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PAGE5MAZINAIGANWINTER2013-2014ANAFORESTPESTSUpdateontheemeraldashborerinfestationinSuperiorWisconsinSuperiorWis.TheemeraldashborerEABisnotoriousforshowingupwhereitisleastexpected.StillitwasabitofashockwheninfestedashFraxinusspp.treeswerefoundinSuperiorWisconsinpop.26862144milesfromthenearestpreviouslyknownsitetheMinneapolis-St.Paulmetropolitanarea.FirstdiscoveredinAugustbytheSuperiorcitytreecrewonthenorthendoftownasecondinfestationwassoonfoundjustsouthofUSHwy2inthemiddleoftown.ItisunclearwhentheEABfirstreachedSuperiororexactlyhowfarithasspread.ButmuchhasbeenlearnedaboutthisintroducedAsianbeetlesinceitwasfirstdetectedinDetroitin2002.TheEABgenerallyattacksthetopbranchesofthetreefirstworkingtheirwaydownasthetreebeginstodie.ButasthecitytreecrewbegantocutdowntheinfestedashtheyfoundEABlarvaechompingawayunderthebarkcleardowntothebasesofthetrunksofsometrees.AsSuperiorCityForesterMaryMorganpointsoutthisisagoodindicationthattheEABhasbeeninthesesitesforatleastfiveyears.seegraphInanticipationoftheEABreachingSuperioratsomepointthecityhadalreadyinventorieditsashtreesandhadinvestedinatreechipperin2011.AccordingtoMorganSuperiorhasabout3000ashtreesoncitystreetsandparks.Oftheseabout1800aresmallertreesofupto12inchesindiameterwhiletheremain-ing1200rangefrom12inchesuptoabout24inches.Onetreecrewmemberremarkedthatthecityhassomanytreesthatitlooksmorelikeaforestthanacityfromtheair.AtfirstthecityplannedoninjectingsomeoftheirtreeswithemamectinbenzoatesoldunderthebrandnameTREE-ge.TREE-geisanaturally-derivedcompoundthatprotectsashtreesfromtheEABforatleasttwoyearswhentheyhavetobetreatedagain.ButnowthecityhasdecidedtosystematicallytakedownalltheirashtreesstartinginNovember.Sofarabout120infestedashtreeshavebeencutdownandchipped.Morganestimatesthatitwilltakethecitysixyearstotakedownanddisposeoftherestoftheirashtrees.ThecityplansonreplacingthetreesmainlywithhoneylocustKentuckycoffeetreeandJapaneselilac.ThefirsttwospeciesarenativetotheeastcentralUSasfarnorthassouthernWisconsinandsouthernLowerMichigan.ThefinancialcostofthisEABinfestationwillbesubstantial.Anearlyesti-matewasthatitwouldcostthecity1milliontotakealltheirashdownand1.2milliontoreplacethemwithothertreespecies.Andthisdoesntincludecoststoprivatelandownerstocutdownortreatashtreesontheirownland.ThetreesmustbechippedtooneinchorlessindiameteronatleasttwosidestobelegallyshippedoutofthequarantineareaDouglasCounty.Becausethecitysnewchip-peronlygetsabout90ofthechipsdowntothissizethechipsmustbestoreduntilNovember1stwhentheyllbeshippedtobiomassplantsandincinerated.ItisstillunclearhowfasttheEABwillspreadthroughtherestofSuperiorandintothesurroundinglandscape.Onaveragethebeetlespreadsaboutmileperyearonitsown.Theyarecapableofflyingforseveralmilesthoughandwilldojustthatiftheycantfindanyashcloseby.Theycanalsotravelforhundredsofmilesat70milesperhourdownhighwaysifsomeonethrowsinfestedlogsorfirewoodintheirpickuportrailer.SinceitsarrivalinNorthAmericatheEABhasdev-astatedashforestsinLowerMichigankillinganesti-mated40-50milliontreessofar.Another10milliontreeshavebeenkilledelsewhereintheeasternandcentralUS.TheEABhasnowspreadtotheeasternUPHough-tonMichiganGreenBayWisconsinmultiplesitesinsouthernWisconsinandtheTwinCitiesofMinnesota.Howfastthisbugspreadsthroughoutthenorthwoodsdependsonwhetherpeopleavoidhaulinginfestedlogsandfirewood.WillitdispersefromSuperioratmileperyearmeaningforex-ampleitwontarriveintheChequamegonBayareafor40yearsorwillitreachtheBayareatomorrowThedecisionswemakeandtheprecautionswechoosetotakeorignorewilldecide.ThankstoSuperiorCityForesterMaryMorganforupdatingusonhowthecityisdealingwiththeEAB.ThanksalsotoCityArboristJohnKrivinchukandtheSuperiorcitytreecrewwhopatientlyansweredourquestionsandallowedustotakenumerousphotosoftheiroperation.BySteveGarskeANAForestPestEnv.GrantCoordinatorGLIFWCsAdministrationforNativeAmericansForestPestProjectinternMarieEricksen-PilchpointsoutanEABlarvaexposedatthebaseofanashtreeafteritwasjusttakendownandchipped.SuperiorWisconsinAugust282013.PhotobySteveGarske.AnotherEAB-infestedstreettreebitesthedustinSuperior.PhotobySteveGarske.ThisgraphshowsthetypicalpatternofashtreemortalityforuntreatedashbasedonEABinfestedcommunitiesinMichiganOhioIndianaandIllinoisoverthelastdecade.Mortalityislowatrstasthebeetlebuildstolethallevelsbutthenthetreesbegintodierapidly.Superiorisnowthoughttobeatyearveofthiscurveafterasecondinfestationwasfound.GraphprovidedbytheWDNRFormerashstreettreesawaitingcoldweatherandshipmenttoabiomassplant.PhotobySteveGarskeAlate-seasonadultEABhangingoutinthecanopyofoneofSuperiorsmanyashstreettrees.AccidentallyintroducedtotheDetroitareasometimeintheearly1990sthisonce-obscureEastAsianbeetleisoncoursetodrivingNorthAmericasonce-abundantashtreestothebrinkofextinction.PhotobySteveGarskeGLIFWCsworkwithforestpestmanagementandeducationaloutreachismadepossiblethroughagrantfromtheAdministrationforNativeAmericans.