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PAGE9MAZINAIGANWINTER2013-2014GREATLAKESFISHERYAspartofamulti-prongedefforttocontroltheinvasivesealampreysinLakeSuperiorGLIFWCbegansettingnetsinseveralWisconsinandMichiganriversfacingupstreaminordertocatchlarvallampreysoatingdownstream.JakeParisienGLIFWCsheriestechnicianexaminesafewlarvallampreycaughtthisfall.PhotobyCharlieOttoRasmussenLaketroutusedtotrackcontaminantsinGichigamiGLIFWCparticipatesinsamplecollectionByBillMattesGLIFWCGreatLakesBiologistBilesaltssealampreysnewestscentofseductionEastLansingMich.Bilesaltsscreamseductionforsealampreysthatis.NewresearchatMichiganStateUniversityshowsthatbilesaltssecretedfromtheliverandtraditionallyassociatedwithdigestivefunctionsarebeingusedaspheromonesbysealampreys.Theinterestingtwistthoughisthatthisscenthasevolvedastheinvasivespeciescologneofchoice.TheevolutionofbilesaltsfromdigestiveaidtopheromonefeaturedinthecurrentissueoftheProceedingsoftheRoyalSocietyBmirrorshumansadapta-tionofperfume.ItssimilartohowperfumehasevolvedinoursocietysaidTylerBuch-ingeroneoftheleadauthorsandMSUdoctoralstudent.Perfumewasfirstusedtomaskbodyodorduetoasocietalstigmaagainstdailybathing.Todayinmanycasesitexemplifiesromanceandisusedtoattractmates.Bilesaltslikeperfumesandcologneswerenotfirstusedassexsignals.Theirprimaryuseistoprocessfats.Overmanyhundredsofyearsthoughtheyhaveevolvedtobecomebeaconsofsexualityinadditiontotheirdigestiveduties.Theevolutionofmalesemittingthispheromoneappearstobearesultoffemalelampreysreceiverbiasortheirdesiretomatesparkedbythefragrance.SincetimetravelisoutofthequestionBuchingerandWeimingLioneoftheleadauthorsandMSUprofessoroffisheriesandwildlifetestedtheevolutiontheoryonsilverlampreysaspeciesnativetoMichiganandrecognizedasamore-ancientspeciesthansealampreys.Theresearchersdemonstratedthatsealampreysandsilverlampreyssmellbilesaltsandacknowledgethemasattractants.Thedifferencehoweverissealampreysbecomesexuallyactivewhilesilverlampreysdonot.Inthefieldsealampreysandsilverlampreysweredrawnupstreambythesmellofbilesalts.Onlythesealampreysthoughswaminlookingforloveandreadytospawn.SilverlampreysareoneoffournativelampreyspeciesinMichigantheothersarethechestnutAmericanbrookandnorthernbrook.KnowingthatadistinctscentaffectsaninvasivespeciesdifferentlyfromthenativefaunatheyaredisplacingisaresearchangleworthpursuingLisaid.Thismatingcallisquiteeffectiveandithashelpedsealampreysthrivehesaid.Knowingthatbilesaltscausesealampreystoreactdifferentlythanournativespecieswhichhavelongbeenpartofourecosystemcouldeventuallyleadtobetterwaystocontrolsealampreys.NickJohnsonoftheUSGSGreatLakesScienceCenteralsocontributedtothisresearch.LisworkisfundedinpartbytheGreatLakesFisheryCommissionNationalScienceFoundationandMSUAgBioResearch.ReprintedfromMichiganStateUniversity.DownstreamnetscapturelarvallampreyBeteGriseMich.Since2005theGreatLakesSectionhasbeencooperat-ingwiththeEnvironmentalProtectionAgencysGreatLakesNationalProgramOfficeEPA-GLNPOtocollectlaketroutoffthetipoftheKeweenawPeninsula.ThelaketroutareusedtotrackcontaminantsintheopenwatersofLakeSuperiorandarecollectedinconjunctionwithannualfalllaketroutassessments.CollectivelyreferredtoastheGreatLakesFishMonitoringProgramGLFMPtheEPA-GLNPOanalyzeschemicalsinfishsamplescollectedthroughouttheGreatLakesBasin.AwidevarietyoforganiccontaminantsandmercuryametalcontaminantofspecificconcernintheGreatLakeshavebeentrackedsince1977intheGreatLakes.TheoverallgoalsoftheGLFMPincludemonitoringtrendsofbio-accumulativechemicalscontaminantsthatbuildupinthefishflesh.OvertimetoppredatorfishlikelaketroutinLakeSuperiorareusedasbio-monitorsassessingpotentialhumanexposuretocontaminantsfoundinthesefishandprovidinginformationonnewcompoundsofconcernenteringthelakesecosystem.ByBillMattesGLIFWCGreatLakesBiologistBadRiverFisheryTechnicianEdLeosoremovesalaketroutfromanassessmentgillnetsetinBeteGriseBayofftheeastsideofMichigansKeweenawPeninsula.PhotobyBenMichaelsSeeLarvallampreypage10OdanahWis.InearlyOctobertheGreatLakesSectionstaffbegansettingnetsinseveralstreamsinWis-consinandMichigantotrapandremoveinvasivesealampreys.Thistechniqueinvolvessettingfyke-netswhichfaceupstreamversusthedownstreamfacingfyke-netsusedforadultlampreyassess-mentandcontrol.Thistrappingisbeingdoneaspartofamulti-prongedapproachtocontrol-lingsealampreysinLakeSuperior.Smallsealampreysdriftdownstreaminthefallandspringoftheyearwhentemperaturesbegintochangewithsea-sonalchangesfromfalltowinterandagainfromwintertospring.Usuallymovementordriftingisassociatedwithrainfallevents.Driftinglarvalsealampreysarevulnerabletobeingcaptured.Sealampreyshavealife-cyclewhichinvolvesseveralstagestheyhatchfromeggsandenteralarvalstageduringwhichtheyburrowintothesoftbottomofstreambedsandfilterfeed.Asfilterfeedersittakesthreeyearsorsotogrowtosixincheslong.Oncethissizetheyundergoametamorphosisfromfilterfeederandtransformintoaparasite.Asaparasitetheymoveoutofthestreamandintothelaketofeedonfish.Thekeycontrolmechanismstokeeptheparasiticsealampreyfrommak-ingittoLakeSuperiorarelampracideapplicationandbarrierdams.Lam-pracideapplicationinvolveschemicallytreatingwatersinfestedwithlarvalsealampreytokillthemandbarrierdamspreventadultlampreyfromreachingspawninggrounds.Thelampracideis