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INVASIVESPECIESDuluthMinn.Preservationofmanoominwildricebedsisachallengefacedbymanytribes.Weathercondi-tionsclimaticchangeandinvasivespe-ciesbothplantandanimalcontributetothechallenge.The1854TreatyAuthorityAuthorityiscurrentlytakingacloserlookatthepossibleimpactonmanoominofoneinvadertherustycrayfishthroughamulti-yearpilotstudy.TheAuthorityinitiatedthestudyin2013intheWhiteIronChainofLakesnorthernSt.LouisCountywherereportsofwildricedeclinecorrespondedwiththedetectionofrustycrayfishinFarmandWhiteIronLakesaccordingtotheAuthorityBiologistTylerKaspar.Theprojectinvolvedsettingupexclosuresinlakesegmentsknowntoproducewildrice.Theexclosuresaredesignedtokeeptherustysoutsoresearcherscanmeasurericedensitydifferencesinsidetheexclosureagainsttheoutsideareainhabitedbyrustycrayfish.Trapsaresetinsidetheexclosurestocaptureanyrustycrayfishthatmaybewithin.Theexclosuresareplacedshortlyaftericeoutsowildricehasntgermi-natedyetandtherustycrayfishwouldhavenoimpactpriortotheirplacement.Kasparsaystheyalsotrytoinstalltheexclosuresfromtheboattoavoiddis-turbingthelakebed.In2013onWhiteIronLaketheexclosuresuccessfullykepttherustysoutbuttherewasalsolowricedensityandfewrustys.OnFarmLaketheexclosurewasremovedafteronlyamonthbecausetherockybottomandwoodydebrismadeitimpossiblefortheexclosuretofullysealoffthecrayfish.Laterobservationsoftheareawhichsupportedadensestandofricerevealedthatmostlynativecrayfishwereinthericebedwiththerustysprimarilyoutsideintherockysubstrate.ThisyearexclosuresweresetupinFarmLakeandGardenLakebothwithareassupportingdensewildricestands.OnFarmLakeKasparreportsthatrustycrayfishwerefoundmostlyoutsidethericebedsintherocksandfewerrustysandafewnativecrayfishinthesoftmuckysedimentofthewildricebed.OnGardenLakeonlyafewrustyswerecaughtmostlyoutsidethewildricestandandmorenativecrayfishwerecaughtoverallprimarilyinthewildriceandwithintheexclosure.Neitherexclosuresucceededintotallykeepingthecrayfishouthereportsachallengeindesignthattheywillbelookingtoimprovefor2015.WhilethestudyhasnotrevealedanydefiniteconclusionsabouttherustycrayfishsimpactonmanoominasofyetAuthorityresearcherswillcontinuethestudy.Nextyeartheywilleitherselectdifferentlakesorsettheexclosuresondifferentlocationsinthecurrentlakes.Kasparsaystheymayalsoneedtoiden-tifyareasthatusedtohavewildricebuthaventsincetheestablishmentoftherustycrayfish.The1854TreatyAuthorityhead-quarteredinDuluthMinnesotaman-agestheoff-reservationhuntingfish-ingandgatheringrightsoftheGrandPortageandBoisForteBandsoftheLakeSuperiorChippewainthe1854Treatycededterritory.AnexclosuredesignedtokeepinvasiverustycrayshoutofasegmentofamanoominbedonFarmLakeinMinnesotaispartofongoingresearchregardingtheimpactofrustycrayshonwildrice.Thisisaresearchprojectofthe1854TreatyAuthorityandisinitssecondyear.photocourtesyofthe1854TreatyAuthorityPAGE7MAZINAIGANWINTER2014-20151854TreatyAuthoritystudiesrustycrayfshimpactonmanoominBySueEricksonStaffWriterDuluthMinn.Thenon-nativesubspeciesofPhragmitesPhragmitesaustralisssp.australisisanextremelyinvasiveperennialgrassnativetoEurasia.Phragmitesthrivesinwetlandsandshallowwatersuptoonemeterdeepestablishingdenseclonalstandswhichdisplacenativeplantsandalterthephysicalstructureandecologicalfunctionsoftheseimportanthabitats.FreshwaterestuariesalongtheshorelineofLakeSupe-riorandnearbymanoominwildricewatersfurtherinlandareespeciallythreatenedbecausetheycontainidealgrowingconditionsfornon-nativePhragmites.In2013GLIFWCconductedrapidresponsecontroleffortson30smallpioneerstandsofnon-nativePhragmiteswhichweredetectedalongthewesternshoreofChequamegonBay.Thesesiteswereallwithin1.5milesofawastewatertreatmentplantpermittedtousePhragmitestode-watersewagesludge.In2014GLIFWCsaquaticinva-sivespeciesAISsurveyeffortsfocusedonPhragmitesdetectionwithintheLakeSuperiorwatershedandverificationofpriorPhragmitesreportsinthecededterritoryespeciallythoseinornearmanoominwaters.Atotalof72non-nativePhrag-mitesoccurrenceswerefoundintheLakeSuperiorwatershedduring2014primarilyalongtheshorelineoftheSt.LouisRiverintheDuluth-Superiorharbor.Fortunatelyonlyoneoutofthe38unverifiedreportswasconfirmedasnon-nativePhragmites.Therestwereeithernative27orcouldnotbelocated10.Non-nativePhragmitesisacommonandwidespreadinvasivespeciesalongtheshorelinesofthelowerGreatLakeswherethousandsofacreshavebeenimpactedandcontrolcostsrunintothemillions.Incontrastfewerthan125smallsiteshavebeendetectedwithintheLakeSuperiorwatershedinMinnesotaWisconsinandMichigancomprisinglessthan25acresintotal.AtimelymanagementresponseandcontinuedvigilancewillpreventthenegativeimpactsPhragmiteshashadonmanylowerGreatLakesecosystems.GLIFWCisworkingwithmembertribeslocalagenciesandorganizationstocoordinateanappropriateresponsetocontrolPhragmitesintheLakeSuperiorwatershedbeforeitbecomesunmanageable.FollowinguponPhragmitesEarlydetectionthekeyByMilesFalckGLIFWCWildlifeBiologistSamQuagonGLIFWCBiologicalServicesLTEexaminesaPhragmitesliguletoconrmitisthenativesubspecies.photobyDaraOlsonDistributionofnon-nativePhragmitesinSt.LouisRiverDuluth-Superiorharbor.mapbyMilesFalck