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PublishedbytheGreatLakesIndianFishWildlifeCommissionWinter20142015TreatynighthuntstillunresolvedChicagoIl.Adecisionaboutwhethertribeswillbeabletoengageinoff-reservationtreatynighthuntingfordeerisbackinthehandsoftheFederalDistrictCourtWesternDistrict.OnOctober92014theSeventhCircuitCourtofAppealsreversedJudgeBarbaraCrabbsdecisionlatein2013denyingthetribesrequesttoallownighthuntingandremandeditbacktohercourtforfurtherconsideration.TheSeventhCircuitdeterminedthattheevidencepresentedbythetribesshowedthatnighthuntingfordeerinthecededterritoryisunlikelytocre-ateasafetyproblembutleftthepossibilityopenthatthelowercourtmaywishtohearadditionalevidence.Thispartofthecasebeganin2012whentheStateofWisconsinfiledamotiontoconfirmthenighthuntingprohibitionwhilealmostsimultaneouslythesixplaintiffOjibwetribesLacCourteOreillesLacduFlambeauSokaogonRedCliffBadRiverandSt.CroixsoughtaninjunctiontopreventthestateofWisconsinfromenforcingitsnighthuntinglawsagainstthetribes.Thetribesclaimedtherewasnobiologicalbasisforpreventingnighthuntingandbelievedsafetyissueswerefullyaddressedbyrequiringadditionalsafetyproceduresincludinganadvancedsafetyclassmarksmanshiptestingandashootingplanwithafiringzonedesignation.Atthetrialin2013thetribespointedouttotheCourtthatnighthuntingofwolveshadbeenlegislativelyapprovedforthestatewolfhuntandthestatehadusednighthuntingtocontrolchronicwastingdiseaseCWDincertainareas.Nighthuntingofwolveswassubse-quentlymadeillegalbythestatein2013.InaDecember132013rulingJudgeCrabbdeniedthetribesmotionforreliefstatingcircumstanceshadnotsignificantlychangedsincetheoriginal1991rulingsotherewouldbenoreasontorevisitthedecision.Herdecisionatthetimefocusedonpublicsafetyissues.ThetribesappealedJudgeCrabbsdecisionandahearingwassetforSeptember162013beforetheSeventhCircuitCourtofAppealsinChicagowheresafetyissuesdominatedthediscussion.InitsdecisionissuedonOctober92014theSeventhCircuitdismissedthestatesargumentthatnightdeerhuntingisinherentlyunsafeandemphasizedtheimportanceoftreatyrightstothetribes.TheSeventhCircuitreturnedthecasebacktoJudgeCrabbDistrictCourtWesternDistrictwithinstructionsonhowtofurtherproceed.AtthistimethetribeswaitforfurtherdirectionfromtheDistrictCourt.TheStatehasnotasyetannouncedwhetheritwillappealthedecision.Thetribesoff-reservationnighthuntingruleswillnotbeimplementeduntilthelitigationisresolved.BySueEricksonStaffWriterPAGE1MAZINAIGANWINTER2014-2015BalsamApracticalspiritualresourceOdanahWis.TomanythatcelebrateChristmastheiconicfigurethatbalsamcreatesinthemindsymbol-izescheerandholidayspirit.Forsomethemagicalbalsamfirlendsitsboughsforalittleextraspendingcasharoundtheholidays.Howeverforaselectfewpeoplethetreeisamedicinecupboardforaplethoraofailmentsandtraditionaluses.BalsamfirisaconiferousspeciesofcoldclimatetreethatgrowsquitewellinthenorthernhemisphereespeciallynorthernWisconsin.Itsprivytomois-turedrivensoilandhumidity.Thereforebogsandwetlandsprovideyearroundhabitatforthefirwhichwillgrowinconjunctionwithspruceandtamarack.TribalharvesterandLCOtribalmemberTonyPricepicksbalsamforavarietyofreasons.Tonyhasbeenhar-vestingforover20yearsandnotonlydoeshesellthebalsambythepoundheandhisfamilyalsomakewreathes.Theyhavebeenmakingwreathesforyearsandheseesitashisjobtokeepthetraditionalive.Tonymakesalotofcrosswreathesforthosewhohavepassedontothespiritworld.HereminiscesTherearealotofdeathsduetodrinkinganddrivingandIputthesecrosswreathesatthesiteoftheseaccidentstohonorthosethathavepassedonandtoremindouryouthandcommunitymemberstostaydrugandalcoholfree.Tonyleadsthewaythroughathicklowlandforestandfindsaharvestabletreealmostimmediately.ArmedwithjustapairofgloveshesaysSomepeopleusefancyequipmentorclippersbutwejustuseourhandssothatwefeelthetreeandknowwheretotakethebranch.Ifyouclipthebranchtooclosethetreemightdie.StevenGarskeGLIFWCforestpestprojectcoordinatorremindshar-vesterstocollectboughsinasustainablemanner.HeadvisesRemoveboughsfromthelowerhalfofthetree.Whentheendsofthebranchareremovedthetwigbehindthecutareawillbegintogenerateanewbranchwithinthenext5-6years.Garskealsoexplainsthatwildbalsamgrowinginthemiddleofthewoodswillphotosynthesizelessthereforeaffectingtheirabilitytoregenerateatafasterrate.InacompilationofinterviewsentitledBalsamFirandBurnsMDSaraWarberinterviewsanelderfromtheLeelanaupeninsulaofMichiganknownasKeewaydinoquay.Keewaydinoquayspeaksaboutherchildhoodandastoryrelatingtobalsam.SherecognizesthetreeasNimisse.NimisseintheOjjibwelanguagetranslatesintoelderByDylanJenningsGLIFWCPIOLTEPriortothenighthunthearingattheUS7thCircuitCourtofAppealsinChicagotribalattorneysandrepresentativesgatheredforaceremony.PicturedfromtheleftareEricArnoldBadRivertribalattorneyJamesZornGLIFWCexecutiveadministratorHowardBichlerSt.CroixtribalattorneyDavidUjkeRedClifftribalattorneyPhilomenaKebecGLIFWCpolicyanalystCourtneyAllensworthLacCourteOreillestribalattorneyColetteRoutelleadattorneyrepresentingLacduFlambeauMicIshamLacCourteOreillestribalchairmanKekekJasonStarkLacCourteOreillestribalattorneyandScottSmithLacduFlambeauVoigtIntertribalTaskForcerepresentative.photobyDylanJenningsBalsamgathererTonyPriceLCOandhisfamilysellbalsamandalsomakecrosswreaths.photobyDylanJenningsSeeBalsampage10