarlonghornedbeetleJCLBfirstappearedontheAtlanticcoastoftheUSin1997.Itiswell-establishedinseveralcoastalstatesandwilllikelycontinuetospread.ItisapestorscavengerofconifersinthefamilyCupressaceaewhichinthecededterritoryincludesnorthernwhitecedarThujaoccidentalisgiizhikaandagcommonjuniperJuniperuscommunisandeasternredcedarJ.virginiana.SeveralstudieshavefoundthatexceptforstressednurseryandlandscapewhitecedartheJCLBhasonlybeenfoundtoemergefromdyingordeadwoodofsuitablespeciesinNorthAmerica.ItdoesnotuseanyotherNorthAmericanconifers.WhileitappearsthattheJCLBwillnotbecomeaseriouspestofjuniperandcedarinthecededterritoryitwouldbewisetofollowthesameprecautionsrecommendedtoavoidthespreadofotherforestpests.WheretheforestpestprojectisheadedfromhereThescientificreviewofthethreatposedbyin-troducedforestpestsisthefirstofthreereportstobeproducedduringthecourseofthisproject.BynextOctoberGLIFWCwillhavecompletedariskassess-mentintegratingTraditionalEcologicalKnowledgeTEKonashuseandashqualityneededforbasketswoodfuelharvestpatternsandtraditionaltribalmanagementanduseofbalsambirchmapleoakandperhapsotherspeciesaswell.Themaintake-homemessageisthatitisfareasiertokeepnon-nativeforestpestsfrombecomingestablishedthantodealwiththemaftertheyarehere.Peoplebroughtmostofthesepestsherefromoverseasandnowwaysmustbefoundtoreducetheireffects.Howfasttheyspreadandhowmuchdamagetheydodependsinlargepartonwhetherornotpeoplekeeptheireyespeeledforthesepestsobservequarantinesbanningorrestrictingthemovementofinfestedwoodboughsandotherplantmaterialoutofinfestedareasandobtainfirewoodclosetowheretheyburnit.buyerhoweveritisonlyeconomicaltotraveltotheclosestlocation.Thishasbeenandcontinuestobethegreatestchallengeforboughpickerseverywheregettingyourproducttothebuyerwhilestillmakingaprofit.ForMartyandJRtheyhavebeendevelopingtheirbuyersellerrelationshipforyearsthroughprovidingahighqualityproductinatimelyfashion.Whenwepulluptheywillmoveustothefrontofthelinetheywillbuyatahigherandmoreconstantpricefromustheycallusfirstwhentheseasonopensandcallustogooutlongeriftheirorderisntfilled.Thisisjustoneexampleoftherelationshipstheyhavebuiltandmaintainedovertheirmanyyears.Asanessentialsupplementtotheharvestersincometheycantimaginehavingayearwithoutaboughseasonandtheyrelyonthebalsamresource.AlongwithincometheboughsprovideMartyandJRhavebothsaidthattheiryearsofharvestinghaveprovidedthemwithalifetimeofexperiencesandstoriesonlytheforestcanprovide.Theyhavebeenapproachedbybearswolvesandotherwildlifebuttheysaytherehasneverbeenasenseofthreatandtherehasneverbeenaproblem.Thetwohavesomuchexperi-enceandknowledgetosharetheyarehopingtoonedaypassthesetraditionsontothenextgeneration.PaulaCarricklearnedbalsamboughharvestingfromhermotherAgnesCarrickaBayMillstribalmemberandamotherof14.Agneswasanactivegathererofmanyforestproductsthroughoutherlifetimesheusedtheforestsandwildplantsasasourceofincomefamilyqualitytimeandeducationtopassalongtraditionsthroughfirsthandteachings.Amongthevariouswildplantssheharvestedintheearlywintermonthsbalsamboughswereessential.AsachildPaularemembersdaysspentwithherfamilyinthewoodstohar-vestbalsamboughs.Theyweretaughtfirstandforemosttorespectthetree.Theysoughtoutthematurebalsamtreestoharvestandfromdifferentareaseachseason.Byallowingatleasttwoyearsbetweenharvestingthesametreeyougivethetreeachancetoregenerate.Paulasaysitwasalwaysfuntohavethefamilytogetherandinthewoodssharingstoriesandmemoriesbutbalsamharvestingisalsoalotofwork.Boughsremovedfromtreeswerestackedboundandtossedovertheshoulderandre-movedfromthewoods.Agneswouldusetheboughstomakesomewreathsbutthemajorityweretiedwithtwineandsoldin20poundbundles.Theincomefromsell-ingwreathsandboughswouldsupple-mentthefamilybudgetinvariouswaysthroughouttheyear.ThreeyearsagoAgneswalkedonasagrandmotherto64agreatgrand-motherto104andagreatgreatgrand-mothertoone.Herteachingsarebeingcarriedonthroughthefamilywhowillstillharvestboughsandcreateuniqueholidaywreaths.WhenaskedaboutthetraditionsandteachingsfutureharvestersPaulaagainexpressedhowimportantitistoteachrespectfortheresourceswehavedonotover-harvestitanddonotharmit.ZhingobaandagcontinuedContinuedfrompage7ForestsunderthreatContinuedfrompage11Swellinggoutingandneedlelosscausedbythebalsamwoollyadelgid.Theinsectssecretewaxylamentsresemblingcotton.LaddLivingstonIdahoDepartmentofLandsBugwood.orgBeechbarkscaledistributionintheUS.SeveralfungithatcausebeechdiseasearewidelyestablishedineasternNorthAmerica.USForestServiceForestHealthProtectionandpartnershttpforesthealth.fs.usda.govportalFlexAPEThenativebronzebirchboreracloserelativeoftheEABgenerallyonlyusesstressedanddyingbirchtrees.AdultJCLBsare14to12inch6-14mmlong.Theyemergeinearlyspringtostartanewgeneration.ConnecticutAgriculturalExperimentStationBugwood.org