Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24• PHENOLOGY/PHRAGMITES • ChequamegonBay,Wis.—Non-nativephragmites is a perennial invasive grass that invades wet open habi- tats including wetlands, shorelines and roadsides. It out- competesnativevegetation,formingdensemonocultures that can reach heights of 15 feet or more. Phragmites alters ecosystem functions by reducing biodiversity, increasing the frequency and intensity of fires,anddryingoutwetlandhabitatthroughevapotrans- piration and the accumulation of dead biomass. AlreadyaseriousprobleminthelowerGreatLakes, non-nativephragmitesisuncommonintheLakeSuperior basin. GLIFWC and its member tribes are working to keep it that way. In2013,GLIFWCstaffdetectedseveralpopulations of non-native phragmites in the vicinity of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Washburn, Bayfield, and Red Cliff. These treatment plants all use non-native phragmites to dewater sewage sludge. Unfortunately,theseedsfromtheseplantsareblow- ing off site and becoming established around Chequa- megon Bay. GLIFWC staff conducted initial treatment on these sites in 2013. Follow up efforts have continued annually since 2014 to survey for new sites and treat resprouting plants. Environmental Protection Agency-Great Lakes Regional Initiative funds were awarded to GLIFWC, Red Cliff, and Bad River in 2016 to address these issues. GLIFWC has received funds to continue survey and control efforts within Chequamegon Bay, to survey additonal south shore coastal wetlands between Duluth and Ashland, and to train BadRiverNaturalResourcesstafftodifferentiatenativeandnon-nativephragmites. Bad River has received funds to survey for phragmites in and around the Kakagon Sloughs (see map) located downwind of the predominantly northwest winds that occur in winter, when the wind-dispersed seeds of phragmites are dropping. Red Cliff also received funds for an analysis of alternative technologies to dewater sewage sludge at each of the wastewater treatment plants. In the field GLIFWCstaffcontinuedphragmitessurveyandcon- trol efforts in Chequamegon Bay this past summer. Two new phragmites sites were detected and treated in 2016. One site was located within one mile west of the wastewater treatment plant in Washburn. The other new site was found on the western tip of Long Island. This is the first site detected along the east side of Chequame- gon Bay and confirms the threat posed to Kakagon Sloughs. Small pioneer populations of non-native phrag- mites appearing in Kakagon Sloughs will be challenging to detect because of the abundant native phragmites that grows there. GLIFWC provided a mid summer and fall trainingforBadRiverNaturalResourcesstafftoidentify the native and non-native phragmites during the differ- ent stages of its life cycle. Inaddition,RedCliffBand’sengineeringcontractor StrandAssociatescompletedanalternativesanalysislast summer. Chad Abel, Red Cliff Treaty Natural Resource Division administrator, presented the results of the analysis to local communities using reed bed technology in their WWTP. The alternative analysis recommends converting each treatment plant to use native phragmites instead of the non-native subspecies.Although no final decisions have been made, Chad has indicated that each community is supportive of this recommendation. Until a new technology is employed to dewater sewage sludge at these WWTPs, annual survey and control efforts will be required to insure that non- native phragmites does not become established within the coastal wetlands of Chequamegon Bay Dense and ever-thirsty phragmites targeted by GLIFWC, tribes Invasive plant escaping sewage treatment plants By Miles Falck GLIFWC Wildlife Section Leader Location of non-native phragmites control efforts in relation to wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) and coastal wetlands in Chequamegon Bay. Ziigwan at hyperspeed: 30-second green-up in the Ceded Territory Phenology is the study of the timing of periodic biological phenomena, such as bird migration or plant flowering, in response to weather conditions. One way GLIFWC climate change staff can closely monitor phenology—without having to visit study sites daily—is by setting up cameras in the forest to continuously record the changing landscape. Earlier this year, GLIFWC staff set up time-lapse cameras to capture images every 30 minutes during daylight hours at the two phenology study sites in the Penokee Range and the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest. Climate ecolo- gist Travis Bartnick then created time-lapse videos by using images taken by the cameras at each location. The result is ziigwan (spring), captured on film. This 30-second footage of green-up, set to powwow music, provides a continuous snapshot of changes that otherwise occur over several months. Traditional drum group Midnite Express provides the musical background for the visual landscape transformation. Towatchthetime-lapsevideosofthePhenocamProjectattheChequamegon- Nicolet National Forest, go to www.glifwc.org and choose Climate Change (under By GLIFWC Climate Change Staff BRML Phenocam Spring Green up with Music GLIFWC’s FocusAreas). Scroll down to “Climate Change Program Updates” and click on the YouTube link. The time-lapse camera images will be used for more than just cool movies. The objective of having the PhenoCams is to record when the forest tree canopy greens up in the spring and when the leaves turn color and drop in the fall. Bartnick will be using a PhenoCam Image Processor (PCIP) to analyze PhenoCam images by calculating a time series of Green Chromatic Coordinate (Gcc) values. These values essentially measure the amount of green in an image. The values can be plotted to show the timing of green-up in the spring and brown-down in the fall. These data can help determine how the timing of spring green-up and fall brown-downmightbeassociatedwithotherphenologicalobservationsthatGLIFWC staff have recorded during their weekly visits to the study sites. Deadline extended for nominations for national climate award Do you know a tribal government, tribal organization, or student leader you’d like recognized for their efforts to adapt to a changing climate? Consider nominating them for a “Climate Adaptation Leadership Award for Natural Resources.”Theawardprogramsponsor,theNationalFish,Wildlife,andPlant Climate Adaptation Strategy, recently extended the deadline for nominations until December 9, 2016 to allow more organizations to participate. The award recognizes exemplary leadership in efforts to reduce climate- related threats and enhance the resilience of the nation’s living natural resources—and the communities that depend on them. For information, visit www.wildlifeadaptationstrategy.gov/award.php.Nominateyourtribeoranother tribe or tribal entity by using the online form (“Nominate Today”) located at the top of the website. MAZINA’IGAN PAGE 6 WINTER 2016-17