Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42 Page 43 Page 44 Page 45 Page 46 Page 47 Page 48 Page 49 Page 50 Page 51 Page 52 Page 53 Page 54 Page 55 Page 56 Page 57 Page 58 Page 59 Page 6012 Other fish species As to fish species other than walleye and muskellunge, the tribes and the state agreed that quotas were not necessary at this time. How- ever, if the harvest increases significantly, a quota system for the species involved may be implemented. Timber harvest On February 21, 1991, Judge Crabb issued her timber decision. She ruled that the Ojibwe tribes did not reserve a treaty right to harvest timber commercially. However, the tribes did have a treaty right to gather miscellaneous forest products such as maple sap, birch bark, and fire wood, subject to non-discriminatory state and county regulations. Damages: Phase III In 1990 Judge Crabb ruled on the damages phase of the litigation, deciding that the tribes were not entitled to any damages. No appeal: Litigation concludes Later in 1991 both the tribes and the State of Wisconsin announced their decisions not to appeal any of the three phases of the LCO decision. With no further appeals, the lengthy litigation, begun in 1973 when the LCO Band first filed suit, came to a conclusion. Litigation re-opened In 2013 an aspect of the “Deer Trial” was reopened in Federal District Court, with six plaintiff Ojibwe tribes in Wisconsin seeking relief from a 1990 judgment prohibiting night hunting of deer. Judge Crabb ruled that circumstances had not changed enough to warrant a review of her initial decision, and the tribes appealed. The Seventh Circuit Court of Appeals overturned Judge Crabb’s decision in October 2014, ruling that circumstances had changed sufficiently and that the evidence that had been presented suggested that night hunting was unlikely to create a serious safety problem. In October 2015, after the state unsuccess- fully appealed to the US Supreme Court, the District Court approved the tribes’ night hunting regulations. The treaty spring spearing season under LCO Since 1985, tribal members have exercised spring spearing within a system that not only provides for conservative harvest quotas, but also for intense monitoring of the catch. Although spring spearing was at one time the subject of controversy, seasons have been largely peaceful in recent years. (See The protest era, page 28) Alllandingsopentospringspearingare monitored by biological and enforcement staff on a nightly basis. Permits are issued to tribal members which specify lake and bag limits for each night. Before leaving the landing with a night’s catch, each fish is counted and measured to ensure compliance with the bag limit and size restrictions. Waswaagonigewin—spearing by torchlight. Mole Lake/Sokaogon spearfisherman Travis Thorbahn lifts a speared ogaa (walleye) into his jiimaan (boat). Along with Josh and Leelyn VanZile, Thorbahn experienced good fishing on Long Lake in northeast Wisconsin during a treaty, spring spearing season.