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ANAFORESTPESTPROJECTMAZINAIGANPAGE6WINTER2014-2015BySteveGarskeANAForestPestEnv.GrantCoordinatorUpdateonGLIFWCsANAforestpestprojectAsthethirdyearofGLIFWCsforestpestprojectgetsunderwayinvasiveforestpestscontinuetoadvanceeatingtheirwaythroughNorthAmericasforests.ThepestsTheemeraldashborerEABattacksandkillsashtrees.Italmostcertainlyarrivedhereintheearly1990sonsolidwoodshippingmaterialfromChina.FirstdetectedinDetroitin2002theEABnowinfestsashin24statesandtwoprov-inces.IthasalreadykilledtensofmillionsofashtreesineasternNorthAmerica.TheAsianlonghornedbeetleALBalsoarrivedinsolidwoodpackingmaterialfromoverseas.Itsfavoritefoodismaplebutitcanalsoattackbirchwillowsandelm.Thelarvaeburrowthroughthewoodbeforeemergingthroughdime-sizedexitholesas1-inchlongadultsriddlingthetreewithtunnelsuntiliteventuallycollapses.Since1996ALBinfestationshavebeenfoundinNewYorkNewJerseyChicagosouthernOhioMassachusettsandTorontoOntario.TheChicagoandtheNewJerseypopulationshavebeensuccessfullyeradicated.TheTorontopopulationwasdeclarederadicatedin2013butlaterthatyearasmallpopulationwasfoundinneighboringMississauga.MeanwhileinfestationsstillexistonLongIslandandinOhioandMassachusetts.Theselasttwopopulationsareparticularlyworrisomeasthequarantinedareasnowcover61and110squaremilesrespec-tivelyandincludenaturalforest.Tensofthousandsoftreeshavebeenremovedtotryandstopthispest.TheALBhasthepotentialtodestroymorethanhalfthetreesineasternNorthAmerica.Ifitescapesthequarantinedareasandbecomespermanentlyestablisheditwilldev-astateNorthAmericasforests.Theentirefoodwebfrominsectsandmicetopredatorssuchasmartensfishersandevenwolveswouldbeseverelyimpacted.Soilerosionwouldincreaseanddrinkingwatersupplieswouldbethreatenedasforestslosetheirabilitytoholdandpurifywater.TheALBcouldalsoputanendtothemaplesugarharvest.BasedonestimatesbytheUSForestServiceandotherstheeconomicimpactoftheALBintheUSalonewouldreachwelloveratrilliondollars.IneasternNorthAmericabalsamfirandhemlockarebeingdevastatedbytwotinycloselyrelatedinsectscalledadelgids.ThebalsamwoollyadelgidBWAattacksbalsamtrees.Itinjectssalivaintotheyoungtwigsandneedlescausingthetwigstoswellupcalledgoutingandtheneedlestoturnyellowandfalltotheground.Whilethebalsamwoollyadelgidmightnotkillitshostthebranchesaredistortedandworthlessforwreathesorotherornaments.ThehemlockwoollyadelgidHWAhasasimilareffectonhemlockexceptthattheHWAoftenkillsitshostwithinseveralyears.Balsamandhemlockbothprovidefoodandhabitatforavarietyofwildlifeandplayacriticalroleinprovidingwintershelterfordeer.FinallyoakwiltcontinuestoshowupatnewsitesintheUpperPeninsulanorthernWisconsinandnorthernMinnesota.Newinfestationsoftheoakwiltfungususuallyresultfrompeopletransportinginfestedlogsorfirewoodtounin-festedareas.Redandblackoaksarekilledwithinafewyearswhileburoakandotherwhiteoaksmayslowlydeclineanddieoveradecadeormore.Acornsareavaluablefoodsourceforallsortsofwildlifeincludingturkeysanddeer.Andofcourseoakprovidesexcellentfirewood.ALBlarvaeriddlehosttreeswithtunnelsbeforeemergingas1-inchlongadults.photobyE.RichardHoebekeCornellUniversityBugwood.orgTotherightAlongwithdime-sizedexitholesshallowdepressionschewedoutbyegg-layingfemalesaresuresignsofALBinfestation.photobyDennisHaugenUSForestServiceBugwood.orgThespringsugarbushcouldbecomeathingofthepastiftheAsianlonghornedbeetlebecomespermanentlyestablished.photosubmittedTheBWAfeedingcausesbalsamrbranchestoswellandloseneedlesmakingthemuselessforboughs.photobyLaddLivingstonIdahoDept.ofLandsBugwood.orgAdelgidsexcretewaxfromtheirbodiesmakingthemlooklikelittlebitsofcotton.ThishemlocktwigisinfestedwiththeHWA.photobyConnecticutAgriculturalExperimentStationArchiveBugwood.orgKnowndistributionofoakwiltbycountyinMNWIandMI.Oakwiltisoftenwidelyestablishedinthesouthernportionofthisregionwhilethenortherncountiesgenerallyhaveonlyahandfulofinfestations.mapcompiledfromMNWIandMIDNRdataSeeGLIFWCsANAforestpestprojectpage17