Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24• RETIREMENT/GICHIGAMI • So far in Lake Superior, data indicates that whitefish diets vary by season (see graphics below), where diporeia make up between three to twelve percent of the diet by weight as compared to Lake Michigan’s over 50% of lake whitefish diet. This is not too surprising; diporeia abundance has historically been much lower in Lake Superior. However, unlike Lake Michigan, Lake Superior abundance has remained stable over time and the invasive mussels have been confined to a few harbors and bays in part due to the uninvitingly cold Lake Superior environment. to changes in growth and the amount of prey that each fish consumes. Generally the warmer the water the more food fish eat and the faster they grow. However, lake trout may decide to just go deeper—where cooler waters can be found. This may lead to changes in where fish are located for harvest or what they eat if the prey fish (what they eat) do not also change locale. So far, with the available data no significant changes are apparent (see graphs, page 13). Adikameg diet by number of food items Adikameg diet by weight of food items By the numbers. Diporeia or scuds, a bottom dwelling small shrimp like zooplankton, make up a large number of lake whitefish diet items found in spring and summer. Clams and mysis, a shrimp like zooplankton that lives in the water column (off the bottom), make up a large portion of fall diets. In the winter, eggs make up the bulk of items eaten—these are mainly cisco (a.k.a. lake herring) eggs. By the grams. Other fish make up the bulk of lake whitefish diets in the spring and summer by weight, as individual diporeia do not weigh much compared to the occasional rainbow smelt or small cisco which are eaten. In the fall, mysis are again important as are clams, whereas eggs again make up the bulk of the winter diet by weight. Adikameg study (continued from page 13) Chinamekos continued (continued from page 13) Lake Superior fishermen & family fish shop operators GLIFWC is sponsoring a HACCP* Seafood Safety training course in partnership with Michigan State University Sea Grant Bay Mills Resort Brimley, Michigan December 13-15, 2016 GLIFWC is covering travel and conference costs for qualified tribal members that complete the entire course. Contact Ron Kinnunen @ 906.226.3687 to register. For hotel and travel arrangements contact GLIFWC’s Zoongee Leith @715.682.6619. * Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Every autumn as Gichigami begins to cool down chinamekos (lake trout) and adikameg (lake whitefish) seek out rocky reefs to spawn. These rocky reefs, which ring the shoreline, are where staff from GLIFWC’s Great Lakes Section set gill nets to asses spawning fish to identify discrete stocks, track relative abundance and measure biological characteristics. Since assessments began, splake numbers have increased in Copper Harbor, which is home to many stocked and wild lake trout. In 2016, the crew collected genetic samples from fish which will be looked at to determine the extent of inter- breeding between the splake and native fish. Splake, a lake trout/brook trout hybrid, are planted by state natural resource agencies for the sport fishery. Stocking of lake trout was stopped in 1996 in much of Lake Superior, because survival of stocked fish was low, the lake-wide abundance of wild lake trout was stable or increasing, and the abundance of lake trout on several large spawning reefs was good. Backcrosses (offspring of splake which breed with native brook trout and lake trout) have been identified in Lake Superior. —Bill Mattes Gichigami dagwaagin assessments Great Lakes Fisheries Technicians Mike Plucinski (left) and Jake Parisien with a pair of lake trout caught and released from a survey net in Gichigami. (Ben Michaels photo) USFS Eastern Region tribal liaison retiring Larry Heady (center) accepts a resolution from Mic Isham, GLIFWC Board of Commissioners chairman. GLIFWC’s Jim Zorn awaits in the background with gifts for Heady. (COR photo) At the recent Tribal/Forest Service Annual MOU Meeting in Watersmeet, Mich., Larry Heady found himself squarely in the crosshairs of tribal representa- tives.TheUSForestService(USFS)tribalrelationsspecialisthadearlierannounced his upcoming retirement and GLIFWC member tribes took the opportunity to tell him what they thought “You have been a staunch advocate and supporter of treaty- reserved rights,” said Mic Isham, GLIFWC Board of Commissioners chairman. Isham presented Heady with a framed resolution from the Voigt Intertribal Task Force during an October 5 meeting at LacVieux Desert, recognizing his work at strengthening bonds between tribes and the USFS. Tribal representatives also bestowed gifts and sang an honor song for Heady on the GLIFWC drum. Heady is wrapping up a 30-some-year USFS career. For the last seven years, he’s served as tribal relations specialist for Region 9, an area encompassing the northeast quadrant of the United States. Heady, or Kochemin’k-lenu, is a member of the Delaware Tribe. —CO Rasmussen PAGE 19 MAZINA’IGAN WINTER 2016-17