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PAGE1MAZINAIGANWINTER2013-2014PublishedbytheGreatLakesIndianFishWildlifeCommissionWinter2013-2014PreparingforwinterinthePenokeesEarlydetectionofinvasivephragmitesinChequamegonBaypromptsrapidresponseByMilesFalckWildlifeBiologistBySueEricksonStaffWriterOdanahWis.Severalsmallpop-ulationsoftheinvasivegrassphragmitesaustralissubsp.australisorcommonreedgrasshavebeenfoundalongthewesternshorelineofChequamegonBayandinlandnearwastewatertreatmentplantsWWTPsinWashburnBayfieldandRedCliff.GLIFWCstaffhavebeencol-laboratingwithRedCliffBadRiverBayfieldCountytheNationalParkServiceseveralprivatelandownersandWWTPoperatorstosurveyforandtreatlocalphragmitespopulations.Thirty-onepopulationshavebeenidentifiedandtreatedwithherbicide.Thesesiteswillbemonitoredinthefuturetoinsuretheyhavebeeneradicated.Bothanativesubsp.americanusandanon-nativesubsp.australissubspeciesofphragmitesarepresentinNorthAmerica.Thenon-nativesubspe-ciesofphragmitesisextremelyinvasivegrowinginnearshoreandwetlandhabi-tatsinwatersuptoonemeterdeepaswellasfloatingmatsindeeperwater.Phragmitescangrowtoheightsofover19feetanddensitiesof200stemspersquaremeter.Non-nativephragmitesposesaseriousenvironmentalrisktothefreshwaterestuariesofChequamegonBayandcouldthreatenmanoominwildricewatersfurtherinlandaswell.Phragmitesisalreadyawell-knownmenacealongtheLakeMichiganshore-linehoweveritisnotcommonintheWisconsinandMichiganportionoftheLakeSuperiorwatershed.Whenat-temptingtomanageinvasivespeciesitisimportanttopickwinnablebattles.Whenyouweighthecurrentlimiteddis-tributionandabundanceofphragmitesintheLakeSuperiorwatershedagainstthepotentiallossofcoastalestuariesandnearshoreopenwatersitiseasytocon-cludethatthisisabattleworthfighting.Althoughnon-nativephragmitesareclassifiedasarestrictedinvasivespeciesunderWisconsinsAdministra-tiveCodeNR40theuseofnon-nativephragmitesinWWTPstodewatersewagesludgereedbedtechnologyispermittedbyWisconsinDepartmentofNaturalResourcesWDNRorEn-vironmentalProtectionAgencyEPAfortribalapplications.Atthetimethesefacilitieswereconstructeditwasthoughtthatphrag-mitesspreadprimarilybyfloatingrootsViablephragmitesseedsescapingfromreedbedsatwastewatertreatmentplantsareasourceforphragmitesinfestationsliketheonepicturedherenearBayeld.Onceestablishedontheshorelinephragmitesalsospreadsviaoat-ingrootsandrhizomesinset.PhotosbyMilesFalckUpsonWis.FrostymorningsdonotdauntMelGasperdirectoroftheLacCourteOreillesLCOHarvestEducationalLearningProjectcampthathasbeennestledinthePenokeeMountainwoodssinceearlyspring.Heandfourothersintendtostaythefullwinterandcouldntbehappier.ItssogreatouthereGasperremarkswithaninfectioussmileobviouslyenjoyinghislifeatthecampandeverythingofbeautythePenokeeenvironmentoffers.GasperiscommittedtoprotectingthePenokeeHillsfrompotentialdamagebyaproposedtaconitemine.IwouldlikethePenokeeRangetostaythewayitisforthefuturegenerationssevengenerationstohavethebeautyandspiritofwhatthisreallyis.MiigwechGasperstates.NowapermanentresidentofIronCountyhehasspentsixmonthsatthecampinvestigatingtheareaandwelcomingvisitorswhoseemtostopbyregularly.Somecometostayafewdaysoraweekothersarecuriousone-timevisitors.TheyallreceivehospitalityandsomeeducationfromGasperwhoisthehostwiththemostwhenitcomestoshowandtellaboutthePenokeestheproposedGTacminetreatyrightsandtheenvironment.RecentlyeighteenLCOfirst-graderspaidavisitandweretreatedtoacampfireroastingmarshmallowsandanaturewalkwherethekidscouldrunandtumblethroughthewoodsandexplore.ThiswasGaspersopportunitytotalkaboutthevaluesheholdsdeartheneedtocareforakiearthandnibiwaterevenaboutconglomeraterockaswellasabouttribaltreatyrightstohuntfishandgatheronthecededterritories.Weteachaboutspiritualityandabouthowthisiseverybodyslandhesays.AnaccomplishedsurvivalistGasperisrelaxedandathomeinhisnaturalenvironment.Thrilledbythequieteveningsspentsharingstoriesorworkingonprojectssuchashisbirchbarkbasketsoritemswhitledfromdiamondwillow.HislatestcreationisaGreenBayPackerhairpiecetooledandetchedinwiigwaasbirchbarkforaspecialfriend.AlsoincampforthewinterexperienceareLarryAckleyhiswifeJenandstepsonTrevoraswellasNickVanderPuy.Anarrowwell-packedtrailleadstoAckleysroomywinterwigwamswathedintightlytiedbluetarpsandrepletewithatoastywoodstoveasacenterpiecetableandchairsandwintergearinside.WearewellsuppliedGaspersayswithplentyoffood.Werelikeahard-warestorewithtoolsaxesmaulschainsaws.Wealsoliveofftheland.Huntingsuppliesvenisonandpoultry.Thecamphasalsobeengivenbuffaloandelkmeatwhichhavebeenincludedinanongoingstew.Wehadsomebearstew.WhenthepotranlowweaddedmorewaterandveggiesandthrewinsomeElevenagsgreetvisitorsattheentranceoftheLCOcampsiteinthePenokeesrepresentingHoChunkNationDallaiLamaSt.CroixLacVieuxDesertLacCourteOreillesBadRiverandRedLakeOjibweIroquoisOjibwaTreatyStateofWisconsinAIMandtheMoleLakeTreaty.SESeeWinterinthePenokeespage8SeePhragmitespage18 MAZINAIGANPAGE2WINTER2013-2014CulturesciencefuseatLCOSchoolMANOOMINOnthecoverEdWigginsBadRiverricerpolesthroughtheKakagonRiverricebedontheBadRiverreservation.ArtisticeffectsbyWesleyBallinger.PhotobyCharlieOttoRasmussenByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffWriterSeeleyWis.AlongthePacwawongLakeshorelinethesignsareeverywhere.WispsofsagesmokefilterthroughthealdersOjibwemowinfillsthelatesummerairinasoaringdrumsongoutonthewaterthesoftswishingofcedarknockersagainstmanoominstalksstirsacoveyofred-wingedblackbirds.Ricershavesetupshop.ThisspothasseenalotofcampsoldricecampssaidJimMillerLacCourteOreillesSchoolLCOculturaleducator.Theydstayherefortwoweeksiftheyhadtountilitwasdone.Whilethesoundsandsmellsarethesametheresanelementalchangeherefromold-timemanoomincampswhenahandfulofkidsplayedhookytohelpout.AnentirehighschoolhasemptiedrecreatingPacwawongintoaone-of-a-kindclassroomwherescienceandmathmergewithOjibweculture.WevegotthewholestudentbodyofLacCourteOreillesHighSchooloutheresaidJasonBisonetteLCOeducationspecialist.Thereareallthesetraditionalgiftslikewildricethatwevebeengiven.Werebuildinganacademicfoundationwiththosegifts.ItsanapproachthatinvolvestraditionalOjibweknowledgeandfederallymandatedcur-riculum.Itblendsthetwo.Around50studentsandahalf-dozeninstructorsdividedupbe-tweenthericecampsituatedonablacktoppedparkingareaandafleetofninecanoesprovidedbyGLIFWC.Pairedoffincanoesteenagerstookturnsknockingmanoominwithcedarsticksandpropellingtheirfiberglasscanoeswith10-footpushpoles.GLIFWCOfficerLaurenTuoripatrolledPacwawongalushwideningoftheNamekagonRiverinacanoeofherownrelyingmostlyonaudiocuestoassiststudentsconcealedintheloomingvegetation.CriesforhelpcamefollowingspillsintotheshallowwaterandTuoriworkedwithlife-jacketedstudentstodrainandre-boardcanoes.RobynTrepaniasunexpectedentryintoPacwawongLakedidlittletodampenherenthusiasmfortheschool-dayventure.ImactuallyexperiencingmyculturedoingthethingsthatmypeopledosaidtheLCOsophomore.IdontthinkIwanttogodeerhuntingoranythinglikethatbutthisiscool.Itwasnicetohearthedrumplayingwhilewewereoutthere.Trepaniadriedoffatthericecampwheresomeofherclassmateswerebusypreparingfreshmanoominforanalysis.Thetoasted-nutsmellofheatedmanoominswirledonalightbreezeasLCOteensscorchedtheirharvestinasteeltuboverapropaneflame.Fromthewoodendeckofabeacheddockstudentsandteachersexaminedthepropertiesofgreenversusscorchedwildricerecordingtheweightofeachonananalogscale.UnderstandinghowmanoominoneofthemostsignificantnaturalresourcestoOjibwepeoplereactswhenexposedtocommonpollutantsisacorepartoftheprogramthatrunsthroughouttheschoolyearBisonettesaid.Inlaboratoryconditionswellintroducethingslikemotoroiltoseehowthericereacts.WellberaisingandloweringwaterlevelstootocreatenormalconditionssaidBisonette.BackatLCOK-12Schoolsaroundamonthlaterstudentssangdancedandsocializedattheall-schoolpowwowOjibweculturethrivingaliveandwell.Aquariumshousingmanoominexperimentswaitedbackintheupperclassmensscienceroomplusthesecondandfourthgradeclassrooms.TheresabigdifferencebetweeneducatingOjibwekidsandOjibweeduca-tionBisonettesaid.Wewantthekidstounderstandwhotheyareasapeopleandalltheamazingthingsthatmakethemincrediblyunique.Thetermpacawawongincludingalternatespell-ingsappearsinahandfuloflocationsacrossOjibweCountryandisgenerallytranslatedasbayoftheriverorwheretheriveriswide.LacCourteOreillesstudentsJaimeThayer-VegaandJavierYanezfoundagoodcropofmanoominonPacwawongLakeinearlySeptember.PhotobyCharlieOttoRasmussenStandingupinacanoepoweringapushpolethroughamanoominmarshistrickybusiness.WhenitsyourrsttimedoingitwatchoutGLIFWCOfcerLaurenTuoriassistedseveralpairsofLacCourteOreillesstudentricersthatippedintothedrink.PicturedTuoriguidesRobynTrepaniathroughtheprocessofdrainingherswampedcanoe.OnceemptiedofwaterTuoristeadiedthecanoeforTrepaniaandherpartnertoclimbinandcontinueharvestingricemanoominike.PhotobyCORLeRoyMustacheastudentfromtheLacCourteOreillesOjibweHighSchoolcheckstheweightofacupofscorchedmanoomin.CORAttentiontribalricersGLIFWCisintheprocessofgatheringinformationaboutthe2013ricingseasonthroughtelephonesurveys.Wemuchappreciateyourcooperation.Yourinformationhelpsusbetterunderstandandmanagemanoomininthecededterritories.Miigwech PAGE3MAZINAIGANWINTER2013-2014FormerLacCourteOreilleschairmanandtribalcouncilmembergaiashkibosharvestedmanoominfromPacwawongLakeonthesamedayLCOHighSchoolsetuptheirricecamp.HesaidhewaspleasedtolearnthattheschoolclearedouttogoricingandofferedupabitofOjibweinsightpasseddowntohimmanyyearsago.Youknowtheoldpeopleusedtosaytolookforthericebirds.Thatswhereyoundriperice.Whenyouseethosebirdsthatsthewayyougo.PhotobyCORMANOOMINByLisaDavidGLIFWCManoominBiologistOdanahWis.Notallsurprisesaregoodbutthisonesurewas.WhenSep-tembercamewewerepleasantlysurprisedbythenumberofsuccessfulwildriceharvestingtripswewerehearingabout.Thelatespringwarmupwhichcausedadelayedgrowingseasoninthenorthwoodsdidnotseemtohindertheentiremanoomincropwhenitcametimetoharvest.Itsalwaysapleasantsurprisewhentheweathercooperatestoo.Thisyearharvesterswereaidedbythelackofstormsandtheoverallgoodweatherthatprevailedduringthericingseason.Goodweatherisonlyonecomponentofaproductivericingseasonhowever.Andharvesterssoondiscoveredthatmanoominwasscatteredacrossthecededterritoryinapatchworkofdenseandsparsestandsthisyear.Ouraerialsurveysshowedboththeabundanceandvariabilityofriceoutthere.Itwasnotuncommontonotealakewithbothaprosperingricestandandafailingstand.InformationfromGLIFWCsriceflightsandfieldobservationswereagainpostedonlinetohelpguidecededterritorygaa-manoominikejigriceharvesters.Folkswhowaitedandscoutedwerefortunatetocomeawaywithmanoomintoreplenishdwindlingstocks.OfspecialinterestthisyearwasClamLakeinBurnettCountyaricewaterofmuchconcernthesepastfewyearsdueinlargeparttothedestructiveinfluenceoftheexpandingcommoncarpnumbers.ThankstotheeffortsoftheSt.CroixBandtherewasareboundinClamsmanoominbed.In2013thetribeagaindeployedasubmergednetacrossthebaysnarrowstokeepcarpoutofahistoricricebedatthesouthernendofthelake.AlthoughnotyetopentogeneralpublicharvesttheSt.CroixTribewasabletoharvestfromthismanoominstandtouseasreseedingeffortstofurtherhelpClamsdepletedseedbank.Stateharvestsurveysarestartingtocometotheofficewhichmeansthatthetribalphonesurveyswillsoonbeunderway.Sobereadytoletusknowaboutyour2013riceharvestexperienceyourimpressionsandcomments.Informationfromthetwostateandtribalharvestsurveyswillbeusedtoassessthe2013cededterritorymanoominharvest.Aswewrapupthemanoominseasonandputthethresherintostoragewecanenjoybinaakwii-giizisOctoberorfallingleavesmoonandasonesurveyrespondentputitandlookforwardtonextyear.2013ManoominseasonproducedpleasantlysurprisingresultsOnamiaMinn.Nibiandmanoomin.Waterandwildrice.TheentwinedrelationshipofthesetwoimportantresourceswasthecentralthemeofarecentsymposiumheldattheGrandCasinoinMilleLacs.Thegatheringbroughttogethereldersharvesterswaterwalkersuniversitystaffandcitizensallinterestedinmaintainingbothhealthyricebedsaswellashealthyrelationshipsbetweenallthepartiesinvolvedinthemanoomindialogue.ThisyearssymposiumtitledNibiandManoominBuildingLastingRelation-shipswasthethirdheldsince2009focusingoncreatingatrustedenvironmentfortheexchangeofknowledgebetweenwesternandAnishinaabeculturalworldviews.Presentationsbyseveraltribaleldersstressedtheneedtoinfusetraditionalecologicalknowledgeintoeverydaypracticestoensureplentyofnaturalwildriceforfuturegenerations.Keynotethemesrevolvedaroundrespectforindigenousknowledgebalanceddecision-makingandthefactthatintegratedperspectivesmustinvolvethefullparticipationofindigenouspeoples.Itisclearthatthesetwoculturallyimportantresourceswillcontinuetothriveaslongasallthepartiesworktogethertorespectpreserveandproperlycareforthem.Summariesofthekeynotespeakersaswellassummariesfromthefourwork-inggroupsessionsofthe2013NibisymposiumareavailableonlinethroughtheUniversityofMinnesotawebsiteorbyusingthefollowingaddresswww.cfans.umn.edudiversityInitiativeswildrice.htmFirsttimericing.Iplantodoitagaininthefuture...Itwasawonderfulexperience.Oneofthebetterricingyearswedidwellfortheshortamountoftimewewereout.MiigwechforallthatyoudotoregulateeducateandprotectourwildriceRandomcommentsfromGLIFWCsstatericersurveyNibiandmanoominBuildinglastingrelationshipsByLisaDavidGLIFWCManoominBiologistBillBurnsputsharvestedmanoominintothescorcherwhichturnsthericeasitisheatedmakingthehusksbrittle.AsmallgarageinbackofMyronBurnshomeontheBadRiverreservationhousesaneatmechanicalmanoominprocessingoperationrunbyBillandhisfatherMyron.Athree-stepoperationinvolvingascorcheraseparatingmachineorthresherandawinnoweryieldsacleanbatchofmanoominastheendproduct.Theduoprocesstheirownriceandalsotakeinwildricefromotherharvesters.PhotobySueEricksonForadditionalinformationonwildricegotowww.manoomin.comFreshoffthestalksharvestedmanoominliesinthebottomofajiimaancanoereadytobetakenashoreandprocessed.Successfulharvestingtookplaceonmanymanoominlakesthisfallapleasantsurprise.PhotobyCOR MAZINAIGANPAGE4WINTER2013-2014WILDLIFERegistrationclerksfromacrossthecededterritorymetinOdanahforpreseasonupdatesbeforethedagwaaginharvestgotunderway.On-reservationstationsmannedbyGLIFWCclerksissueharvestpermitsandregisteranimalstakeninthecededterritory.Newin2013-14clerksarecollectingskinnedbobcatcarcassesforbiologicalanalysisandareconductingasurveyofforestproductharvestsnon-timberresourceslikebalsamboughsandrewood.Animportantinformationsourceclerksalsoadvisetribalmembershowtoidentifyandhelpstopinvasivespecieslikeemeraldashborerandotherforestpests.PhotobyCharlieOttoRasmussenOmashkoozonthemovewithhelpinWisconsinOdanahWis.TheWisconsincededterritoryislikelytohavemoreelkomashkoozinmoreplacesfollowingupdatestothestatemanagementplan.Thechangeswhichincludeimportingaround75elkoverthreeyearsandexpandingtheiroverallrangeshouldhelpestablishahealthymorevibrantherd.TheresaconsiderableamountofgoodhabitatavailableforelkinthecededterritorysaidJonathanGilbertGLIFWCwildlifesectionleader.Wehaveseveralinitiativesunderwaytohelpthemgetthere.UnlikemigratingwesternUnitedStateselkherdseasternomashkoozsticktolimitedhomeranges.Inearly2014wildlifebiologistsintendtocarryoutthethirdassisteddispersaltranslocationofClamLakeelkplansfor2015includeanotherassisteddispersalplusreleasing20elkimportedfromKentucky.Elkimportstotaling55animalsarescheduledoverthefollowingtwoyears.Themanagementactionisdesignedtojumpstartelkreproductionandinjectsnewgenesintothesmallherdthatnumbersjust180animals.Withthepopulationatsuchalowlevelovertimereproductionsuffersandthereisapotentialforinbreedingtooccur.Gilbertexplained.Malescanhavedifficultyfindingfemalesduringthebreedingseasonwithanimalsdispersedacrossthelandscape.Wealsoknowthatwhenfounderpopulationsremainlowtherecanbeadversegeneticconsequences.Simplyputgeneticdiversityfostershealthiermoreadaptiveanimals.TheClamLakegroupbeganasanexperimental25-animalherdin1995withelktranslocatedfromLowerMichigan.Sincethenherdgrowthhasbeenmodest.WildlifeofficialswithinputfromaGLIFWC-ledhabitatanalysisofnorthernWisconsinselectedthebestareasforelkexpansionbeyondClamLake.Factor-inginwoodlandharvestpracticeswolfpackrangesroadsandothervariablesabroadintersectionofactivelymanagedstateandcountyforesttoppedthelist.TheupcomingreleaseareacoversportionsofPriceRuskandSawyerCountieswhichincludestheFlambeauRiverStateForest.WisconsinisnotonlybringinginneighboringelkwildlifemanagersaredrawingfromsuccessfulstrategiesusedtocreatetherobustKentuckyherd.In1998Kentuckywentbigwithitsreintroductionprogramstartingwiththereleaseof1549elk.Withhelpfromassisteddispersaltrappingandmovingsmallgroupsofyounganimalsawayfromthemainherdthestateboastedmorethan10000elkby2009.ElkinHo-ChunkCountryAnadditional75elkareslatedforreleasesouthofthecededterritorybringingtheKentucky-to-Wisconsinimporttotalto150animalsby2017.TheestablishmentofthissecondherdintheBlackRiverStateForestwouldfulfillareintroductionprogramthatssatidleforthepastdozenyearsfollowingthediscoveryofthefatalcervidailmentchronicwastingdiseaseinwilddeerinsouthernWisconsin.CeremonialhuntMorethanayearafterthefirstceremonialelkintheClamLakeareaOjibwetreatytribesconductedasecondceremonialhuntonOctober19foronebull.Oneshotwasfiredresultinginagrazingwoundonthelegofabullelk.Thehuntwassuspendedandafteralengthysearchformallyendedwithoutaharvest.ByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffWriterTribescancel2013mooseseasonCloquetMinn.FondduLacFdLandtwootherOjibwebandscalledoffthe2013off-reservationmoosehuntinthe1854Treatycededterritory.Wemadethedecisiontocancelthisyearbasedonthepopulationdecline.WellbereviewingsurveynumbersthatcomeinthiswinterandintospringsaidReginaldDeFoeFdLNaturalResourcesDirector.TheBoisForteandGrandPortageBandsinnortheastMinnesotaalsosuspendedmoosehuntingfor2013.MoosenumbersinMinnesotasArrowheadregionhavedroppedpre-cipitouslyinrecentyearsincludinganestimated35declinefrom4320to2760justlastyear.Biologistsagreethatthemodestharvestsbystateandtribalhuntersoverthesameperiodhadlittletodowiththedownwardtrend.Researchessuspectamixofhealthissueslikelyrelatedtoclimatechangeistoblame.Cooperativestate-tribalstudiesonmoosehealthareongoing.CORasmussenNorthAmericanFurAuctionspredictsastrongfurtradein2014InanAugust2013postingtheNorthAmericanFurAuctionsNAFAwasveryupbeatabouttheupcomingfurseasonbasedonanoutstandingmarketin2013largelybolsteredbyavigorousChinesetradeforfurs.NAFAreportsthattheinternationaltrimmingtradewasamajorsupporterofwildfurandtheirsupportinfluencedtheupwardtradeinprices.Raccoonmuskratcoyotefisherandsablearereportedtohaveseenlargejumpsinprices.NAFAsoldnearlyamillionraccoonathighpricelevelsandmuskratsalsoachievedhistoricpricelevelsintheMaysale.PricesreportedbytheFurHarvestersAuctionInc.basedontheirJune2013saleresultsareasfollowsSpeciesAveragepriceToppriceBeaver27.38Eastern16.56IIISection66.00Wildmink28.9033.00Otter104.90132.00Fisher107.86125.00Muskrat14.2718.50Raccoon20.6146.00Redfox48.8790.00Coyote66.27Western33.97Eastern100.00Wolverine273.68400.00Blackbear136.69350.00ForFurHarvestersAuctionInc.gotowww.furharvesters.comresults2013Junejune13us.pdf.ForNorthAmericanFurAuctionsgotowww.nafa.ca.Tribesstillwaitforadecisiononnight-huntingofdeerThepartieswaitforadecisionfromFederalJudgeBarbaraCrabbfollowingaJuly26trialonthetribalnighthuntingofdeerinWisconsinscededterritory.SixWisconsinOjibwetribesareseekingrelieffroma1991judgmentbytheUSDistrictCourtWesternDistrictprohibitingnighthuntingofdeerundertreatyinthecededterritories.ThedecisioncalledLCOVIIresultedfromtheDeerTrialwhichdecidedthescopeoftheoff-reservationtreatydeerharvest.TodaythetribesarguethatcircumstanceshavesignificantlychangedsotheCourtshouldbeabletorevisitthenighthuntingissueandaltertheoriginaljudgment.CowelknorthofClamLakeWisconsin.PhotobyCyrusHester PAGE5MAZINAIGANWINTER2013-2014ANAFORESTPESTSUpdateontheemeraldashborerinfestationinSuperiorWisconsinSuperiorWis.TheemeraldashborerEABisnotoriousforshowingupwhereitisleastexpected.StillitwasabitofashockwheninfestedashFraxinusspp.treeswerefoundinSuperiorWisconsinpop.26862144milesfromthenearestpreviouslyknownsitetheMinneapolis-St.Paulmetropolitanarea.FirstdiscoveredinAugustbytheSuperiorcitytreecrewonthenorthendoftownasecondinfestationwassoonfoundjustsouthofUSHwy2inthemiddleoftown.ItisunclearwhentheEABfirstreachedSuperiororexactlyhowfarithasspread.ButmuchhasbeenlearnedaboutthisintroducedAsianbeetlesinceitwasfirstdetectedinDetroitin2002.TheEABgenerallyattacksthetopbranchesofthetreefirstworkingtheirwaydownasthetreebeginstodie.ButasthecitytreecrewbegantocutdowntheinfestedashtheyfoundEABlarvaechompingawayunderthebarkcleardowntothebasesofthetrunksofsometrees.AsSuperiorCityForesterMaryMorganpointsoutthisisagoodindicationthattheEABhasbeeninthesesitesforatleastfiveyears.seegraphInanticipationoftheEABreachingSuperioratsomepointthecityhadalreadyinventorieditsashtreesandhadinvestedinatreechipperin2011.AccordingtoMorganSuperiorhasabout3000ashtreesoncitystreetsandparks.Oftheseabout1800aresmallertreesofupto12inchesindiameterwhiletheremain-ing1200rangefrom12inchesuptoabout24inches.Onetreecrewmemberremarkedthatthecityhassomanytreesthatitlooksmorelikeaforestthanacityfromtheair.AtfirstthecityplannedoninjectingsomeoftheirtreeswithemamectinbenzoatesoldunderthebrandnameTREE-ge.TREE-geisanaturally-derivedcompoundthatprotectsashtreesfromtheEABforatleasttwoyearswhentheyhavetobetreatedagain.ButnowthecityhasdecidedtosystematicallytakedownalltheirashtreesstartinginNovember.Sofarabout120infestedashtreeshavebeencutdownandchipped.Morganestimatesthatitwilltakethecitysixyearstotakedownanddisposeoftherestoftheirashtrees.ThecityplansonreplacingthetreesmainlywithhoneylocustKentuckycoffeetreeandJapaneselilac.ThefirsttwospeciesarenativetotheeastcentralUSasfarnorthassouthernWisconsinandsouthernLowerMichigan.ThefinancialcostofthisEABinfestationwillbesubstantial.Anearlyesti-matewasthatitwouldcostthecity1milliontotakealltheirashdownand1.2milliontoreplacethemwithothertreespecies.Andthisdoesntincludecoststoprivatelandownerstocutdownortreatashtreesontheirownland.ThetreesmustbechippedtooneinchorlessindiameteronatleasttwosidestobelegallyshippedoutofthequarantineareaDouglasCounty.Becausethecitysnewchip-peronlygetsabout90ofthechipsdowntothissizethechipsmustbestoreduntilNovember1stwhentheyllbeshippedtobiomassplantsandincinerated.ItisstillunclearhowfasttheEABwillspreadthroughtherestofSuperiorandintothesurroundinglandscape.Onaveragethebeetlespreadsaboutmileperyearonitsown.Theyarecapableofflyingforseveralmilesthoughandwilldojustthatiftheycantfindanyashcloseby.Theycanalsotravelforhundredsofmilesat70milesperhourdownhighwaysifsomeonethrowsinfestedlogsorfirewoodintheirpickuportrailer.SinceitsarrivalinNorthAmericatheEABhasdev-astatedashforestsinLowerMichigankillinganesti-mated40-50milliontreessofar.Another10milliontreeshavebeenkilledelsewhereintheeasternandcentralUS.TheEABhasnowspreadtotheeasternUPHough-tonMichiganGreenBayWisconsinmultiplesitesinsouthernWisconsinandtheTwinCitiesofMinnesota.Howfastthisbugspreadsthroughoutthenorthwoodsdependsonwhetherpeopleavoidhaulinginfestedlogsandfirewood.WillitdispersefromSuperioratmileperyearmeaningforex-ampleitwontarriveintheChequamegonBayareafor40yearsorwillitreachtheBayareatomorrowThedecisionswemakeandtheprecautionswechoosetotakeorignorewilldecide.ThankstoSuperiorCityForesterMaryMorganforupdatingusonhowthecityisdealingwiththeEAB.ThanksalsotoCityArboristJohnKrivinchukandtheSuperiorcitytreecrewwhopatientlyansweredourquestionsandallowedustotakenumerousphotosoftheiroperation.BySteveGarskeANAForestPestEnv.GrantCoordinatorGLIFWCsAdministrationforNativeAmericansForestPestProjectinternMarieEricksen-PilchpointsoutanEABlarvaexposedatthebaseofanashtreeafteritwasjusttakendownandchipped.SuperiorWisconsinAugust282013.PhotobySteveGarske.AnotherEAB-infestedstreettreebitesthedustinSuperior.PhotobySteveGarske.ThisgraphshowsthetypicalpatternofashtreemortalityforuntreatedashbasedonEABinfestedcommunitiesinMichiganOhioIndianaandIllinoisoverthelastdecade.Mortalityislowatrstasthebeetlebuildstolethallevelsbutthenthetreesbegintodierapidly.Superiorisnowthoughttobeatyearveofthiscurveafterasecondinfestationwasfound.GraphprovidedbytheWDNRFormerashstreettreesawaitingcoldweatherandshipmenttoabiomassplant.PhotobySteveGarskeAlate-seasonadultEABhangingoutinthecanopyofoneofSuperiorsmanyashstreettrees.AccidentallyintroducedtotheDetroitareasometimeintheearly1990sthisonce-obscureEastAsianbeetleisoncoursetodrivingNorthAmericasonce-abundantashtreestothebrinkofextinction.PhotobySteveGarskeGLIFWCsworkwithforestpestmanagementandeducationaloutreachismadepossiblethroughagrantfromtheAdministrationforNativeAmericans. MAZINAIGANPAGE6WINTER2013-2014AISSURVEYSMERCURYMAPSGLIFWCtoprovideupdatedmercury-in-ogaamapsthisspringByJenniferBurnettGLIFWCOutreachSpecialistSummersurveyskeeptabsonaquaticinvasivespeciesNewmethodusedtoremovemilfoilOdanahWis.AquaticinvasivespeciesAISdegradeaquaticecosys-temsandtreatyresourcesbyout-competinganddisplacingnativespecies.ThispastsummerGLIFWCstaffsurveyed39lakesinnorthernWisconsinforAISincoordinationwithmanagementpartnersincludingtribalstatecountyandotherlocalpartners.AISsurveystargetedlakeswithsignificanttribalogaawalleyeandmanoominwildriceharvestaswellaslargelakeswithsignificantboattrafficorlakesclosetoinfestedwaters.Surveyssearchedforunwantedaquaticinvasiveplantsandanimalsalongshorelinesandinshallowwaterareas.Acompletemeandersurveyofthelittoralzonezigzagoftheshallowwaterareaswhereplantshaveenoughlighttogrowwasconducted.Planktonsamplesweretakenwithnetstodetecthardertospotanimalslikespinywaterfleasandzebramusselveligersatlowlevels.Atotalof208invasivespeciespopulationscomprisedof24taxaweremappedduringthesurveys.TwolakeswithsmallpioneerinfestationsofEurasianwater-milfoilEWMwerefoundbyGLIFWCstaff.Earlydetectionofinvasivespeciesbeforetheybecomelargeenvironmentallydamagingpopulationsmakeseradicationfeasibleandreducestheneedfortreatingwithherbicide.LostLandandTigerCatFlow-agebothinSawyerCountyhadsmallisolatedpopulationsofEWM.Partneringagencieswerenotifiedofthenewoccurrencesandarapidresponsewasorga-nizedtohand-pullEWMonbothwaterbodies.Followupsurveyswereconductedafterhand-pullingeffortsandnoadditionalplantswerefound.Localpartnerswillcontinuetomonitortheselakesannually.FiveadditionallakesweresurveyedthathadknownoccurrencesofbothAISandmanoomin.TheselakeswerealreadybeingmanagedforAISthroughvarioustechniquesincludingmanualchemicalanddrawdown.Areaswithmanoominandtheinvasivesweremappedtogetabetterideahowtheseplantsarespreadinginter-actingandtojudgetheeffectivenessandimpactsofdifferentmanagementefforts.OnelakewithbothAISandmanoominisLacVieuxDesert.In2008EWMwasfoundinthesoutheastsideofthelake.Hand-pullingbysnorkelershadbeeneffectiveincontainingtheEWMpopulationsbutrecentlytheEWMbedshavebeenexpandingandbecomingtoodenseforthesehandpullingeffortstobeeffec-tive.ThisyearanadditionalmanagementtoolwasaddeddiverassistedsuctionharvestDASH.DASHusesscubadiverstohandpullthetargetaquaticinvasiveplants.Theplantspulledbydiversarefedintoalargehosethatusesaelectricalpumptosucktheplantsuptothedeckshootingthemoutintoawoodenframewithscreenstofilteroutplants.Aftertheplantsdraintheyaretransferredtosealedboxesandmovedtoadesignatedlocationfordisposalonland.DASHallowsdiverstomoreefficientlyharvestlargerdenseareasofinvasiveaquaticplants.DASHhasbeenusedinotherpartsofthecountryforyearsbutisanewtoolformanualcontrolofAISinWisconsin.ItwillhopefullyprovideaneffectivelessintrusivenontoxicalternativetochemicalcontrolonsmallerisolatedinfestationsofAIS.ByDaraOlsonAquaticInvasiveSpeciesCoordinatorEurasianwater-milfoilharvestedbyscubadiversissuckedupthehosetothedeckoftheboat.PhotobyDaraOlsonBarbGajewskiManyWatersLLCdrainsandtransfersinvasiveaquaticplantstosealedboxesfordisposal.PlantsharvestedfromLacVieuxDesertwereusedasgardencompost.PhotobyDaraOlson.OdanahWis.SpringspearingandnettingofogaawalleyefrominlandlakesisanimportantpartoftheAnishinaabebimaadiziwinlifewayandizhitwaawinancustoms.Bypar-ticipatingintheselaborintensivebutfunactivitiestribalmembersreaffirmtheiroff-reservationtreatyharvestrightswhileprovidingtheirfamilieswithahighqualityfoodsource.Likemanyotherfishogaaisagoodsourceofleanproteinlowinsaturatedfatandcontainsotherimportantnutrientslikeseleniumandessentialfats.Howeverthisizhitwaawinoftencomeswithaconcernaboutexposuretomercurythroughconsumptionoffish.GLIFWCsmercurymapshelptribalmembersmakeinformedchoicesthatallowcontinuedogaaconsumptionwhilereducingtheirexposuretomercury.Eachmapincludesthemonthlyrecom-mendedconsumptionofogaaforthelakestypicallyharvestedbyaGLIFWCmembertribe.UnderfundingfromtheGreatLakesRestorationInitiativeGLIFWCupdatesthemercurymapsregularlyforitsmembertribeswiththemostup-to-datemercurydataavailable.Mapswerelastupdatedin2012andwillbeupdatedagainpriortotheupcoming2014springharvestusingdatacollectedfromogaaharvestedin2012and2013.GLIFWCsmercurymapsalongwithinformationalbrochuresdetailingogaaconsumptionadvicewillbeavail-ableattribalregistrationstationsandtribaleventsthisspring.Mapsarealsoavailablefordownloadonlineatwww.glifwc.orgMercurymercury.htmlandbesuretofollowGLIFWCsFacebookpageforanannouncementwhenthenewmapsarepostedonlinethisspring.MazinaiganreadersRememberMazinaiganonlycomesoutthreetimesayearnow.OurnextissuewillbeearlyMay2014.Wewishyouallawonderfulholidayseasonandagreatnewyear PAGE7MAZINAIGANWINTER2013-2014MAPLEBALSAMBOUGHSOdanahWis.Earlywinteristhetimeforwhitetailhuntsandfirewoodcutstrappingfurandstalkinghares.Whileyoureoutthereitsalsoagreatop-portunitytoplanoutthecomingsugarbushiskigamiziganseason.Lookforasitethatwillhavegoodroadaccessandwillnotcreateexcessivedisturbance.YouwanttokeepimpactstothesurroundingarealimitedsaidAlexWrobelGLIFWCforestecologist.Thecededterritoryiscomingoffabanneryearwithmanymapletappersreportingrecordsyrupproduction.Theultra-latespringof2013combinedwithlotsofsnowandfavorabletemperatureshelpedcreateconditionsthatkeptthesapflowing.Wisconsinmaplesyrupproducersreportedasweet341gallonratioin2013.Thepreviousyearittookonaverage44gallonsofmaplesaptomakeonegallonofsyrupaccordingtotheUSDepartmentofAgriculture.Treatyharvesterscantapmaplestandsincountystateandnationalforeststhroughapermitsystem.Contactcountyforestersdirectlytolearnaboutindividualsugarbushguidelines.GLIFWCspecialistsareonhandtohelpnavigatestateandfederalregulations.FortribalmembersinterestedinharvestingontheNationalForestsitisbesttolocateanidealsiteandbeginthepermittingprocessearlyWrobelsaid.WellworkwithyouandtheUSForestServicetodevelopaSugarbushSiteManagementPlanandhaveyoupermittedfortheupcomingharvestseason.Pocketasmalltapemeasureonyournextwoodlandoutinglookforsugarorredmapletreesbetterthanteninchesindiameteracrossatchestheight.Thebesttreeshavefullcrownbranchingskiptreeswithdyingtopsorbrokenbywinddamage.Eventhoughmaplebranchesarebareredandyellowleavescarpetthegroundinapotentialsugarbush.Kickawayiceandsnowdowntotheleaflayertohelpconfirmthepresenceofmaples.Onmaturesugarmaplessuitablefortap-pingthebarkgenerallyappearstohavelongplatesthatpeelalongthesideedge.ThemaplesapseasonmightbeginasearlyasJanuaryoraslateasApril.ContactWrobelformoreinformation715.685.2125.ByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffWriterIskigamiziganGetreadytotapnowIskigamiziganplanessentialsSitelocationApproximateSizeEquipmentorsuppliesyouwilluseforgatheringi.e.tapsbucketsandbagsortubing.Sapprocessinginformationi.e.ifyouwillprocessthesaponthesiteadescriptionofthesuppliesandstructuresyouwillbeusing.AccessRoadsortrailstobeusedtoaccessthesugarbushtypeofvehiclestobeusedi.e.passengercarATVsorsnowmobiles.SiteMaintenanceThesugarbushoperatorisresponsibleforremovingallequipmentorrefusefromthelocation.Fromataporspouthangamodernsapbagoragoodoldpail.Sapcollectioncontainersmustbemonitoredfrequentlyatyoursugarbush.Attheendoftheseasonremovealltapsfromtreesandcleanupallequipmentandutensilsfromtheiskigamizigan.PhotobyCORCountySugarbushesEstablishingatribalsugarbushoncountylandscanbeconfus-ingbutnotimpossible.Court-orderedstipulationsresultingfromtheVoigtdecisionrequirethattribalmembersmustcomplywiththeconditionsassociatedwithcountysugarbushpermits.ABadRivermembersetupthefirstWisconsincountysugarbushinIronCountyin2001.ZhingobaandagBalsamFirBoughsRedCliffWis.OncecoldtemperatureshavesetinandtheleaveshavefallenitistimetogetoutandstartharvestingbalsamfirAbiesBalsameaboughseitherforyourownuseortosell.TraditionallyknowntotheGreatLakesOjibweasNimissoreldersisterthebalsamfirliketheeldersisterhadthehighestconcernforherfamilyshewaslikeasecondmother.Thespiritofbalsamfirisapale-skinnedmaidenwhorepresentsilluminationandenlightenment.ThebeautifulfragrancegivenoffwasunderstoodtorepresentthetreeprayingforthePeople.Ifpeoplewerewalkingbythebalsamfirwhenshereleasedherfragrancetheywouldknowthatsomeonesomewhereneededprayers.Othertra-ditionalnamesassociatedwiththisspeciesarezhingobwhichrepresentsbalsamfirorzhingobaandagwhichspecificallyreferstothefirboughWarberKeewaydi-noquay1995.TheOjibwepeoplehavetraditionallyharvestedpartsandproductsfromzhingobforvariouskindsofutilityandmedicinalpurposeshoweverinpresent-daythemostcommonproductaretheboughs.Aftertwoormorehardfrostshavesettheneedlesonthebrancheszhingobaandagarereadytobeharvestedandusedorsoldforwreathsandotherholidayarrangements.Balsamboughharvestingisatraditionformosttribesacrossthecededter-ritories.Thegoalsmaybesimilarbutthestoriesarealwaysunique.RecentlyIspokewithsometribalboughharvestersabouttheirexperiencesandwasfortunatetohavebeentoldsomeofthesestoriestoshare.ItsachillyOctoberafternooninRedCliffandwearestandingnearatruckandtrailerladenwiththedaysharvestofbalsamboughsforJRDeragonandMartyDuffy.Thetwohavebeenharvestingboughstogetherforupwardsof20yearsonRedClifflandsandsurroundingcededterritoryforeststheyhavebecomealmostcelebritiesinthenorthernWisconsinbalsamboughmarket.Afterthefirstcoupleoffrostsorassoonastheyarecontactedbytheirbuyertheyheadtotheforesttobeginanewharvestseason.Generallybeginningnearthe1stofOctobertheirseasonhaslastedanywherefrommid-Novembertothe2ndweekofDecemberoftenguidedbytherequestsfromthebuyer.MartyandJRscoutandlocatesitesthroughouttheyearallowingformoretimeharvestingandlesstimelookingforgoodboughsitesduringtheseason.Mostsitesarelocatedwithina15-20mileradiusofhomeastransportationisoneoftheprimarycostsassociatedwiththeharvest.Forthemanidealsitecontainsadecentpopulationofbalsamfirtreesnotmuchtallerthaneightfeetthathavenotbeenharvestedformanyyearsorsitesthathavebeenregen-eratingforaminimumofthreeyears.Onethingthathassetthemapartfromotherharvestersistheirwillingnesstogoslightlyfurtherfromtheroaddeeperintotheforestinsearchofabetterbough.OnceonlocationJRandMartyhavefoundthathand-snappingtheboughsisthemostefficientmethodofremoval.Whenyoureachintosnaptheboughshouldhityouontheshoulder.Thisgivesyoumorethantheminimun18lengththebuyerswant.Thismethodalsoallowsforthemtotakethebranchatthedesiredpinkywidththicknessandatthesametimenottakingtoomuchofabranch.Ifabranchissnappedtooclosetothetrunkisitlesslikelytoregrowthanifthereisapartialbranchleft.Partialbrancheswillusuallyregeneratethemselvesoftenintotwonewboughs.Fromahealthytreetheycanharvesteightormoreboughs.Theharvestedboughsaretiedinto60-poundbalesthencarriedoutoftheforest.ThroughtheyearsMartyandJRhavegonethroughnumerousmodesoftransporthoweverthisyearisthestandardtruckandtrailer.Onadecentdaytheycanhaulupwardsof14balestakinguptosixhoursadayinagoodsite.Todaywithafullloadthetwohavenearlytwotonsofboughssecuredfortransporttothebuyer.WhattheyhavetoofferisahighlydesirableproductforanyByAlexWrobelGLIFWCForestEcologistThecircleisroundandwewillonedayreturntorelyingonourlife-waystosurvive.Thisiswhywemustpreservetheteachingsandtheresourcesforfuturegenerations.PaulaCarrickSeeZhingobaandagpage19 MAZINAIGANPAGE8WINTER2013-2014WIIGWAASAAGIMAAKMilleLacsenhanceswoodlandhabitatWorriesaboutwiigwaasbirchaagimaakashMilleLacsreservationMinn.AlthoughtheMilleLacsBandofOjibweplantedthousandsoftreesthisspringyouwillnotseetheminneatrowsasinatreeplantation.RatherthenewsaplingsandseedlingsareinterspersedinwoodedareasinamannerconsistentwithMotherNaturesmorecapriciousplantings.Barelyvisiblenowasyoungseedlingsandsaplingstheyblendinhereandtherewiththenaturallandscape.WeatMilleLacshaveabigthingforreforestationsaysKellyApplegatetribalbiologist.Ourpeopleareawoodlandpeople.Toreforestandrestoreourlandsisjusttherightthingtodo.Thatswhy8000treesallindigenousspecieswereplantedthisspringattwodifferent40-acresitespartofanannualreforestationprocessthatwillbeappreciated20to30yearsinthefuture.One40-acreplantingenhancesanoaksavannahhabitatforwhite-taileddeerwildturkeyandred-headedwoodpeckers.Theoakplantingsarescatteredandwidelyseparatedasistypicalofnaturalsavannahs.Alsoincludedduetopopularrequestwerechokecherryshrubsforthebenefitofhumansaswellaswildlife.Thesecondplantingsitefocusedonmaples.WhileoakareexpectedtodowellwithclimatechangeandapotentiallywarmerclimatethereismoreconcernaboutmapleitssurvivalinawarmerclimateandthequalityandquantityofsapproducedApplegatesays.BecauseitisanimportantspeciesforthetribeswhohavelongdependedonaninaatigmapleforitssaptoproducemaplesugarandsyruptheBandplantedablendofseveralmaplespeciesincludingsilvermapleandsugarmaple.Thesilvermapleisasweetsapvarietywithahighsugarcontent.Inthewetterareasofthesitetherootsofgiizhikagwhitecedarsalsoculturallyimportantweregivenahome.Whilestaffobserveplantingsitesperiodicallytheyareanalyzedeachspringforsurvival.A2011oaksavannahplantingsiteonIndianPointisdoingwellwithoaksaplingsnowvisibleabovetallgrassesandyoungcedarsstillhiddenlookbrightgreenandhealthytuckedmidstswampybrush.ThespringtimeplantingsrequireamajorworkforceeffortonewhichemployspeoplefromtheBandsWorkforceLaborDepartment.TheworkexperienceforcrewsoftentotwentyworkersofferavarietyofbenefitsaccordingtoApplegate.Theyareoutsideworkingwithnaturebuildingteamworkandtheworkhasimportantculturalconnections.TheBandsBiolgicalServicesDivisionworkshand-in-handwiththeBandForesterDeanStaplestoplanandimplementthereforestationprojectsfromyeartoyear.TheplantingsarealsopossibleduetoacostsharebetweentheBandandtheNaturalResourcesConservationServices.WecantlosethebirchWhileoakandmapleareexpectedtoflourishthesurvivalofbirchandashareworrisome.ThethreatfromtheemeraldashborerEABhastheMilleLacsBandonalertbothwatchingforitspresenceandcollectingseedfromnativetreeswhichtheyhopetogetintoanationalseedrepositoryintheeventEABinfestsandkillstheirtrees.Theyarealsoplanningonstoringsomeashlogsfortribaluseinthefuture.WehavetribalmemberswhomaketraditionalashbasketssowewouldhavematerialsavailableforthemintheeventEABtakesoutourashtreesApplegateexplains.HeisalsoconcernedaboutthesurvivalofbirchunderchangingclimaticconditionsandhasconsultedwiththePlantMaterialsCenterinNorthDakotaaboutbirchmapleandbasswood.IvewarnedthemwecantloosebirchApplegatesays.HehasencouragedtheCentertocollectseedwherebirchisbe-inglosttowarmingclimateandanalyzewhichvarietycanbestwithstandthoseconditionswithoutgeneticmanipulation.IfoneisidentifiedthenhehopestheBandcouldreforestwiththatwiigwaasspecies.LookingtothefuturetheBandplanstocontinueanannualtreeplantingproject.In2014theyanticipateanother20-40-acreplanting.InadditiontothetribalplantingprojectsForesterDeanStaplesandBradHarringtonwildlifetechniciancoordinateanannualtree-giveawaywherethou-sandsoftreesaregivenouttotribalmembersforplantingontriballands.InthiswayandwithcontinuedeffortthewoodlandpeopleoftheMilleLacsBandandthenaturalresourcestheycherishwillalwayshavewoodlandsfortheirhome.BySueEricksonStaffWriterAsmallcedarandayoungoakbothappeartobedoingwellsincetheywereplantedin2011ontheMilleLacsreservation.KellyApplegatetribalbiologistperiodicallychecksthestatusoftheBandsplantingswhicharepartofanannualreforestationprojectonthereservationaplanthatintendstosecureawoodlandhabitatforgenerationstocome.Thisyearabout8000treeswereplantedontwo4-acreplots.PhotosbySueEricksonvenisonwhenthatranlowweaddedmorewaterandveggiesandthrewinsomebuffalowhenthatranlowweaddedmorewaterandveggiesandputinsomeelkGasperexplains.Hesalsobeenenjoyingsmallfeastsofmushroomspickedinthearea.Heplansontrappinginthewinter.Withfurpricesuptheopportunitytogetsomeincomelooms.Buthismostpressingprojectnowistocompletehisownwinterwigwamwhichcurrentlyhaswaytoomuchven-tilation.Hiswoodstoveneedstocomeinandthespaciousframecoveredwith300-foottarps.Strawbaleswilladdadditionalinsulationfromtheoutside.Gasperexpectscompanytokeepcomingthroughthewintermonthsandhewillhavetimetochatprobablyaboutavisionhehasfora100-acreheritageparkinthePenokeesthatallpeoplecanenjoyandparticipateinoraboutbuildingamajormaplesugaroperationnearbybeginningnextspringoraboutrunningforIronCountyBoardsincehisresidencyrequirementisfulfilled.OryoumighttalkaboutthedangersoffiberousasbestosinsomeplacesofthePenokeerockformationsoritcouldbeaboutthevoicesoftheSpiritsthatspeakoutatnightandthedrumsthatareheardbythosethatlisten.WinterinthePenokeesMazinaigandigitalflipbookDoyoureceiveMazinaiganinthemailWouldyouratherreaditonlineYounowhavethisoption.Theonlineeditionisafull-colorflipbookthatcanbereadordownloadedtoaPDF.Flipbooksareenvironmentallyfriendlyandtheysavepostageandprintingcosts.IfyouchoosetheonlineeditionyouwillbenotifiedviaemailapproximatelyoneweekbeforetheMazinaiganismailedwhenitisavailableforviewingTheemailwillcontainalinktoGLIFWCswebsitewhereyoucanviewtheflipbook.TosignuptoreceivetheMazinaiganeitherelectronicallyoramailedsubscriptiongotowww.glifwc.orgpublicationsmazinaiganMazinaigan.htmlandchooseeithernewsubscriptionorE-editionnotification.Continuedfrompage1EssentialOjibwemowinbiboonbewinter PAGE9MAZINAIGANWINTER2013-2014GREATLAKESFISHERYAspartofamulti-prongedefforttocontroltheinvasivesealampreysinLakeSuperiorGLIFWCbegansettingnetsinseveralWisconsinandMichiganriversfacingupstreaminordertocatchlarvallampreysoatingdownstream.JakeParisienGLIFWCsheriestechnicianexaminesafewlarvallampreycaughtthisfall.PhotobyCharlieOttoRasmussenLaketroutusedtotrackcontaminantsinGichigamiGLIFWCparticipatesinsamplecollectionByBillMattesGLIFWCGreatLakesBiologistBilesaltssealampreysnewestscentofseductionEastLansingMich.Bilesaltsscreamseductionforsealampreysthatis.NewresearchatMichiganStateUniversityshowsthatbilesaltssecretedfromtheliverandtraditionallyassociatedwithdigestivefunctionsarebeingusedaspheromonesbysealampreys.Theinterestingtwistthoughisthatthisscenthasevolvedastheinvasivespeciescologneofchoice.TheevolutionofbilesaltsfromdigestiveaidtopheromonefeaturedinthecurrentissueoftheProceedingsoftheRoyalSocietyBmirrorshumansadapta-tionofperfume.ItssimilartohowperfumehasevolvedinoursocietysaidTylerBuch-ingeroneoftheleadauthorsandMSUdoctoralstudent.Perfumewasfirstusedtomaskbodyodorduetoasocietalstigmaagainstdailybathing.Todayinmanycasesitexemplifiesromanceandisusedtoattractmates.Bilesaltslikeperfumesandcologneswerenotfirstusedassexsignals.Theirprimaryuseistoprocessfats.Overmanyhundredsofyearsthoughtheyhaveevolvedtobecomebeaconsofsexualityinadditiontotheirdigestiveduties.Theevolutionofmalesemittingthispheromoneappearstobearesultoffemalelampreysreceiverbiasortheirdesiretomatesparkedbythefragrance.SincetimetravelisoutofthequestionBuchingerandWeimingLioneoftheleadauthorsandMSUprofessoroffisheriesandwildlifetestedtheevolutiontheoryonsilverlampreysaspeciesnativetoMichiganandrecognizedasamore-ancientspeciesthansealampreys.Theresearchersdemonstratedthatsealampreysandsilverlampreyssmellbilesaltsandacknowledgethemasattractants.Thedifferencehoweverissealampreysbecomesexuallyactivewhilesilverlampreysdonot.Inthefieldsealampreysandsilverlampreysweredrawnupstreambythesmellofbilesalts.Onlythesealampreysthoughswaminlookingforloveandreadytospawn.SilverlampreysareoneoffournativelampreyspeciesinMichigantheothersarethechestnutAmericanbrookandnorthernbrook.KnowingthatadistinctscentaffectsaninvasivespeciesdifferentlyfromthenativefaunatheyaredisplacingisaresearchangleworthpursuingLisaid.Thismatingcallisquiteeffectiveandithashelpedsealampreysthrivehesaid.Knowingthatbilesaltscausesealampreystoreactdifferentlythanournativespecieswhichhavelongbeenpartofourecosystemcouldeventuallyleadtobetterwaystocontrolsealampreys.NickJohnsonoftheUSGSGreatLakesScienceCenteralsocontributedtothisresearch.LisworkisfundedinpartbytheGreatLakesFisheryCommissionNationalScienceFoundationandMSUAgBioResearch.ReprintedfromMichiganStateUniversity.DownstreamnetscapturelarvallampreyBeteGriseMich.Since2005theGreatLakesSectionhasbeencooperat-ingwiththeEnvironmentalProtectionAgencysGreatLakesNationalProgramOfficeEPA-GLNPOtocollectlaketroutoffthetipoftheKeweenawPeninsula.ThelaketroutareusedtotrackcontaminantsintheopenwatersofLakeSuperiorandarecollectedinconjunctionwithannualfalllaketroutassessments.CollectivelyreferredtoastheGreatLakesFishMonitoringProgramGLFMPtheEPA-GLNPOanalyzeschemicalsinfishsamplescollectedthroughouttheGreatLakesBasin.AwidevarietyoforganiccontaminantsandmercuryametalcontaminantofspecificconcernintheGreatLakeshavebeentrackedsince1977intheGreatLakes.TheoverallgoalsoftheGLFMPincludemonitoringtrendsofbio-accumulativechemicalscontaminantsthatbuildupinthefishflesh.OvertimetoppredatorfishlikelaketroutinLakeSuperiorareusedasbio-monitorsassessingpotentialhumanexposuretocontaminantsfoundinthesefishandprovidinginformationonnewcompoundsofconcernenteringthelakesecosystem.ByBillMattesGLIFWCGreatLakesBiologistBadRiverFisheryTechnicianEdLeosoremovesalaketroutfromanassessmentgillnetsetinBeteGriseBayofftheeastsideofMichigansKeweenawPeninsula.PhotobyBenMichaelsSeeLarvallampreypage10OdanahWis.InearlyOctobertheGreatLakesSectionstaffbegansettingnetsinseveralstreamsinWis-consinandMichigantotrapandremoveinvasivesealampreys.Thistechniqueinvolvessettingfyke-netswhichfaceupstreamversusthedownstreamfacingfyke-netsusedforadultlampreyassess-mentandcontrol.Thistrappingisbeingdoneaspartofamulti-prongedapproachtocontrol-lingsealampreysinLakeSuperior.Smallsealampreysdriftdownstreaminthefallandspringoftheyearwhentemperaturesbegintochangewithsea-sonalchangesfromfalltowinterandagainfromwintertospring.Usuallymovementordriftingisassociatedwithrainfallevents.Driftinglarvalsealampreysarevulnerabletobeingcaptured.Sealampreyshavealife-cyclewhichinvolvesseveralstagestheyhatchfromeggsandenteralarvalstageduringwhichtheyburrowintothesoftbottomofstreambedsandfilterfeed.Asfilterfeedersittakesthreeyearsorsotogrowtosixincheslong.Oncethissizetheyundergoametamorphosisfromfilterfeederandtransformintoaparasite.Asaparasitetheymoveoutofthestreamandintothelaketofeedonfish.Thekeycontrolmechanismstokeeptheparasiticsealampreyfrommak-ingittoLakeSuperiorarelampracideapplicationandbarrierdams.Lam-pracideapplicationinvolveschemicallytreatingwatersinfestedwithlarvalsealampreytokillthemandbarrierdamspreventadultlampreyfromreachingspawninggrounds.Thelampracideis MAZINAIGANPAGE10WINTER2013-2014LarvallampreystudyContinuedfrompage9INLANDFISHERIESLacCourteOreillesReservationWis.TheSpearandReleaseprogramattheLacCourteOreillesLCOOjibweSchoolsuccessfullyconcludedthisfallwiththereleaseofseveralhundredextendedgrowthwalleyebackintoLakeLacCourteOreilles.ThatisthelakewherethreestudentswithinstructorsspenttheeveningofMay15spearingogaawalleyelastspring.OncefishwerecreeledatthelandingstudentsandteacherscollectedandfertilizedtheeggsfromfourfemaleogaaandbroughtthemintotheLacCourteOreillesHighSchoolScienceclassroomjusthoursaftertheogaawerespeared.Thedelicateeggswereplacedinanincubatorconsistingofanaquariumaholdingbasketandawaterchillerthatkeptthetemperatureataconstant38degrees.Asthestudyprogressedthestudentsweretaskedwithmeasuringcollectingdataandinterpretingthedata.Upontakingwaterqualitysamplesthestudentswereabletomakeappropriateadjustmentsifneeded.Inordertoreplicatethewarmingofalaketheaquariumwatertemperaturewasallowedtowarmbyafewdegreesuntiltheeggsbegantohatch.LCOFish-eryBiologistPaulChristelestimatedthat20000fryhadhatchedfromtheeggs.ThefrywerereleasedtoChristelandtheLCOFishHatcheryonJune7tobegrowntofingerlingsizeoverthesummer.ThefirstweekofOctoberseveralhundredfingerlingsaveraging7.76incheswerereturnedtotheirpointoforiginBigLakeLacCourteOreilles.TheSpearandRe-leaseprojectispartofanongoingcurriculumattheLacCourteOreillesK12schoolsthatbringstradition-alOjibweknowledgeintothemainstreamclassroomstatesJasonBisonetteacurriculumdeveloperfortheschool.WithOjibweknowledgeandtraditionsasourfoundationourstudentscansuccessfullylearntowalkinbothworlds.SuspendedgillnetsurveyAjointeffortonMilleLacsLakeThefallgillnetassessmentconductedbytheMinnesotaDepartmentofNaturalResourcesMnDNRhasbeenusedasanindexofwalleyeabundanceinMilleLacsLakeforthepast30years.Avarietyofdifferenthabitattypesareincludedinthesurveywhichisstandardizedtoensurethatthesamelocations52totalaresampledwiththesamebottom-setgraded-meshgillnetsatthesameapproximatetimeandwatertemperatureseachyear.Resultsfromthefallgillnetsurveyareusedtomonitortrendsinthewalleyepopulationandarehighlyinfluentialinthestockassessmentsmodelsusedbystateandtribalbiologiststodevelopannualharvestablesurpluslevelsforthesharedfishery.Inanefforttoinvestigaterecentdeclinesinthenumberofwalleyecaughtinthefallgillnetsurveystateandtribalbiologistsinitiatedacooperativesuspendedgillnetsurveyin2012todeterminewhetherwalleyewerepresentinthewatercolumnatdepthsotherthanthosenormallysampledbythestandardbottom-setnets.Thefallof2013markedthesecondyearofthesuspendedgillnetsurveywhichwasconductedjointlybyGLIFWCtribalandMnDNRpersonnel.InSeptemberof2012atotalof32suspendedgillnetsweresetinconjunctionwiththestandardbottom-setgillnetsat22ofthedeepersamplingsitesinMilleLacsLake.AsimilarnumberofsuspendednetsweresetatthesamelocationsinSeptemberof2013.Thepreliminaryresultsfromthissurveyindicatethatfewwalleyeweresus-pendedinthewatercolumnduringthefallassessmentsurveyin2012and2013andsuggestthattheobservedlowcatchesaremorelikelyattributedtoarealdeclineinwalleyenumbersratherthanachangeinbehavior.Stateandtribalbiologistsareworkingtogethertoanalyzeavailabledataandidentifystrategiesthatwillreversethisdeclineandimprovetheconditionofthisimportantsharedfishery.ByGLIFWCInlandFisheriesStaffBySueEricksonStaffWriterOdanahWis.Shortlyafterogaawalleyehatchinthespringwalleyefrymoveouttotheopenwaterzonesininlandlakesandfeedonplanktonforafewweeksoftheirlives.Aboutthetimetheleaveschangethesmallwalleyehavemovedtonear-shorehabitatstofeedatnightoninvertebratesandsmallfish.DuringthistimeGLIFWCsurveycrewsconductelectrofishingsurveystogaugethestrengthofthewalleyeyear-classesoneachlake.Electrofishingboatsuseelectricalcurrenttotemporarilystunfishsothatsurveycrewscannetthemplacetheminarecoverytankcollectlengthinformationandreleasethem.Crewstargetwalleyeunder12inchesspecificallyyoung-of-the-yearandoneyear-oldwalleye.Biologistsusetheinformationgatheredheretoevaluateyear-classstrengthandlong-termtrendsinnaturalreproduction.Thesesurveysalsoprovidethefirstlookatthefutureoftheadultwalleyepopulations.Naturalreproduc-tionvarieswidelybyyearevenonlakeswithlargeadultwalleyepopulationsbutiffallsurveysshowanumberofyearswithpoororlowreproductionbiologistshaveadvancewarningthattheadultpopulationmaydecline.Whilemostofthesurveysfocusonlakeswithnaturalreproductionsomefallsurveysarealsousedtoassessthecontributionofstockedfishtotheyear-class.StockedfishcanbemarkedwithoxytetracyclineOTCandfishcanbeexaminedformarkstodeterminethepercentageofstockedfishintheyear-class.SurveycrewscollectedfishforOTCsamplingfromLacVieuxDesertontheWisconsinMichiganborder.ThisfallcrewsfromGLIFWCBadRiverMoleLakeSt.CroixandtheUSFishWildlifeServicesurveyed105lakesincluding15surveyedinco-operationwithWisconsinDepartmentofNaturalResourcesandMilleLacsLakesurveyedincooperationwiththeFondduLacBand.Alllakessurveyedwereinthe1837and1842cededterritoriesincluding92lakesinWisconsinseveninMichiganandMilleLacsLakeandNamachersLakeinMinnesota.Lakesrangedinsizefrom123-acreShermanLaketo132516-acreMilleLacsLake.ByMarkLuehringGLIFWCInlandFisheriesBiologistSpearandReleaseprogramasuccessGLIFWCsurveycrewspartnersassesswalleyehatchon101lakesStateandtribalbiologistsworkedtogetherthisfallonajointsuspendedgillnetsurveyinMilleLacsLake.Thestudyrstundertakenin2012sampleswalleyeatwatercolumndepthsnotnormallysampled.Thisstudywasalsopartofthefallsurveystoobtainmorecomprehensivedataonthewalleyepopulationinthelake.PullinganetareBenMichaelsleftGLIFWCsheriesbiologistandGregBergsheriesspecialistwiththeMinnesotaDepartmentofNaturalResources.PhotobyJenBurnettLCOOjibweHighSchoolstudentstookeggsandmiltfromspearedwalleyethisspringhatchedthematthehighschoolthengavethefrytotheLCOHatcherytorearintoextendedgrowthngerlingslowerright.TheywerereleasedbackintoLakeLacCourteOreillesthisfall.PhotosbySueEricksonandPaulChristelveryeffectiveinkillingsealampreysbutitdoesntkillthemall.ItisforthisreasonthatGLIFWCcrewsaretrappingstreamstofurtherreducethenumberofparasiticsealampreywhiletheyarestillinthestreamandbeforetheymakeittoLakeSuperiortofeedonfish.Eachsealampreycankillupto40poundsoffishineighteenmonthsasitgrowsfromasix-inchnewlytransformedparasitetoanadultsealamprey.NetsarebeingfishedintheBadPotatoMarengoandAmniconRiversinWisconsinandintheTraverseRiverinMichigansUpperPeninsula.Todatenearlyonehundredtransformedsealampreyhavebeenremovedfromthestreams.Nettingwillcontinueuntiltheiceforms. PAGE11MAZINAIGANWINTER2013-2014ANAFORESTPESTSForestsunderthreathighlightsfromGLIFWCsone-yearscientificreviewOdanahWis.Theforestsofthecededterritoryareunderthreatlikeneverbefore.Europeanearthworminvasionsandhighpopulationsofnativewhite-taileddeerarealreadyinhibitingseedlingestablishmentespeciallybysugarmapleandhemlock.Freedfromtheirnaturalpestsanddiseasesandoftenadaptedtolivingwithearthwormsintroducedinvasiveplantscontinuetoinvadenaturalhabitatsanddisplacenativeplants.Humanpopulationgrowthandtheescalatingdemandforresourcesplaceincreasingpressureonever-shrinkingforests.Thewarmingclimatewillleadtogreaterfrequencyofdroughtsfiresmajorwindstormsandoutbreaksofnativeandintroducedinsectsanddiseases.Eventuallyadulttreeswillbelostatagreaterratethantheycanbereplaced.Borealandnorthernhardwoodforestswillbepushednorthtobereplacedbysavannasoftreesshrubsandforbsfromfurthersouth.RapidchangewillallowaggressiveinvasiveplantssuchasEurasianbushhoneysucklesLoniceraspp.JapanesebarberryBerberisthunbergiicommonbuckthornRhamnuscatharticaandglossybuckthornFrangulaalnustorapidlyinfiltratenaturalhabitats.FormoreseeUniversityofMinnesotaresearcherLeeFelichspowerpointatwww.slideshare.netmaeeconferencelee-frelichs-climate-change-forests-presentation.Aspartofathree-yearAdministrationforNativeAmericansANAforestpestgrantGLIFWChasproducedascientificreportaimedatassessingoneofthesethreatstheriskofforestpeststofivegroupsoftreesusedbyOjibwetribalmembersinthe18361837and1842cededterritories.Thesefivetreegroupsareoaksashmaplebalsamandbirch.BecauseoftheirenvironmentalandculturalimportancesectionswerealsoincludedforeasternhemlockAmericanbeechandwhitecedar.OaksandoakwiltAstheclimatewarmsandlatesummerdroughtsintensifyoaksQuercusspp.collectivelyMitigomizhiigpluralOjibwearelikelytobecomeanincreasinglyimportantcomponentofcededterritoryforests.Themostdestructivediseasecur-rentlyfacingoaksinthecededterritoryisoakwilt.Theoakwiltfungusspreadsundergroundthroughrootgraftsbetweentreesandisalsocarriedbysapbeetlesfrominfestedtreestoinjureduninfestedtrees.RecentinfestationsinnorthernWisconsinhavebeenlinkedtolandownerswhodamagedoakswhilebuildingvacationhomesandwhoalsobroughtwilt-infestedfirewoodfromsouthernWisconsin.Whiteoaksaregenerallymuchmoreresistanttooakwiltthanredoaksbuttheycanstillbekilledbythedisease.Thespreadofoakwiltisverycontrollableprovidedpeopledonotmoveinfestedfirewoodtouninfestedareasandavoidpruningorotherwisedamagingoaksespeciallyinspringandsummer.TheemeraldashborerTheemeraldashborerEABisthemostdestructiveforestpesteverintroducedtoNorthAmerica.FirstdetectedinDetroitin2002theEABisnowestablishedin21statesandtwoCanadianprovinces.NativetoeasternAsiathisbeetlehasdevastatedashFraxinusspp.includingwhiteandgreenashAagimaakoogandblackashBaapaagimaakooginsouthernLowerMichiganOhioandIndianakillinganestimated60millionashtreesineasternNorthAmericasofar.HeroiceffortsarebeingmadetoslowthespreadofthisinsectandsavesomeofeasternNorthAmericasashtreeswithverylimitedsuccess.Asystemicin-secticidecalledTREE-geemimectinbenzoateappearstoprovidelong-lastingatleasttwoyearshighlyeffectiveprotectionfromtheEAB.Thispesticideisderivedfromasoilbacteriumandappearstobesafeforpeopleanimalsandeveninsectsthatmaysimplylandonashtrees.Biologicalcontroleffortsarealsounderway.Threetinyparasitoidwaspshavepassedtestingforhost-specificitybytheUSDepartmentofAgricultureandarebeingreleasedacrosstheintroducedrangeoftheEAB.AdditionalbiocontrolinsectsparticularlythosethatcanbettersurvivecoldwintersarebeingsoughtintheEABsnativerange.InUpperMichigantheSlowAshMortalitySLAMprojectattemptstousebiocontrolinsectsTREE-getreatmentofaportionofthetreesgirdledtraptreesandothermanagementtoolstotryandlowertheEABpopulationenoughsothatnativeashtreescansurviveonthelandscape.TheEABusuallyonlyspreadsaboutmileperyearonitsownsoifpeopleavoidedmovingashfirewooditwouldbedecadesbeforetheEABcouldreachalltheashstandsinthecededter-ritory.SlowingthespreadoftheEABbuystimeforresearcherstofindnewwaystofightthishighlydestructiveforestpest.TheAsianlonghornedbeetleMaplesAcerspp.arepotentiallyunderthreatfromtheAsianlonghornedbeetleALB.TheALBisalargewood-boringbeetlefromChinathatregularlybeganshowingupatportsofentryinthe1990s.LiketheEABithitchesarideinsolidwoodpackingmaterial.ItfirstbecameestablishedintheNewYorkCityareain1997.SubsequentinfestationsshowedupinChicago1998NewJersey2002andToronto2003.WhiletheseearlierinfestationshavebeeneradicatedfederalstateandlocalagenciesarestillfightingALBinfestationsinNewYorksuburbanMassachusettsandsemi-ruralsouthernOhio.UnlikeearlierinfestationswhichoccurredinurbanareastheMassachusettsandOhioinfestationshavespreadintonaturalforests.InitsnativerangetheALBattacksawidevarietyoftreesincludingmaplehorsechestnutelmbirchaspenandwillow.InNorthAmericathoughtheALBhassofaralmostexclusivelyattackedmapletreesincludingredmapleandsilvermapleZhiishiigimewanzhiigsugarmapleIninaatigoogboxelderAajaagobi-imagoonandtheintroducedNorwaymaple.ThelarvaeoftheALBburrowthroughthewoodleavingtunnelsandexitholesthediameterofadimeandweakeningthetreestothepointofcollapse.UnliketheEABtheALBisalargeshowybeetle.Theadultsnormallydonotflyanyfartherthantheyhavetoinordertofindasuitabletreeofteninfestingthesametreefromwhichtheyemerged.Eradicationeffortshavebeencostlyintermsoftimeefforttreesandmoneybutfortunatelyhavebeensuccessful.ThebalsamandhemlockwoolyadelgidsInNewEnglandandtheAppalachianregionbalsamfirAbiesbalsameaZhingobiigandhemlockTsugacanadensisGaagaagimizhiinareunderat-tackbythebalsamandhemlockwoollyadelgidrespectively.Theseintroducedaphidplantlicerelativesbuildtohugenumbersextractingstoredfoodreservesfromtheirrespectivehostsandbasicallystarvingthem.WhilethecoldwintertemperaturestraditionallyexperiencedinthecededterritorymayridtheforestsofalargeportionoftheseinsectsinsomeyearstheirabilitytosurviveundertheBySteveGarskeANAForestPestEnv.GrantCoordinatorKnowndistributionofoakwilt.OakwiltwasfoundinRuskCountyWisconsinaswell.USDAForestServiceForestHealthPro-tectionandpartnershttpfores-thealth.fs.usda.govportalFlexAPE.TotherightBuroakleavesafictedwithoakwilt.Brownar-easaremoistandexiblenotdrylikefallleaves.Oaksinfestedwithoakwiltoftendroptheirleavesinsummerwellbeforetheendoftheseason.FredBakerUtahStateUniversityBugwood.orgNorthAmericandistributionofemeraldashborerasofOctober12013.Itisillegaltomovehardwoodrewoodoruntreatedashlogsoutofstate-quarantinedincludingwhiteareasorfederallyquarantinedbluelinesareas.www.emeraldashborer.infolesmultistate_eabpos.pdfAdultAsianlonghornedbeetle.JoeBoggsBugwood.orgThenativepinesawyerissometimesconfusedwiththeALB.ThisbeetleattacksonlydeadanddyingbalsamrandotherconifersJosephBergerBugwood.orgSeeForestsunderthreatpage19 Theconfirmedpresenceofasbesti-formgruneriteinbedrockaddstoalistofconcernsaboutGogebicTaconitesGTacproposedminethatstretchesalongfourmilesatopthePenokeeHillsinthecededterritoryofnorthernWisconsin.Thepotentialofgruneritefibersenteringtheairorwaterduringminingoperationsraisesanotherredflagbecauseminingorprocessingasbestosmineralscanliberateisolatedfibersorfiberbundlesintotheairandexposuretoasbestoscanposetheriskofdevelopingmesotheliomaaformoflungcancerorotherformsofcancerinhumansaswellaswildlife.TheoccurrenceofthegruneriteinthePenokeeshasactuallybeendocumentedforsometimeaccordingtoGLIFWCEnvironmentalSectionLeaderDr.JohnColeman.HoweverasamplefoundbyaWisconsinDepartmentofNaturalResourcesWDNRgeologistattheBulkSampleSite4BSS4thisspringstimulatedmoreinterestintheextentofthegruneriteoccurrenceintheminesitesbedrock.Inmid-OctoberNorthlandCollegeGeologistTomFitzwaspartofateamthatfoundasbestiformgruneritewithinbedrockoutcroppingsinfourlocationsintheIronwoodironformationonthewesternendofGTacsproposedmine.Theoutcropsextend.29mileswestofBSS4accordingtoFitzbutitisyetunknownifitalsoreacheseastoftheBSS4site.seemapMoreneedstoresearchedhesaystodeterminefurtherlocationsandconcentrationsofgrunerite.Fitzsaysnotallgruneriteisconsidereddangeroussotheissueofsizeandshapebecomesimportant.Ifitislongnarrowandneedle-likeitisconsideredamoredangerousform.InregardtowhatheobservedFitzsaysItisclearthatitislongandslenderandgivesusreasontothinkitcouldbedangerous.Weneedtoknowmore.ThepotentialofreleasedasbestosfiberswasoneofmanyconcernsexpressedbytheBadRiverBandofOjibweincommentsregardingGTacsbulksamplingpermit.InanOctober22lettertotheWDNRBadRiverEnvironmentalSpecialistCyrusHesterurgedthatGTacdocumenttheamountandextentofasbestosandprovidesufficientevidencethatthebulksamplingoperationsatsites3Aand4willnotexceedthepermissibleexposurelimitsforairborneasbestosfibersestablishedbytheMineSafetyandHealthAdministration.BySueEricksonStaffWriterAsbestosenterstheminingpictureinthePenokeeHillsThenewSenateBill349tolimitlocalcontrolonairandwaterqualityWisconsinSenateBill349authoredbySen.TomTiffanyR-HazelhurstandRep.JoanBallwegR-Markesanwouldrestrictlocalcontroloverminingoperations.AccordingtoareportintheOctober25editionoftheCapTimesthebillwouldretroactivelynullifylicensingagreementsbetweentownscitiesandcountiesandfracsandcompaniestomonitorsilicadustlevelsonorneartheborderoftheirproperty.Themeasurewouldalsopreventmunicipalitiesandcountiesfromimposinganyregu-lationsonairandwaterforanyindustrynotjustfracsandminingmovingforward.OneAppealonEagleMinepermitrejectedMichiganAfederalcourtofappealsrejectedanappealbytheHuronMoun-tainClubHMCwhichchallengedthestatepermitthatallowsfortheuseofsulfideminingtoextractcopperandnickelattheEagleMinesiteintheUpperPeninsulaofMichigan.AccordingtoJessicaKoskiKeweenawBayminingtechnicalassistantinMay2012HMCsuedtheU.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineersforfailingtorequirefederalpermitsforconstructionoftheminetunnelbeneaththeSalmonTroutRiver.HMCsclaimswererejectedandHMCappealedtothe6thCircuitCourtofAppealsinwhichargumentswereheardinAugust2013andnowrecentlyrejected.ThemineisownedbytheCanadianfirmLundinMiningCorporationwhichintendstobeginproductioninaboutayear.KBICappealonEagleminepermitlingersoverayearMich.NomovementisapparentintheMichiganCourtofAppealsonKeweenawBayIndianCommunitysKBICchallengetothestateissuanceofagroundwaterdischargepermitfortheEagleMine.AccordingtoJessicaKoskiKBICminingtechnicalassistantinDecember2007theMichiganDepartmentofEnvironmentalQualityMDEQapprovedaseriesofpermitsfortheEagleMine.ShortlythereafterKBICalongwiththeNationalWildlifeFederationHuronMountainClubandYellowDogWatershedPreservefiledacontestedcaseappealingtheissuanceoftheminingpermitandagroundwaterdischargepermit.InAugust2009anadministrativelawjudgeaffirmedthepermitswithanexceptionrecommendingtheavoidanceofdirectimpactstoEagleRockaplaceofspiritualandculturalsignificancetotheKBIC.HowevertheMDEQsubsequentlyignoredthisrecommendationundertheperspectivethatplacesofworshipmusthaveabuiltstructure.InMarch2010plaintiffsKBICanditspartnerorganizationsfiledanappealandinNovember2011anInghamCountyCircuitCourtjudgeruledthattheminingandgroundwaterdischargepermitswerelawful.InDecember2011theplaintiffsthenfiledamotionwiththeMichiganCourtofAppeals.InApril2012theCourtofAppealsagreedtohearthecase.Briefshavebeenfiledbutnohearingdatehasbeenscheduledyet.OnemoreappealbyHuronMountainClubMich.InOctober2013HuronMountainClubfiledanadditionalsuitagainsttheMichiganDepartmentofEnvironmentalQualityforapprovingarevisedairqual-itypermitfortheEagleMine.HumboldtMillinMichiganunderinvestigationbyEPAMich.TheHumboldtMillsiteiscurrentlyunderinvestigationbytheU.S.EnvironmentalProtectionAgencyasapotentialSuperfundSiteeligibleforlistingontheNationalPrioritiesListduetohistoricalminingwasteandcontaminationaf-fectingnearbywetlandsandthemiddlebranchoftheEscanabaRiver.ItisuncertainhowthisinvestigationandEPAfindingsmaybeconsideredorinfluencecurrentandfuturepermitsandoperationsatthesite.InJanuary2010RioTintoreceivedpermitstorefurbishandoperatetheHumboldtMill.OnJuly172013RioTintosoldtheEagleMineandHumboldtMilltoLundinMiningCorporationofTorontoCanada.Thenewcompanyhascontinuedconstructionatthemineandprimarilyatthemillandplanstostartproductionbytheendof2014orearly2015.InformationfromJessicaKoskiKBICminingtechnicalassistantMiningNewsBriefsGruneriterockphotographedattheBulkSampleSite4attheproposedtaconiteminesite.PhotobyJohnColemanMapbyCyrusHesterBadRiverenvironmentalspecialist.MAZINAIGANPAGE12MIConcernsoverofGTacminein PAGE13MAZINAIGANINGotentialimpactenokeesgrowPenokeeHillsSummiteducatesandactivatesBySueEricksonStaffWriterOnOctober26theSokaogonMoleLakeBandandtheirsupporterscelebratedthe10thanniversaryofthepurchaseoftheproposedsuldeoreCrandonMinesite.Approximately80peoplegatheredatMoleLaketodiscusstheeventsthatleaduptothepurchaseoftheminebythetribesin2003andtodiscussresponsestofuturemininginitiativesinthecededterritories.Speakerscoveredtopicssuchasthehistoryleadinguptotheminepurchasetheroleofnon-tribalsupportersinthestruggleandtheimportanceoftreatyrights.Thedaywaspunctuatedbyafeastandatriptotheproposedminesite.LarryNesperreceivedrecognitionfromMoleLakesTinaVanZileforhiscontributionstodocumentationofMoleLakesculturalheritage.PhotobyJohnColeman10thAnniversaryoftheCrandonMinepurchasePlanningtostaythewinterattheLCOHarvestEducationalandLearningCampinthePenokeeHillsCampDirectorMelGasperrelisheshistimeatthecampsitesofarandfullyintendstoenjoyaPenokeewinter.Heandfourotherswillkeepthecoffeebrewingandsoupsimmeringforvisitors.SEHonoringtheRiverHowhardrockminingimpactstribalcommunitiesTheNationalWildlifeFederationNWFreleasedareportdetailingthedisastrousimpacthardrockmininghashadontribalcommunitieshistorically.Manytribeshavebeenleftwithpoisonedriverscontaminatedsacredsitesandcontinuedpollutionfromoldandabandonedmines.InthereportNWFrecommendsactiontohelppreventfurtherproblemsasnewminesarebeingproposedneartriballands.Someoftheenvironmentalimpactslikeacidminedrainagewilllastintoperpetuitythereportstates.InparticularthereportpushesforactionstoclosetwoloopholesintheCleanWaterActCWAloopholeswhichallowthedumpingofuntreatedtailingsandotherwasteintowetlandsstreamsandlakesMorespecificallyagencyregulationscurrentlyallowminestotreatwa-tersaswastetreatmentsystemswhicharenotprotectedbytheCWAandtotreatminingwasteasfillmaterialwhichisnotsubjecttonormalpollutionstandards.ThereportisendorsedbyfiveGLIFWCmemberbandsBadRiverLacduFlambeauRedCliffKeweenawBayandSokaogonMoleLake.Checkoutthereportatwww.nwf.orgNews-and-MagazinesMedia-CenterNews-by-TopicWildlife201304-25-13-Honoring-the-River-Press-Release.aspxUpsonWis.OjibwetreatyrightswasoneofseveralkeytopicsatthePenokeeHillsEducationalSummitonSeptember21-22.Thetwo-dayeventwasappropriatelyhousedattheWhitecapResortUpsonWisconsinsnuggledinaforestedPenokeehillsidesplashedwiththeautumnalredsyellowsandorangesofthechangingseason.Thepurposeofthetwo-daysummitwastoeducateaboutthepotentialimpactofaproposedopen-pitironminepoisedatthetopofthePenokeeHillsapurposeachievedthroughspeakersinformativematerialsanddisplays.Fourpanelscoveredthetopicsofenvironmentalandlegislativehistorytreatyrightsprotectingthewaterandthelocaleconomy.SincethePenokeeHillslieadjacenttotheBadRiverReservationandareintheOjibwecededterrito-rieshistoricalpresenceofthetribesintheHillsandthetribestreatyrightstohuntfishandgatherinthecededterritorywereacriticalpartofthediscussion.Dr.LarryNesperUW-Madisonprofessorofan-thropologyandNativeAmericanstudiesprovidedasynopsisofOjibwetreatyrights.NesperemphasizedthattheUnitedStatesConstitutionexplicitlyrecognizestribesaspoliticalentitiesandalsoinArticleVIrecognizestreatiesastheSupremelawoftheland.ThisaccordingtoNespermeanstreatiessupersedestatelaw.ByretainingtheirtreatyrightsthetribesessentiallyindicatedtheirintenttostayonthelandandmaintaintheirlifewaysNespersaid.NesperalsodrewattentiontotheTrustDoctrineafederalobligationtoactintheinterestofthetribes.Thisobligationtothetribeswastakenonhesaidbecausetribalsovereigntywasconstrainedinthetreatiesbyal-lowingtribestoselllandonlytothefederalgovernment.TheTrustDoctrineadoptedaround160yearsagobythefederalgovernmentwasintendedtoprotectthetribesfromintrusionbyimmigrants.Todayitstillservestoprotectlandcultureandproperties.Nesperalsonotedthatwhentribalissuescometocourtsuchastreatyrelatedissuesthelawneedstointer-prettreatiesastheIndiansunderstoodthematthetime.Whenitcomestominingwhatthetribesunderstoodofminingatthetimeofthetreatiesisquitedifferentfromthetypeofminingnowbeingproposed.TheissueofallotmentsisanotherinterestingtopictouchedonbybothNesperandPaulDeMainLacCourteOreillesHarvestEducationProjectspokesperson.Atthetimeofthetreatiesthetribesnegotiatednumerous80-acreallotments.SomeofthoseallotmentsmayhavebeeninthePenokeeHills.UnfortunatelyovertheyearsmanyoftheallotmentswerelostthroughscamsandthereislittleevidenceoftitleaccordingtoDeMain.Howevertribalpresenceisknownthroughancienttrailsandartifacts.LarryBalberHistoricPreservationOfficefortheRedCliffBandprovidedasynopsisoftreatiessignedbytheOjibwebeginningwiththeTreatyofGreenvillein1796.HealsofocusedontheroleofChiefBuffalowhocarriedaPipetoWashingtonDCtostopaPresidentialRemovalOrderthatwouldmovetheOjibwebandstoterritorialMinnesota.BuffalosjourneyresultedintheRemovalOrderbeingterminatedandthe1854Treatywhichcreatedpermanentreservationsformanyofthebands.InthetreatiestheOjibwesettledinordertosharethelandsandresourcesnottobeconfinedjusttothereservationsBalbernoted.HealsocommentedontherecentreturnoftheChiefBuffalosPipetotheRedCliffTribeoverahundredyearsafterthejourney.WhatdoesthatPipemeanforthenext140yearsheasked.OnanothernoteDukeWelterWesternGreatLakesconservationcoordinatorforTroutUnlimitedtalkedabouthisinvolve-mentinstrugglestosavehabitatinthepast.HismessageechoedmanyofthoserelatedbyAdaDeerformerAssistantSecretaryoftheInteriorwhotalkedaboutorganizingeffectivelytocreatechange.BothWelterandDeersawdiversein-terestscomingtogethertowardsonecauseasempoweringhoweverWeltercautionedthatthemessagesbeclearanddisciplined.Getyourmessagetogetheronethatresonateswithyouraudience.RefineyourmessageDonthavedamagingthrow-awaycomments.Deerremindedpeopleoftheirpersonalpowertoachievegoalsandwarnedperseverancewasnecessarythroughthelongprocessesthatarepartofcreatingchange.Youhavetobethereknowtheprocessandpayattention.Youneedahawkshesaid.Sherecom-mendedformingcoalitionsusingsocialmediaandPReventsmobilizingthetourismindustryandusingfederalrelationshipsandagenciessuchastheEnvironmentalProtectionAgencytheArmyCorpsofEngineersandtheBureauofIndianAffairs.ThesummitwassponsoredbythePenokeeHillsEducationProjectandLacCourteOreillesHarvestEducationProjectformerlyHarvestCamp. MAZINAIGANPAGE14WINTER2013-2014ENFORCEMENTOnji-AkiingonceagainshowsusthewaySidnawMich.ThefifthannualGLIFWCUnitedStatesForestServiceUSFSculturalsummercampprogramOnji-AkiingFromtheEarthbroughttogetherover80NativeAmericanyouthandstafftogatherintheheartoftheOttawaNationalForestforaweekoftreatyrightseducationnaturalcareerex-plorationandhonoringindigenoustraditions.ItwaseasytoseethejoyrespectanddepthofconnectiontoNativeAmericanspiritualitythatwasdeepenedatthisyearscampprogram.Camperscelebratedtheirrichheritagewithadventure-basedlearningactivitiesthatcenteredontheMedicineWheelinwhichthementalphysicalemotionalandspiritualaspectsoflivingareexplored.Notonlydidkidsexperiencecanoeingfishingarcheryswimmingandtheteam-buildinglowropescoursetheyalsogottostepintothelivesofseveralnaturalresourcesprofessionalswhotraveledfromfarplacestosharetheirculturalcollegiateandoutdoorknowledge.GLIFWCGreatLakesBiologistBillMattesinstructedcampersinperformingfishpopulationstudiesandfishdissection.GLIFWCBotanistSteveGarsketookkidsthroughthewoodstolearnfirst-handaboutforestpestinvaders.Youthalsoparticipatedinpre-colonialcookingwiththeGLIFWCAdministrationforNativeAmericansANAMinoWiisinidaaLetsEatGoodTraditionalFoodsProgramstaffthatpromotedhealthyharvestingandhappytummies.DavidMichenerassociatecuratoratUniversityofMichigantraveledover500milestoleadkidsthroughinterviewingplants.MichenerwhoisworkingonanindigenousgardenprojectattheuniversitystatedRespectingplantsteachesustorespecteachother.Itisallaboutintegrity.Iamhappytobeinvolvedwiththiscampbecausetheseplantsarealiveandreturnedtopeopletheyknowtheirrelatives.NikkeCroweFondduLacTribalCollegeeducationprogramcoordinatorsharedculturalwisdomaboutwildediblesandplantmedicineswiththecampers.Croweafirmbelieverintraditionalecologicalknowledgetaughtkidshowtoestablishhealthyrelationshipswiththeirplantrelatives.Shehadthekidsharvestdifferentfloraandprocessthemintoanaturalbugrepellant.Thisstuffreallyworksitssocoolexclaimed12-yearoldLacVieuxDesertmemberMabelLaBine.USFSstaffalsoreinforcedenvironmentalstewardshiptoMotherEarththroughhands-onactivitiesandheldaNaturalResourceCareerFairthatofferedpersonalexperienceinworkingplayingandcaringfortheoutdoors.ThisfairincludedseveralcollegesandtribalprofessionalsfromaroundtheGreatLakes.Thehighropescoursebeadingandwarriorgamesgamesusedtraditionallytoteachyoungonestobecomegoodprotectorsoftheirhomelandswereamongthefavoriteactivitiesatcamp.Campersalsolearnedthevalueofrespectandgivingbackthroughaservice-learningproject.Mostimportantlyeveryonehadafuntimebuildingrelationshipswiththeeartheachotherandthemselves.WiththelargestyouthattendancetodatesummercampwasahugesuccessinpromotinghealthylifestylesbuildingleadershipandprovidingafunlearningexperienceThiscampisdesignedtoempowerthelivesandstrengthenthepathsofNativeAmericanyouthtodaythroughculturalactivitiesandwisdom.Onji-Akiingworkstoprovidethetoolsthatyouthneedinordertoenrichtheirlivestheircultureandthecommunitiestheylivein.OurfirstyearcampersarenowJuniorCouncilorsseveralofwhicharego-ingontocollegesaidGLIFWCChiefofEnforcementFredMaulson.Theyveutilizedtheircampexperiencetohelponacareerpathintothefuture.Ifyouareinterestedininformationonthe2014Onji-AkiingCampProgrampleasecontactHeatherNaigusOutreachOfficerLawEnforcementathnaigusglifwc.orgorvisitwww.glifwc.org.ByHeatherNaigusGLIFWCEasternDistrictWardenWearerelatedtothetreesandtheanimals.IamgladIcameheretorememberthat.11yearoldLVDmemberFunGuyhangswithFunGiKeweenawBayIndianCom-munityMich.OnmyditchdayfromschoolIgottobeapartoftheKinomaageHarvestersWorkshopwhereIgotupcloseandpersonalwithmushroomsakafungiItraveledtotheKeweenawBayIndianCommunityKBICinBaragaMichiganandlearnedaboutdifferentkindsoffungiandtheirimportancetoNativeAmericanpeople.TheKBICNaturalResourcesDepartmentandtheCedarTreeInstitutebroughtNativeAmericanfungiexpertsfromallaroundMichigantohelpusalllearn.TheAlgonkianwordformushroomispuhpohweewhichisafunwordtosay.Thiswordisnotanounbutanac-tionwordmeaningtopopupandthengobackdownorrejuvenate.ThiswordissimilartotheAnishinaabewordformuskratwhichalsopopsupinwater.IdontreallyliketoeatmushroomsbutmymomdoessoIlearnedabouttypesthatshecaneat.Onewasthelittlegarlicthatisusedtoflavorgarlicfrybread.IthinkImighttrythissomeday.Itisfuntorunaroundthewoodsandfindcoolcoloredmushrooms.Therearealsosomanyotherusesformushrooms.ForoneAnishinaabepeopleusedacertaintypeofmushroomtobrushtheirhairandtheirhorseshair.Itiscalledtheoakcombormishimijbinakwanandhaslargeporeopeningsonitsundersidethatresembleamazepuzzle.MaybeIcanfindmymomoneforChristmas.Shelfmushroomswhenpickedfreshmakeagreatcanvasforartworkandtherearelotsofthemintheforest.Iusedamatchsticktodrawonthetopsideofthemushroom.AfterIfinishedmypictureIputitinablackplasticbagtohardenandsoonmyshelfmushroomwillbeonmyshelfIalsolearnedaboutskatogonthatcanbeusedasacauterizerorfirestarter.MyfavoritewasthepuffballbecausewhenIsqueezeditagreenmagicdustcloudcameout.Somepuffballsyoucaneatbuttheyhavetobewhiteinsidenotgreen.Iamhonoredtohavelearnedaboutthespiritualkinshipthathumanshavewithmushrooms.Theyprovidefoodmedicineandartbesideshelpingthetreesandthewoodstosurvive.Justbecarefulbeforeyouputoneinyourmouth.Theycanbequitesneakyandgetyousickifyoudontmakefriendswiththerightone.ByAsaNaigusYouthWriterOutdoorskillsandadventureblendwithlearningandculturalactivitiestocomposeCampOnjiAkiing.GrowinginpopularitythefthannualOnji-AkiingFromtheEarthcampdrew80NativeAmericanyouthandstaffin2013.ThecamprepresentsacollaborativeeffortbetweentheUSForestServiceandGLIFWC.PhotosubmittedJayMalchowLeechLakestaffissmudgedbyHenriVallierewhoopenedthedaywithasmudgingceremonyatOnji-AkiingCamplastsummer.PhotobyHeatherNaigusAsaNaigus9yearsold.PhotobyHeatherNaigus PAGE15MAZINAIGANWINTER2013-2014FuridenticationwaspartoftheWinter2012campactivities.PhotobyHeatherNaigusENFORCEMENTWardensstresswintersafetyAsaconservationofficerforGLIFWCIpatrolthenorthernregionsofMichiganandWisconsinonsnowmobileeachwinter.Ithinkofmysledasaworkhorseallowingmetocuttrailthroughtheforestaidingstrandedsnowmobil-erscheckingonicefishingandtrappingactivitiesandassistingotheragencies.InotherwordsmysledallowsmetodomyjobmoreefficientlywithaccesstoareasofthecededterritorycoveredbysnowandicewhilehavingfunSnowmobilingispartofourdailywinterlivinginthecededterritoriesjustlikeeatingheartyfoodsandshovelingthedriveway.ByFebruarymostofthelakesandtrailshaveenoughsnowpacktoenticeareasnowmobilers.InWisconsinalonethereareapproximately200000registeredsnowmobilesand25000milesofgroomedtrails.InMichiganasmanyas150groomingtractorsarehardatworksmoothingandreducinghazardsonthe6200-miletrailsystem.AndtheheadquartersofArcticCatandPolariscanbefoundinMinnesota.Whetherforrecreationworkortransportationsnowmobilingremainsapopularwin-tertimeactivityuphereintheOjibwecededterritoryarea.Withnumeroussnowmobilefa-talitieseachyearinWisconsinaloneadoptingsafesnowmobilingpracticesiscrucialforpersonalsafetyandthesafetyofothers.Thefactthatmodernsnowmobilesarecapableofextremespeedalongwithcountlessobstaclesmeanssnowmobileoperationpresentscertainrisksthatwemightnotnormallythinkabout.Inordertopreventacci-dentsprotectresourcesandpromotefunintheoutdoorsforgenerationstocomeIwanttostresstheimportanceofsnowmobilesafety.Thereareafewsafetytipseveryonecaneasilyadopt.Neverridingaloneisasafeandsimpleprincipletofollow.Withatleasttwosledsifonebecomesdisabledyouhaveanothertorideandgethelp.PackaSurvivalBag.ItemsImakesuretopackincludedextrasparkplugsabeltsparekeytowstrapoilandownersmanualforthemachine.Drinkingwatersnackscellphoneicepickslifejacketspareclothessocksandglovesapockettoolhandwarm-erslighterandafirstaidkitarealsoitemsthatwouldbewelcomedinanemergencysituation.Insubzerotemperaturesonremotetrailsandfrozenwatersnotdressingproperlycanmakeforamiserableex-perienceatbest.Mostofusuphereinthenorthunderstandhowtodressforthecoldbutwearingalifejacketwhenridingonfrozenlakesandriverscanalsosaveyourlife.Currentpersonalfloata-tiondevicesPFDsarebecominglessbulkysowhenchasingthenextgreatfishingspotthinkaboutthrowingoneonoveryourouterclothing.ItcouldsaveyourlifeSomeothersafetytipsforrespon-siblesnowmobileoperationincludestay-ingonthetrailsstayingtotherightsideofthetrailavoidingalcoholslowingdownandthemostobviouscompletingasnowmobilesafetycertificationcourse.GLIFWCoffersthiscoursewhichemphasizessafeandresponsiblesnow-mobileoperation.PleasecontactyourlocalGLIFWCconservationofficertofindoutwhenandwhereclassesareheldinyourarea.SeeyououtonthetrailsFormoreinformationcontactGLIFWCOutreachOfficerHeatherNaigusathnaigusglifwc.orgor906-458-3778.ByRebeccaOlsonGLIFWCEasternDistrictWardenGLIFWCsthirdannualCulturalWinterCampProgramIshpaagoonikaaDeepSnowCampwillbeheldinLacduFlambeauthisyearonFeb.8-9.Youthin5th8thgradesareencouragedtoapplyforthisweekendofNativeAmericantreatyrightsexploration.Activitiesincludeshelterbuildingicespearingfire-makingtrappingwintersurvivalsnowshoemakinghikinganimalsnowpacksurvivalenvironmentalstewardshipetc.ThisyearwewillfeaturetheNativeAmericangameofSnowSnake.Camperswillcrafttheirownandlearntoplay.PleasefeelfreetocontactHeatherNaigusOutreachOfficerL.E.at906-458-3778orhnaigusglifwc.org.ApplicationsmustbereceivedbyJan.12014.FullName______________________________________________________DateofBirth____________________________________________________Gradeinschool____________Emailaddress____________________________________________________Cellphone_____________________________Facebook_____yes_____noSchoolattending_________________________________________________TribeAffiliation__________________________________________________ParentGuardianname_____________________________________________ParentGuardiantelephonehome_______________cell________________ParentGuardianemailaddress_______________________________________Studentsareaskedtowriteastatementinsupportofthisapplication.StudentsstatementWhyIshouldbeselectedtoattendWinterCampandwhatIhopetolearnApplicationDeadlineJan.12014IshpaagoonikaaDeepSnowCampLacduFlambeauWIFebruary892014Grades5-8CampScheduleCentralTimeZoneSaturdayFebruary81100PMOpeningCeremony1200PMLunch100PMCooperativeGames200PMOutdoorActivities500PMReturntoRecreationCenter-ClanWork600PMDinner700PMCulturalCraftingWinterCampTheater1030PMLightsoutSundayFebruary9800AMBreakfast900AMOutdoorActivities1200PMLunch100PMClosingCircle130PMBusesDepartBaamaPiiFormoreinformationcontactHeatherNaigus906458-3778orhnaigusglifwc.org.Sendelectronicapplicationtohnaigusglifwc.org.SendbymailHeatherNaigus253SilverCreekRd.MarquetteMI49855orGLIFWCcoHeatherNaigusP.O.Box9OdanahWI54861.GLIFWCWardenRebeccaOlsononherworkhorseusedtocheckiceshingandwintertrappingactivitiesinthecededterritories.Staffphoto MAZINAIGANPAGE16WINTER2013-2014BeteGriseMich.RespondingtoreportsfromsportfishermenwhohaveencounteredghostnetsintheMichiganwatersofLakeSuperiorGLIFWCwardensinvestigateandretrievelostnets.RelyingonGPScoordinatesprovidedbythepersonwhoreportedanetwardenssearchforthenetusingadraglineoverthegivencoordinates.ThereportshaveoccurredprimarilyintheMarquetteareaoraroundtheKeweenawPeninsula.In2013investigationsofsevenreportsyieldedfournetswithatotalof5000feetofnetremoved.Thenetsareestimatedtobeabouttwotothreeyearsoldac-cordingtoGLIFWCChiefofEnforcementFredMaulson.Maulsonsaysthenetscontainedfewfishwhichwerepredominantlysuckers.GLIFWCWardensDanNorthSteveAmslerandMattKniskernparticipatedinthesearchandretrievaleffortsthisyear.Theincidentsoflostnetsarecurrentlyunderinvestigation.Maulsonencouragesbothtribalandnon-tribalfishermentoreportlostnetsalongwithlocationinformation.GLIFWCwillcontinuetomakeeveryefforttoretrieveghostnets.LostnetreportscanbecalledintoGLIFWCat715682-6619.GLIFWCisestablishingareportingsystemontheGLIFWCwebsiteatwww.glifwc.orgwhichshouldbeoperationalbytheendoftheyear.ENFORCEMENTGLIFWCwardensretrievelostnetsfromLakeSuperiorBySueEricksonStaffWriter20132014GLIFWCenforcementyouthactivitieseducationAlldatesaretentativeandsubjecttochange.Forupdatedinformationontheseeventsandotherspleasebesuretocheckourwebsiteatwww.glifwc.orgvisitusonFacebookorcallyournearestGLIFWCwarden.ClipSaveClassDatePlaceContactATVSafetyNovember29-302013MilleLacsRobinArunagiri715.889.0734SnowmobileDecember6-72013MilleLacsRobinArunagiri715.889.0734ATVSnowmobileDec.7-82013St.CroixBradKacizak715.562.0030ATVSnowmobileDec.14-152013LacCourteOreillesMikePopovich715.292.7535LaurenTuori715.292.8343SnowmobileFebruary47-82014RedCliffMikeSoulier715.209.0093JimStone715.292.3234LearntotrapFebruary22-232014LacCourteOreillesMikePopovich715.292.7535LaurenTuori715.292.8343BoaterSafetyMay10-112014LacCourteOreillesMikePopovich715.292.7535LaurenTuori715.292.8343BoaterSafetyMay1921-232014St.CroixBradKacizak715.562.0030ATVSafetyJune9122014RedCliffMikeSoulier715.209.0093JimStone715.292.3234TakeakidfishingAugust2014MilleLacsRobinArunagiri715.889.0734HunterSafetyAugust18-192014RedCliffMikeSoulier715.209.0093JimStone715.292.3234HunterSafetySeptember5-62014MilleLacsRobinArunagiri715.889.0734HunterSafetySeptember810121517192014StCroixBradKacizak715.562.0030HunterSafetySept.27-282014LacCourteOreillesMikePopovich715.292.7535LaurenTuori715.292.8343ATVSnowmobileOctober689102014St.CroixBradKacizak715.562.0030ATVSnowmobileDecember6-72014LacCourteOreillesMikePopovich715.292.7535LaurenTuori715.292.8343GLIFWCWardenDanNorthhaulsupaghostnetaboardGLIFWCenforcementvesseltheMizhakwad.PhotobyMattKniskernInsetphotoGLIFWCWardensMattKniskernpicturedandSteveAmsleralsoparticipatedinnetretrievalsintheMichiganwatersofLakeSuperior.NetsarelocatedusingadraglineovertheGPScoordinates.PhotobyDanNorthManoominikeharvestingwildriceisanintergenerationalpursuit.JudySmithawatchfulelderobservesasBreannaJondreaulearnstoparchriceatthe2013WildRiceCampsponsoredbytheKeweenawBayIndianCommunity.BesideslearningthebasicsofprocessingricefromLacVieuxDesertsRogerLaBinethetwo-daycampincludedmakingriceknockersandpushpolesplusinstructiononusingpushpoles.GLIFWCwardensassistedLaBineinteach-ingcanoesafetypriortoparticipantsheadingouttothericeelds.Daytwoin-cludedparchingconstructionanduseofajiggingpitwinnowingandnallycleaningandsortingthenishedmanoomin.PhotobyHeatherNaigusGLIFWCEnforcementassistsMenomineewithdrugbustsecurityFollowinganinvestigationandbustofamarijuanagrowsiteontheMenomi-neereservationthissummersixGLIFWCofficersassistedwithsecurityduringtheclean-upatthesitewithintheMenomineeforest.About900marijuanaplantsworthanestimated1.35millionweredestroyedaftersufficientevidencehadbeengatheredatthesiteforlegalproceedingsac-cordingtoGLIFWCEnforcementChiefFredMaulson.GLIFWCworksinassociationwiththeNativeAmericanGangTaskForcewhichhadbeenaskedbyMenomineetoassistwiththeoperationthatresultedinonearrestandonedeportationofaMexicannational.Duringamid-AugustsitedestructionGLIFWCofficerssecuredthesitewhileMenomineeForestrydetailpulledandburnedtheremainingplants.SueErickson PAGE17MAZINAIGANWINTER2013-2014ENFORCEMENTWaterfowlschoolteachesbirdi.d.AlsobuildsrelationshipsLieutenantEddieGuyercentersharedculturalinformationwithGLIFWCOfcerHeatherNaigusleftandGLIFWCEnforcementChiefFredMaulsonduringatouroftheHoopaValleyIndianCommunitywhiletheywereonwildredutyinCaliforniasHumboldtCountylastsummer.PhotosubmittedImmaturefemalemallardwithunedgedconverts.Adultmalemallardordrake.ByTerryCarrickGLIFWCEasternDistrictWardenGLIFWCenforcementbenefitsfromDOJgrantsFredMaulson.OdanahWis.GLIFWCsEn-forcementDivisiongotahealthyboosttoitsprogramwithagrantawardfromtheDepartmentofJusticethisfall.WehavereceivedseveralofthesegrantsinthepaststatesGLIFWCsChiefofEnforcementFredMaulson.Theyhavehelpedustremendouslyespeciallyintheareasoftechnologyequipmentprocurementandadvancedtrainingtomonitoroff-reservationharvestinginthecededterritories.GLIFWCwasamongnumerousrecipientsoffederalgrantsfromtheDepartmentofJusticesCoordinatedTribalAssistanceSolicitationCTASfortribal-specificgrantprograms.TribesintheWesternDistrictofWisconsinwereawarded2.8millioninassistancefortribalpreventionandlawenforcementeffortsaswellasservicestovictimsandyouthprograms.Atotalof90millionwasawardednationallyto110AmericanIndiantribesAlaskaNativevillagestribalconsortiaandtribaldesignatednon-profits.GLIFWCsEnforcementDivisionreceived348095forpublicsafetyandCommunityOrientedPolicingCOPSactivities.Maulsonsaysthecurrentgrantwillhelpsupportapositionforayouthoutreachofficerwintersurvivaltrainingandequipmentupgradessuchasthermo-imagingcamerasnightvisiongearaswellassomeneededATVsnowmobileandinlandboatreplacements.ThenewpositionforyouthoutreachofficerisdesignedspecificallytoreachNativeyouthfrommembertribeswholiveonorofftheirreservationsandin-volvetheminoutdoorhuntingfishingandgatheringactivities.EssentiallyweteachNativekidsabouttheirtreatyrightsaswellasintroducethemtotheskillstheyneedtoexercisethoserightsinthefutureMaulsonsays.Maulsonexpectstoinvitecounter-partsfromstateandcountyenforcementtoparticipatewhenthewintersurvivaltrainingtakesplace.Itispartofaspiritofcooperation.Whenourenforcementcapabilitiesareenhancedsurroundingcommunitiesalsobenefit.GLIFWCofficersparticipateinnumerousenforce-mentactivitieswithotheragenciessuchassearchandrescuecoldwaterrescueanddrugbustshesays.OthergrantrecipientsincludedGLIFWCmembertribesLacCourteOreillesLacduFlambeauRedCliffandSt.CroixfortheirCOPSprograms.SueEricksonGLIFWCintheHoopaValleyHumboldtCountyCalif.Duringthe2013wildlandfireseasonGLIFWClawenforcementofficerswereonceagaincalledtohelpprovidesecurityassummerfiresragedinnorthernCalifornia.TheCorralComplexFirebroughtfourGLIFWCofficerstoHumboldtCountywheretheypartneredwiththeHoopaValleyIndianCommunitytoprovideprotectionforitsmembers.Duringtheirthree-weekstintoffiredutyGLIFWCofficerswerealsotreatedtoatasteofHoopaculture.WearehappytohaveGLIFWConourland.Theyaregreatatunderstandingourpeopleandourways.TheyworkwellwithourcommunitywhilewebattlethethreatofthisfirestatedHoopaValleyPoliceLieutenantandmemberEddieGuyer.Thefireblazedthrough12500acresbeforeitwasextinguished.ThesecuritydetailhadGLIFWCOfficerHeatherNaigusmanagingasecuritystaffof45.Thelargedetailwasrequiredduetosensitiveareasinvolvingmarijuanagrowsanddrugcartelactivityaddinganotherformofdangerbeyondthefireitself.Off-dutyGuyerinvitedChiefFredMaulsonandNaigustotourtheirtraditionalgroundsandtheLittleHouseswherespiritualceremoniesareheld.PictureswereallowedoftheoutsideofLittleHousesbutnotoftheinsideortheBrushDancePit.HealsosharedstoriesaboutHoopatraditions.LocatedinavalleysurroundedbytheKlamathMountainsinHumboldtCountytheHoopaValleyIndianTribeisoneoftheonlyareatribesnotrelocated.Theydonotholdpowwowsbutstillpracticethetraditionaldanceceremoniesfromtheirancestors.OnesuchceremonywastakingplaceatthetimeofthefirecalledtheCeremonyoftheWhiteDeerSkinDance.ThisceremonyheldonceeverytwoyearsisdancedfortherenewaloftheEarthandfeaturesaBoatDance.ThemenofthecommunitydanceindugoutredwoodcanoeswhilefloatingdowntheTrinityRiverthatrunsthroughthevalleystoppingatsevendifferentcampsalongtheway.GLIFWCofficerswereinvitedtowitnessthisspecialeventnotnormallyviewedbynon-residentsofHoopaValley.GuyeralsoenlightenedGLIFWCOfficersontheHoopabeliefoftheoldmanonthemountaincommonlycalledBigfootbyothers.Webelieveinhimbutwedontlookathim.IfyoudoitissaidyouwillgocrazyGuyerexplained.AnotherbeliefoftheHoopaValleyTribeinvolvestheLittlePeoplewhocaredfortheirmountains.Guyerexplainedhowtheywouldtakecareofhumanvisitorsonthemountainiftobaccoorcandywasleftforthem.Naigusmadesurethatallhersecuritystaffworkingonthemountainbroughtalongcandytoputout.GLIFWCLawEnforcementisthankfultotheHoopaValleyIndianCommunityfortheirhospitalityandforsharingtheirculture.Chi-MiigwechGLIFWCstaffMayvilleWis.DidyouknowthatmigratorybirdsareoneoftheleastsoughtafterresourcesbytribalmembersinthecededterritoryYetitisoneofthemostplentifulwehaveavailabletous.ThisOctoberIattendedWisconsinDepartmentofNaturalResourcesWaterfowlSchoolalsoknownasDuckSchoolinMayvilleWisconsinwithaclassofnewWisconsinstategamewardenrecruits.TherewereseveralwardensfromallacrossthestatelearningspeciesidentificationfederalmigratorybirdregulationsandmakingobservationsattheHoriconNationalWildlifeRefugeNWR.Speciesidentifica-tioninvolvedinformationonninedifferentpuddleducksoneswhichprefertotipinthewaterwithtailintheairandeatvegeta-tionandfifteendifferentdiverducksthatwilldiveforfoodwhichmayin-cludefish.Identificationwastaughtprimarilywithjustthewingofthebirdwhichisrequiredwingorheadtobeattachedtothebirdduringtrans-portation.Agoodtipforaharvestertokeepinmindisthatalthoughthedrakeofmostspeciesismorecolorfulthanthehenearlyintheseasonhemaynothavehisfullcoloringmakingithardtoidentifythesex.Agoodexampleisthemallardwhichisfoundthroughoutthecededterritory.Ifthedrakehasnotmaturedincoloringonecanlookatthewingforidentification.Thepicturesaboveshowtheblue-coloredareainthelowermiddleofthewingcalledthespeculum.Thewhitelinesabovetheblueonadrakewillstopneartheendofthebluefeathersonthehenthewhitewillextendbeyondtheblueandintothenextsetoffeathersortertials.ThroughouttheweekwemadeseveraltripstotheHoriconNWRwherethousandsofbirdswerepresenttopracticeon-the-wingflyingidentification.Scenariosweresetupforthelastdayoftraining.Howevertornadowarningsthenightbeforecoupledwithheavymorningraincutthedayshortandrecruitswereonlyabletoparticipateinafewsessions.Ihavebeeninvolvedwiththisrecruitclassonandoffforthelastfewmonthsandhavegottentoknowseveralofthesenewwardens.Duringourtimetogethertheyshowedinterestinunderstandingtreatyrights.WeasharvestersmaysomedaymeetthesewardensoutinthewoodsandIfeelconfidentthisgroupwilltreattribalmembersandnon-membersalikewithrespectandfairness. MAZINAIGANPAGE18WINTER2013-2014CULTURALInnaturesclassroomKidslearnlanguageOjibweartsandskillsWatersmeetMich.LacVieuxDesertsLVDSummerCultureCampopenedwithaprayerandatalkinourOjibwelanguageasmigiziseemedtositinmid-airandwatchwhatweweredoing.BeginningMondayAugust21standendingonAugust23rdLVDyouthandfamiliesengagedinathree-daycampwheretheycouldspeakandlearnOjibwelanguageaswellasotherculturalandtraditionalartforms.Drawing44participantstogethertheeventtookplaceattheOldIndianVillageinWatersmeetMichigantheoriginalhomelandsandlocationofourOldVillage.AllpresentersLeonValliereWayneValliereandGregJohnsonallfromLacduFlambeauincorporatedOjibwemowinintoeverypresentation.Participantswereblessedwithlearningthesetraditionalartsfromlocaltalentedandaccom-plishedNativeAmericanartists.WorkshopsincludedLeonValliereOjibwelanguagedeerhidetanningGregJohnsonBirchbarkbasketsWayneValliereBuckskintobaccopouchesbonechokernecklacesWayneValliereTraditionalgamesWaabanookweandKenLaRockCanningvenisonAtafeastonthefirstdayOjibwelanguageinstructorspeakerLeonVallieregavethetalkforthefoodandforthedayscampinourlanguagebutthenexplainedtotheparticipantswhathesaidsotheycouldunderstand.WayneVallieremadetobaccopouchesandbonechokernecklaceswhiletellingOjibwestoriesduringtheclasses.Healsohostedanarrayoftraditionalgamesforthechildrenandyouthwiththechildrenreallyenjoyingthespearthrowinggame.GregJohnsoninstructedthebirchbarkbasketandbirchbarkmedallionclasses.ToseethesmilesonthefacesofthosewhofinishedamedallionthattheydesignedandetchedwaspricelessLeonVallieretannedtwohideswiththeparticipantsandsmokedthehidesaftertheprocesswascompleted.Theyouthwereveryeagertolearnthisaswellasseveraloldercommunityparticipantswhorememberedwatchingtheirgrand-parentstanninghideswhentheywerelittle.WaabanookweLaRockLacVieuxDesertOjibweandKenLaRockLacCourteOreillesOjibweprocessedcutupandcanned106quartsofwaawaashkeshi.Eachparticipantwastreatedwithaquartofvenisontotakehomeandsharewithfamily.TheparticipantsweretrulyblessedwiththisbeautifulsettingatKetegitigaan-inglakesideandthereseemedtoalwaysbeaconstantpresenceofmigizi.Anotherwonderfulthingwasthatcellphonesdidntworkoutthere.Wewereawayfrommanyofmoderntechnologysgadgetswithveryfewdistractionswhichmakestheinteractionssomeaningful.CampcoordinatorgiiweMartinexplainedwhyitissoimportanttohostthesecampsinanaturalsetting.WhilethechildrenarelearningthingsabouttheirOjibweculturetheteachingmethodwhichisanormalwayoflifefortheAnishinaabepeopleisallhands-on.Therearenobooksorpaperhandoutsorslidepresentationsorinternet.Itisinourveinstolearnthesethingsinournaturalsurroundingsandtheparticipantsaremoreinclinedtofeelcomfortableoutinnature.FarfromthemethodsofaclassroomsettingasweknowittodayandmuchmoreconducivetolearningweareblessedtobeoutsideandsurroundedwithnatureallgiftsfromtheCreator.TheneedtoreviveandstrengthenknowledgeoftheOjibwelanguageandcul-tureiscriticaltodayasourchildrenarenotlearningthesethingsintheclassroomunlessofcoursetheyareluckyenoughtoattendschoolswherethesethingsarebeingtaughtonaregularbasis.ThepresenterseldersandfamiliesattheCampformedrelationshipsthatwilllastlongafterthecampdaysaregone.WhenaskedayouthparticipanttoldtheproviderIneverdidanyofthesetypesofactivitybeforeandIamreallyhavingfunWhenisthenextcampImademyselfatobaccopouchandIlearnedwhatitisusedfor.IwillusetheoneImadeeveryday.Iwastaughtwhatthetobaccowasforinthepouchandthesignificanceofthismedicinethatweweregiven.Allofthesethingsarenewtome.ReflectingonthecampsexperiencegiiweMartincommentedItsaverycrucialpointintimerightnowasoureldersareleavingandtheknowledgetheycarrygoeswiththem.IalwaysaskmyselfWilltheyoungergenerationlearnthesethingsbeforeitistoolateWilltheylearnthestoriesandteachingsthataretobepasseddownorallyWilltheyknowenoughtokeepourceremoniesaliveThesearethefundamentalsofourOjibweidentitythatwecannotaffordtolose.Theanswerisitisbyandthroughtheseverythingswearedoingsuchasthesecampsandourlanguageprogramsandwithhelpfromoureldersthatyestheywill.Thatisanawesomefeeling.Knowingyouareplayingasmallpartinkeepingyourtraditionsaliveiswhatmakesmehappy.TheOjibwelanguagecantbetaughtinadayoraweekasexplainedbytheOjibweLanguageInstructorLeonVallierebuthestressestheimportancetotheparticipantstousethewordsthattheydoknoweverysingleday.Learnonewordatatimeandthenmaybe10.Youwillbeincreasingyourbaseinsmallwaysbutyoumustworkhardtolearnmoreandbecomespeakers.Ittakesdedicationandhardworktolearnourlanguage.WhilethiscampisbehinduswearelookingforwardtoourWinterCampthatwillpickupwherethisoneleftoff.Submittedarticleandrhizomesandnotbyseed.HoweverthepresenceofseveralsmallphragmitespopulationsonlandinthevicintiyofWWTPsusingreedbedtechnologystronglysuggeststhatviableseedsaremovingoff-siteviawindcontaminatedequipmentandATVsusingadjacenttrails.Recentstudieshavedemonstratedthatseedviabilityisdirectlyrelatedtosoilnutrients.Sewagesludgewouldqualifyasahighnutrientsubstrateandthusahighrateofseedviabilitywouldbeexpectedfromphragmitesgrowinginthesesites.Therearecurrently17WWTPsinWisconsinthatutilizereedbedtechnologyandtwomorecommunitiesareconsideringtheiruseAbbotsfordandtheVillageofRidgeway.ThepermitconditionsfortheuseofreedbedswasinitiallydevelopedtopreventthespreadofrootsandrhizomesfromWWTPs.InlightofrecentfindingsstatepermitguidanceisbeingrevisedbyWDNRtoaddressthespreadofseedsaswellasrootsandrhizomes.TheRedCliffcommunityisalreadyreviewingwaystomitigateseeddispersalandoralternativetechnologytoreplacetheuseofreedbedsattheirwastewaterfacility.SimilardiscussionshavestartedwiththeBayfieldCountyAquaticInvasiveSpeciesAIScommitteetoaddressconcernsattheWashburnandBayfieldwastewatertreatmentfacilities.InadditiontothethreatsposedtoChequamegonBayinlandwaterscouldalsobeatrisk.Manoominwatersareofspecialconcernbecausephragmitesthrivesinthesamewetmuckyhabitatswherema-noominabounds.GLIFWCstaffwillbeprioritizingthedetectionofphragmitesinfutureAISsurveys.Untilrecentlythenativeandnon-nativephrag-miteswereconsideredonespecies.Asaresultmuchoftheexistingdataonphragmitesdistributionisnotclearaboutwhichsubspeciesisactuallypresent.GLIFWCstaffhavebegunworkingwithWDNRandcountyAIScoordinatorstoground-truththesesitestodetermineiftheyarethenativeornon-nativesubspeciesandcoordinateappropriatemanagementresponses.Thefollowingwebsitesprovideadditionalinformationtoidentifyanddistinguishbetweenthenativeandnon-nativesubspeciesofphragmitesaswellasnaturalhistoryandmanagementinformationhttpgreatlakesphragmites.nethttpmnfi.anr.msu.eduphragmitesnative-or-not.cfmhttpdnr.wi.govtopicinvasivesfactphragmites.htmlPhragmiteslocationscanbereportedtoMilesFalckatGLIFWC715682-6619extension2124ormilesglifwc.org.Distributionofnon-nativephragmitesandwastewatertreatmentfacilitiesusingreedbedtechnologytodewatersewagesludgearoundChequamegonBayinnorthernWisconsin.MapbyDaraOlsonPhragmitesinmanoominwatersaconcernContinuedfrompage1AngelSnowLacVieuxDesertdisplaysamedallionsheetchedatthecampwiththehelpofinstructorGregJohnson.PhotobygiiweMartin PAGE19MAZINAIGANWINTER2013-2014FORESTPESTSBALSAMsnowandrapidlymultiplyinthespringmeansthatifandwhentheyarrivetheywillalwaysbeathreattothesetwoconifers.ThestatesofMichiganandWisconsinhemlockbarelyreachesMinnesotawhereitisveryrarebothhavequarantinesonthemovementofinfestedhemlocknurserytreesboughslogsandothermaterialsintothestateandMichiganispreparingtoimplementaquarantineonfirtreematerialsfrominfestedareasaswell.Publiccooperationiscriticaltokeepingthecededterritoryfreeofthesedestructivepests.Thebenefitsofpublicawarenessandearlydetec-tionwereillustratedwhenthehemlockwoollyadelgidHWArecentlyshowedupatseveralsitesinLowerMichigan.TheadelgidarrivedoninfestednurserytreesthathadbeenshippedfromtheeasternUS.OneinfestationwascaughtbyaMichigannurseryinspec-torandseveralotherswerereportedbylocalcitizens.PromptactionwastakenandMichiganofficialsnowbelievetheseinfestationshavebeeneradicated.BeechscaleandbeechbarkdiseaseAnotheraphidrelativethebeechscalehasnowinvadedMichiganandWisconsin.SpreadofthisEuropeaninsecthasbeenlinkedtothemovementoffirewoodbycampers.ThebeechscalepiercestheouterbarkofAmericanbeechFagusgrandifoliaAzhaawemizhiigtofeedonthesapslightlydamagingthebarkintheprocess.Thisallowsentrybyoneormorefungithatcausebeechbarkdisease.Beechbarkdiseasekillsthetrunks.Inresponsetherootssendupnumeroussuckerscreatingbeechthickets.ThebeechbarkscalehasnowspreadalmostasfarwestastherangeofAmericanbeechincentralUpperMichiganandeasternWisconsin.Thegoodnewsisthatabout1-2ofthebeechtreesappeartohavesignificantresistancetothebeechscaleinfestationandasmallpercentageofthemmaybecompletelyimmune.ThustheAmericanbeechisdownbutdefinitelynotout.Forestrypracticescanplayamajorroleinpromotingtheeventualrecoveryofbeechbyleavingresistanttreesinthewoods.BirchdeclineBirchdeclineisofgreatconcerntotribalmembersinpartbecauseofthegreatimportanceofbirchtreesandbirchbarktoOjibweculture.Changesinlandusepracticesandforestmanagementappeartobeprimar-ilyresponsibleforthedecreaseinwhitebirchBetulapapyriferawiigwaasatiginthecededterritory.Thesechangesincludefiresuppressionandexcessiveloggingofbirch.Whitebirchisafairlyshort-livedtreeandstandsthatwereinitiated60-75yearsagomaydeclinesimplyduetooldage.Whitebirchisalsosensitivetoelevatedsoiltemperaturesanddroughtconditionsthatawarmingclimatewillonlymakeworse.WhitebirchandmostothernativebirchspeciesarehostsforacloserelativeoftheEABcalledthebronzebirchborer.Thisnativeinsectonlyattacksstressedanddyingbirchsowhileitmaycontributetobirchdeclineitisrarelytheprimarycause.ItattacksandkillshealthyEurasianbirchspeciesthoughsotheEuropeanUnioniswritingregulationstotryandpreventitfrombeingimportedintoEurope.ThecedarlonghornedbeetleThesmallJapanesecedarlonghornedbeetleJCLBfirstappearedontheAtlanticcoastoftheUSin1997.Itiswell-establishedinseveralcoastalstatesandwilllikelycontinuetospread.ItisapestorscavengerofconifersinthefamilyCupressaceaewhichinthecededterritoryincludesnorthernwhitecedarThujaoccidentalisgiizhikaandagcommonjuniperJuniperuscommunisandeasternredcedarJ.virginiana.SeveralstudieshavefoundthatexceptforstressednurseryandlandscapewhitecedartheJCLBhasonlybeenfoundtoemergefromdyingordeadwoodofsuitablespeciesinNorthAmerica.ItdoesnotuseanyotherNorthAmericanconifers.WhileitappearsthattheJCLBwillnotbecomeaseriouspestofjuniperandcedarinthecededterritoryitwouldbewisetofollowthesameprecautionsrecommendedtoavoidthespreadofotherforestpests.WheretheforestpestprojectisheadedfromhereThescientificreviewofthethreatposedbyin-troducedforestpestsisthefirstofthreereportstobeproducedduringthecourseofthisproject.BynextOctoberGLIFWCwillhavecompletedariskassess-mentintegratingTraditionalEcologicalKnowledgeTEKonashuseandashqualityneededforbasketswoodfuelharvestpatternsandtraditionaltribalmanagementanduseofbalsambirchmapleoakandperhapsotherspeciesaswell.Themaintake-homemessageisthatitisfareasiertokeepnon-nativeforestpestsfrombecomingestablishedthantodealwiththemaftertheyarehere.Peoplebroughtmostofthesepestsherefromoverseasandnowwaysmustbefoundtoreducetheireffects.Howfasttheyspreadandhowmuchdamagetheydodependsinlargepartonwhetherornotpeoplekeeptheireyespeeledforthesepestsobservequarantinesbanningorrestrictingthemovementofinfestedwoodboughsandotherplantmaterialoutofinfestedareasandobtainfirewoodclosetowheretheyburnit.buyerhoweveritisonlyeconomicaltotraveltotheclosestlocation.Thishasbeenandcontinuestobethegreatestchallengeforboughpickerseverywheregettingyourproducttothebuyerwhilestillmakingaprofit.ForMartyandJRtheyhavebeendevelopingtheirbuyersellerrelationshipforyearsthroughprovidingahighqualityproductinatimelyfashion.Whenwepulluptheywillmoveustothefrontofthelinetheywillbuyatahigherandmoreconstantpricefromustheycallusfirstwhentheseasonopensandcallustogooutlongeriftheirorderisntfilled.Thisisjustoneexampleoftherelationshipstheyhavebuiltandmaintainedovertheirmanyyears.Asanessentialsupplementtotheharvestersincometheycantimaginehavingayearwithoutaboughseasonandtheyrelyonthebalsamresource.AlongwithincometheboughsprovideMartyandJRhavebothsaidthattheiryearsofharvestinghaveprovidedthemwithalifetimeofexperiencesandstoriesonlytheforestcanprovide.Theyhavebeenapproachedbybearswolvesandotherwildlifebuttheysaytherehasneverbeenasenseofthreatandtherehasneverbeenaproblem.Thetwohavesomuchexperi-enceandknowledgetosharetheyarehopingtoonedaypassthesetraditionsontothenextgeneration.PaulaCarricklearnedbalsamboughharvestingfromhermotherAgnesCarrickaBayMillstribalmemberandamotherof14.Agneswasanactivegathererofmanyforestproductsthroughoutherlifetimesheusedtheforestsandwildplantsasasourceofincomefamilyqualitytimeandeducationtopassalongtraditionsthroughfirsthandteachings.Amongthevariouswildplantssheharvestedintheearlywintermonthsbalsamboughswereessential.AsachildPaularemembersdaysspentwithherfamilyinthewoodstohar-vestbalsamboughs.Theyweretaughtfirstandforemosttorespectthetree.Theysoughtoutthematurebalsamtreestoharvestandfromdifferentareaseachseason.Byallowingatleasttwoyearsbetweenharvestingthesametreeyougivethetreeachancetoregenerate.Paulasaysitwasalwaysfuntohavethefamilytogetherandinthewoodssharingstoriesandmemoriesbutbalsamharvestingisalsoalotofwork.Boughsremovedfromtreeswerestackedboundandtossedovertheshoulderandre-movedfromthewoods.Agneswouldusetheboughstomakesomewreathsbutthemajorityweretiedwithtwineandsoldin20poundbundles.Theincomefromsell-ingwreathsandboughswouldsupple-mentthefamilybudgetinvariouswaysthroughouttheyear.ThreeyearsagoAgneswalkedonasagrandmotherto64agreatgrand-motherto104andagreatgreatgrand-mothertoone.Herteachingsarebeingcarriedonthroughthefamilywhowillstillharvestboughsandcreateuniqueholidaywreaths.WhenaskedaboutthetraditionsandteachingsfutureharvestersPaulaagainexpressedhowimportantitistoteachrespectfortheresourceswehavedonotover-harvestitanddonotharmit.ZhingobaandagcontinuedContinuedfrompage7ForestsunderthreatContinuedfrompage11Swellinggoutingandneedlelosscausedbythebalsamwoollyadelgid.Theinsectssecretewaxylamentsresemblingcotton.LaddLivingstonIdahoDepartmentofLandsBugwood.orgBeechbarkscaledistributionintheUS.SeveralfungithatcausebeechdiseasearewidelyestablishedineasternNorthAmerica.USForestServiceForestHealthProtectionandpartnershttpforesthealth.fs.usda.govportalFlexAPEThenativebronzebirchboreracloserelativeoftheEABgenerallyonlyusesstressedanddyingbirchtrees.AdultJCLBsare14to12inch6-14mmlong.Theyemergeinearlyspringtostartanewgeneration.ConnecticutAgriculturalExperimentStationBugwood.org MAZINAIGANPAGE20WINTER2013-2014KIDSPAGE PAGE21MAZINAIGANWINTER2013-2014DoublevowelsystemofwritingOjibwemowin.LongvowelsAAEIIOOWaaboozasinfatherMiigwechasinjayAaniinasinseenMoozasinmoonShortVowelsAIODashasinaboutIngiwasintinNiizhoasinonlyAglottalstopisavoicelessnasalsoundasinAaw.Respectfullyenlistanelderforhelpinpronunciationanddialectdifferences.Down1.Itiswinter.2.later3.outside4.women8.somethingAcross5.men6.Shegoes.7.Basketbox9.also-waado--aawaano--aawaa-wag-igowaadVerbInectionscont.-B-formConjunctsVAIrootdakobijige.Shetiesbinds.AaniindekobijigewaadjiimaaningWhataretheytyingonthecanoeVTIrootdakobidoonTieitAandidekobidoowaadiiwmakakWherearetheytyingitthatboxVTArootdakobizhAandidekobizhigowaadingiwzenibaayagWherearetheytyingthemthoseribbonsWhowhatwherewhytypequestionsuseb-formgrammar.GoojitoonTryitTranslationbelow.IKIDOWINODAMINOWINwordplayTranslationsNiizh2A.Itiscoldoutside.Itisvery-windyalsoandwearecold.B.Itdid-rainyesterday.Itdid-snowthedaybeforeyesterdayagainalso.C.Onthelakeitisfreezingover.Theydidleavethoseducks.D.Aswinterapproachestheycutrewood.Drywoodpiecestheycutthemforrewood.E.Theycutrewoodforhimmygrandpafaroffoverthereinthewoods.F.Theymakethings.Theybuilditahouse.Theybuildhimheradrum.G.Latertheywillbringtherewoodinsideandtheywillbuildare.Niswi3Down1.biboon2.baanimaa3.megwaayaak4.Ikwewag8.gegooAcross5.Ininiwag6.Izhaa7.makak9.gayeNiiwin-41.Wherewill-theybegoingtomorrow-waad.2.Theyhelpandtheysmile.-wag.3.Wheredid-theybringthemthosebabybeaversigowaad.4.Thewomentheydid-seeitthatshoeinthesleepingroombedroomyesterday.o--aawaa.5.Mymotherandmyfathertheywantto-seehimherthatbearinthedentomorrow.o--aawaanTherearevariousOjibwedialectscheckforcorrectusageinyourarea.NotethattheEnglishtranslationwillloseitsnaturalflowasinanyworldlanguagetranslation.Thismaybereproducedforclassroomuseonly.Allotherusesbyauthorswrittenpermission.SomespellingsandtranslationsfromTheConciseDictionaryofMinnesotaOjibwebyJohnD.NicholsandEarlNyholm.AllinquiriescanbemadetoMAZINAIGANP.O.Box9OdanahWI54861lynnglifwc.org.Niizh2Bezhig1OJIBWEMOWINOjibweLanguageNiiwin4Niswi35214Verbs3BiboongWhenitisWinterCirclethe10underlinedOjibwewordsinthelettermaze.TranslationsbelowBiboongManidoo-GiizisoonsidashGichi-Manidoo-GiizisidashNamebini-Giizisongowgiizisoonizhinikaazowag.Biboongniwii-kopigoziminmegwaayaak.Giikiiyosewagininiwag.Gii-aagimikewaggaye.Gakinagegoogii-nitaawigwaasowagingiwikwewag.Gii-mazinigwaasowag.Gii-tibaajimowagidashgii-aadizookewag.Gii-zhooshkwajiwewagingiwabinoojiiyag.Gii-kagwejikanidiwaggii-aagimosewaad.Geyaabinaasaabniwiikwajitoominnoongom.Gichi-MiigwechWhenitiswinterLittleSpirit-MoonDecemberandGreat-Spirit-MoonJanuaryandSucker-MoonFebruarythesemoonsmonthstheyarecalled.Whenitiswinterwedidmoveinlandinthewoods.Theyhuntedthemen.Theymadesnowshoesalso.Everythingtheyknewhowtosewthosewomen.Theydidbeadingembroidering.Theytoldstoriesandtheytoldsacredstories.Theywentslidingthosechildren.Theyracedeachotherwhentheysnowshoed.Stillyetthesamewetrytodothingstoday.Great-thank-youOIAGHWAASAAIZSIESDNHSADITINKAAGSKOIANAJSAIEIODNWHBHYGBIJIINAAGOENMISNBAANIMAAJIBMANISEWAGGZHIISHIIBAGA.Gisinaaagwajiing.Gichi-noodingayedashningiikajiminB.Gii-kimiwanbijiinaago.Gii-soogiponawasonaagomiinawaa.C.Zaagaiganinggashkadin.Gii-maajaawagingiwzhiishiibag.D.Ani-biboongmanisewag.Mishiiwaatigoonomanisaadaanaawaan.E.Omanisawaawaannimishoomiswaasaiwidimegwaayaak.F.Ozhichigewag.Odoozhitoonaawaawaakaaigan.Odoozhitawaawaandeweiganan.G.Baanimaawii-piindigenisewagidashwii-boodawewag.7481.Aandiwaa-izhaa_____waabang2.Wiidookaage_____idashzhoomiingweni____.3.Aaniindigaa-biin_____iniwamikoonsan4.Ikwewag_____gii-waabandaan_____iiwmakizinnibaawigamigongbijiinaago.5.Nimaamaadashnindede_____wii-waabam_____iiwmakwanwaazhaangwaabang.6RootVerbTheyVAIverbanimateintransitive.RootcommandWaabiShesees.Waabiwag.Theysee.VAIHeSheverbtakesnoobject.VTIverbtransitiveinanimate.RootWaabandanSeeitOwaabandaanaawaan.Theyseeitthem.Owaabandaanaawaaniniwapabiwinan.Theyseeemthosechairs.VTA-verbtransitiveanimate.RootWaabamSeehimherOwaabamaawaaniiwamikwan.Theyseehhthatbeaver.9OnlineResourcesojibwe.lib.umn.eduwww.umich.eduojibwewww.glifwc.orgOJIBWEMOWIN MAZINAIGANPAGE22WINTER2013-2014SELF-DETERMINATIONGICHIGAMIThewell-beingofGichigamisbiodiversityscrutinizedDetailedassessmentsprovidesignificantdataByJenVanatorGLIFWCGreatLakesProgramCoord.Withreservationandceded-terri-torylandslocatedthroughouttheLakeSuperiorbasinTribalgovernmentsandFirstNationsarekeymanagersofLakeSuperiorplayingwideandactiverolesinbinationalcoordinationandmanage-ment.WithinthisframeworkstafffromGLIFWCactasco-chairoftheHabitatandWildlifeCommitteestakingalead-ingroleinthedevelopmentofboththeAssessmentandtheStrategy.TheHabitatandWildlifeCommit-teesoftheLakeSuperiorWorkgroupoftheBinationalProgramtoRestoreandProtectLakeSuperiorincoordinationwiththeNatureConservancyofCanadarecentlycompletedthetwo-volumeABiodiversityConservationAssessmentforLakeSuperior.VolumeIprovidesanassessmentofbiodiversitythroughouttheopenwatersofLakeSuperioranditsislandscoastalareasandthewatershedsoftributar-iesthecurrentstatusofbiodiversitytargetspotentialthreatstobiodiversityandthestrengthofeachthreat.VolumeIIprovidesthesameassessmentbrokendowninto20regionalsummariestoal-lowamorefocusedanalysis.ThebiodiversityassessmentisthefirststepintheCommitteesworktodevelopanewLakeSuperiorBio-diversityConservationStrategy.OncecompletedthisConservationStrategywillfulfillanobligationofthenewGreatLakesWaterQualityAgreementGLWQAandprovideenvironmen-talmanagerswithanimportanttooltoguidemanagementdecisionsregardingbiodiversityconservation.TheGLWQArequiresthattheStrategybecompletedbyFebruaryof2015.ThefederalgovernmentsoftheUnitedStatesandCanadaalongwithTribalStateandlocalgovernmentshavepartneredtogetherineffortstoconserveandrestoreLakeSuperiorsbiodiversityforovertwentyyears.ProtectingandrestoringbiodiversityisimportanttotheoverallhealthofLakeSuperioreachspeciesinthebasinplaysanimportantroleinkeepingtheecosystemrunningsmoothly.Biodiversityisevenmoreimportantinthefaceofclimatechangeandincreasinglyfrequentlarge-scaleweatherevents.Ahealthyanddiverseecosystemismoreabletoadapttoandrecoverfromsuchevents.BothvolumesofthebiodiversityassessmentcanbefoundontheNatureConservancyofCanadaswebsitewww.natureconservancy.caen.Livingtraditionallifequestforself-determinationisinternationalVisitorsfromJapanandPerucounselwithTribesGLIFWCstaffByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffWriterMoleLakeWis.Theconnectionregisteredallalongtheu-shapedtablethroughknowingsmilesandgrim-facednods.The10-personVoigtIntertribalTaskForcemostwitnesstothetroubleddecadesofagenerationagolistenedcloselytothefortunesoftraditionalhuntersinJapantheMatagiandAinupeople.ThenationalgovernmentimposesunilateralregulationswhichoftendoesnotworkwellwithtraditionalhunterssaidMistuTakahashiUniversityofToyomaProfessorofLaw.Theycanreceivefinesandthereareforfeitures.Itsabigproblem.FortheTaskForcerepresentativesandothersintheroomitwasapagetornfromGreatLakesOjibwehistorybooks.IfyoureunderthejurisdictionofthestatetheywantyoutofollowtheirhuntingandfishingrulessaidFredDakotaKeweenawBayIndianCommunity.Itsonlyrecentlythatwevegainedourrightsagain.Mitsuandhisthreecompanionsprofessionalsincultureandwildlifeman-agementtraveledtonorthernWisconsininearlyOctobertobetterunderstandthetreatyrightsexperienceofOjibwepeople.ItsthesecondtripforMitsuinthreeyearstomeetwithGLIFWCrepresentativesandstaff.NewvisitorsincludedDr.GoheiUedaDr.IppeiEbiharaandProf.HiromiTaguchianexperiencedtrapperbearhunterandanthropologist.Japanishometobothblackandbrownbearswildboarandsikadeer.HiromisaidasalientpointofdisconnectisthattheJapanesegovernmentviewshuntingasasportandaprivilege.TheAinuandMatagiwhoresideinnorthernmostJapanapproachhuntingasaceremonialrightpartofalifewayrootedcenturiesbeforetheriseofmodernJapan.Intraditionalhuntingcommunitiesthereareceremoniesespeciallywhenyoushootbiggamelikebear.ThereisaceremonysendingthebearsspirittotheMountainGodandaskingherforthebeartocomebackagainsaidHiromithroughMitsuwhoservedasinterpreterforthegroup.TraditionalpeopleinJapanusesakeasyouusetobaccoduringceremonies.Sakiscommonlyknownasricewine.AnumberofAinuhavechallengedthegovernmentincourttorecovertheirancestrallandincludingfishingandhuntinggroundsbuthavebeenunsuccessfulinswayingthegovernmentjudiciaryMitsusaid.ThepriceAinupayforfollowingancientharvestguidelinescanbehighandincludejailtime.Basicallyourguncontrolregulationisveryverystrict.OnceyougetcaughtinviolationofnationalgamelawsyourenevergoingtobeabletogetagunagainMitsusaid.WhiletheAinuremaininadifficultpositionMitsusaidthereareafewpositivedevelopmentsthatofferobserverssomehope.TheJapanesegovernmentpassedaresolutiontodiscontinueassimilationpoliciesthinkearly20thCenturyboardingschoolsinAmericaandnowrecognizeAinucultureasdistinctfromtherestofJapan.HiromicontinuesworkatorganizinganannualsummitoftraditionalhunterstostrategizeandpoolresourcesinsupportoftheAinulifeway.Thenumbersoftraditionalhuntersarenotthatmany.Informerdaysthereusedtobeafamilylineageofhunters.ThetrueoldreligioniskeptinsomeoftheseruralvillagesbutitsdyingoutMitsusaid.CeremonialbearfestivalsheldbytheMatagiandAinupeopleofJapanaredirectedtotheMountainGodthankingherforsuccessfulhuntingandaskingthatharvestedbearscomebackagain.Japanesefederallawsstructuredaroundsporthuntingareoftenatoddswiththeharvestguidelinesoftraditionalhunters.PhotobyMitsuTakahashiFirstpeopleofPerureturnDuringanotherinternationalvisitOctober4GLIFWCstaffhelddiscussionswithPerunativesonhowtobuildnaturalresourcesmanagementcapacitydrawingfrombothscienceandculture.IndigenousPeruviansincludingAmazonBandscontinuetoseekastrongervoiceinforestfisheriesandwildlifemanagementwithintheirhomelands.AtGLIFWCofficesthedelegationlearnedabouthowtribesandtribalorganizationsworkwithstateandfederalauthoritiestoco-managewildlifeforestresourcesandfisheries.ItistheseconddelegationfromPerutotourWisconsinreservationsincludingMenomineeRedCliffBadRiverunderaprogramsponsoredbytheUSForestServiceInternationalDivision.PerucontainsthesecondlargestareaofAmazonrainforestandhostsmorethan23000speciesofplantsandanimals.JapaneseanthropologistHiromiTaguchipresentsagiftofsakcommonlyknownasricewinetoMicIshamattheOctober10VoigtIntertribalTaskForceVITFinMoleLakeWis.SaidMitsuhikoTakahashileftTraditionalpeopleinJapanusesakasyouusetobaccoduringceremonies.AlsopicturedonfarleftVITFChairmanTomMaulson.PhotobyCharlieOttoRasmussen PAGE23MAZINAIGANWINTER2013-2014ADMINISTRATIONFORNATIVEAMERICANSTribalchefscompeteChoppedstylewithtraditionalfoodsLacCourteOreillesWis.GLIFWCsAdministrationforNativeAmericansANAMinoWiisinidaanutritionprojectstaffendedtheirsecondgrantyearinvolvingcookingdemon-strationswithahigh-energyeventonSeptember26atLacCourteOreillesLCOHighSchool.HostedbytheLCOOjibwaCollegeprojectstaffprovidedalltraditionalAnishinaabefoodsforaneventinspiredbytheFoodNetworktelevisionshowChopped.Thefirstyearofcookingdemon-strationsincludedsixGLIFWCmembertribesinMinnesotaandWisconsin.ThedemonstrationsillustratehoweasyitistoincludetraditionalAnishinaabefoodsinaneverydaysettingathome.ItalsogivespeopleachancetotastethefoodandseehowdeliciousitissaysLaTishaCoffinANAprojectcoordinator.Itsbeenaveryrewardingexpe-riencetohelptribalpeoplerediscoverhowhealthyandnutritioustraditionalfoodsareespeciallytribalyouthshecomments.AsofOctober1theMinoWiisini-daaprojectstaffbeganworkingwiththeremainingfiveGLIFWCmembertribesKeweenawBayBayMillsLacVieuxDesertLacduFlambeauandMoleLake.ThisuniqueLCOCollegeChoppedeventchallengedthreechef-teamstocreateappetizersentreesanddessertsoutofalltraditionalAnishinaabefoods.Eachteamhadtwochefs.Team1includedShannonNelsonandDawnQuadererTeam2includedBillyandLouiseRiderandTeam3includedKathieKerkelandToddBrier.Eachteamparticipatedinallthreeroundsandjudgeschosewinnersafterthedes-sertround.MysterybasketsforeachroundAppetizerroundWildOnionsRampBulbFrozenCranberriesTurkeyBreastCornmealDriedSweetFernEntreRoundVenisonLoinLakeSuperiorTroutFrozenBlueberriesSoakedWildRiceMushroomsDessertRoundPiePumpkinWildRiceFlourWalnutsMapleSyrupWintergreenWinnersThirdPlaceTeam2BillyandLouiseRiderSecondPlaceTeam1ShannonNelsonandDawnQuadererFirstPlaceTeam3KathieKerkelandToddBrierSomeofTeam3sdishesincludedsearedvenisonloinwithablueberryandwhitebalsamicreductionintheEntreRoundandawildriceflourpancakeintheDessertRound.TheMinoWiisinidaateamislookingforwardtofunandflavorwiththeirsecondyearofon-reservationcookingdemos.LookforacookingdemonstrationinyourcommunityTheprojectalsoalwayswelcomesrecipesusingtraditionalAnishinaabeingredients.RecipecontributedfromtheMinoWiisinidaaLetsEatGoodProjectMoleLakeLobsterOriginalconceptfromFrannyVanZileandFredAckleyJr.MoleLakePrepTime15minutesCookTime2minutesTotalTime17minutesServingSize4ouncesYield11Ingredients3poundswhitefishcleanedskinned1tablespoonsweetpaprikaground2tablespoonslemonjuiceabout1mediumlemon2tablespoonssunflowerseedoil2tablespoonssalt2teaspoonsblackpeppergroundDirections1.Cutfishinto2-ounceportionsabout4piecesperfillet.2.Inasmallbowlmixtogetherpaprikalemonjuiceandsunflowerseedoil.3.Seasonbothsidesofeachpieceoffishwithsaltandpepperthenliberallybrushwiththepaprikamixturemakingsuretocovereverypartofthefish.4.Letwhitefishrestinmarinadefor5minutes.5.Heatamediumnon-sticksautpanovermedium-highheat.6.Placefishportionsskinsideupandcookfor1minutethengentlyflipandcookfishforanadditionalminuteoruntilinteriorisopaquebutmoist.BoldIndigenousfoodsChefNotesWhitefishCoregonusclupeaformiswithmildsweetflavorisunlikeanyother.OnlyfoundintheGreatLakesregionitisaprizedcatch.Ifyoudonthaveaccesstowhitefishtrythisrecipewithanymildflavorfishjustadjustcookingtimeaccordingly.Donotover-crowdthepancookjust4portionsoffishatatimeandworkinbatches.StrappedfortimeThisrecipecanbedoneinthemicrowave.Placemarinatedfishonamicrowave-proofplateinasinglelayer.Cookfishonhighheatfor1minuteoruntilcookedthroughandopaquebutstillmoist.ByGLIFWCStaffLCOCollegeChoppedteamsincludedRighttoleftTeam1DawnQuadererandShannonNelson.Team3KathieKerkelandToddBrierFront.Team2LouiseRiderandBillyRider.PhotobyLaTishaCofnMelanieQuadererholdsdaughterLilyGallegoswhowassamplingsomeoftheplatesfromtheentreroundoftheChoppedevent.PhotobyLaTishaCofnTribesreceive400copiesofDibaajimowinanGLIFWCsAdministrationforNativeAmericansANAlanguagegrantcametoanendwiththedistributionof400copiesofDibaajimowinanAnishinaabeStoriesofCultureandRespecttoGLIFWCsmembertribes.DibaajimowinanpresentsthestoriesinboththeOjibweandEnglishlanguageandalsoincludesanMP3formattedlanguageCD.ReceivingbooksonbehalfoftheBayMillsIndianCommunityPaulaCarricktribalhistorydepartmentMichelleTeepleBayMillsCommunityCollegeBuckoTeepleExecutiveCouncilandLisaOgahistorydepartmentassistant.PhotobyWesleyBallinger SusanErickson..............................EditorLynnPlucinski..............................AssistantEditorCharlieOttoRasmussen................WriterPhotographerMAZINAIGANTalkingPaperisapublicationoftheGreatLakesIndianFishWildlifeCommissionwhichrepresentselevenOjibwetribesinMichiganMinnesotaandWisconsin.SubscriptionstothepaperarefreetoUnitedStatesandCanadianresidents.Subscribeonlineatwww.glifwc.orgwriteMAZINAIGANP.O.Box9OdanahWI54861phone715682-6619ore-maillynnglifwc.org.Ifyouhavemovedorareplanningtomovepleasekeepusinformedsowecankeepourmailinglistcurrent.Ifyouplantobeawayforanextendedperiodoftimepleaseletusknowsowecansuspendyoursubscriptionuntilyoureturn.AlthoughMAZINAIGANenjoyshearingfromitsreadershipthereisnoLetterstotheEditorsectioninthepaperandopinionstobepublishedinthepaperarenotsolicited.Queriesastopotentialarticlesrelatingtooff-reservationtreatyrightsandorresourcemanagementorOjibweculturalinformationcanbedirectedtotheeditorattheaddressgivenabove.FormoreinformationseeGLIFWCswebsitewww.glifwc.organdourFacebookpage.MAZINAIGANSTAFFPronouncedMuhzinahigunNONPROFITORGPOSTAGEPAIDPERMIT203EAUCLAIREWIPrintedbyEAUCLAIREPRESSCOMPANYEAUCLAIREWI54701RETURNADDRESSGLIFWCP.O.BOX9ODANAHWI54861OjibweCededTerritoriesandMemberTribesofGLIFWCTreatyCededAreas1836183718421854CHANGESERVICEREQUESTEDBiboon20132014