Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42 Page 43 Page 44 Page 45 Page 46 Page 47 Page 48 Page 49 Page 50 Page 51 Page 52 Page 53 Page 54 Page 55 Page 56 Page 57 Page 58 Page 59 Page 6013 The Safe Harvest Level (SHL) system Each spring tribes in Wisconsin are required to make declarations as to the number of wall- eye and muskellunge they intend to take from each lake they name for spearing. The quotas are determined on the basis of a SHL figure deter- mined for each lake. The “Safe Harvest Level” system was pro- posed by the State of Wisconsin and adopted by the court during the LCO litigation. The formula is used by biologists to calculate the number of walleye and muskellunge that can be safely har- vested from each Ceded Territory lake. The safe harvest system can be understood fairly easily. As agreed to by GLIFWC and WDNR biologists, 35 percent of a lake’s adult walleye population can be removed annually without jeopardizing the ability of that population to maintain itself. This 35 percent rate of exploita- tion can also be called the Total Allowable Catch (TAC). The SHL figure is, on the average, one-third of the TAC, and as such, is a very conservative harvest limit. In theory, taking 100 percent of the safe harvest has only a one in forty chance of exceeding the TAC. This management system ensures that spearfishing is highly unlikely to seriously impact fish populations even during natural downturns in population. The fact that tribal quotas are typically less than 60 percent of the safe harvest level makes it even more unlikely that any harm will occur. It is important to remember that in relation to the state-licensed harvest, the off-reservation harvests of popular sport species, such as walleye and muskellunge, have been small. Data for all of theoff-reservationspearingseasonsinWisconsin demonstrate that the bands have never depleted or overharvested any resource. Wisconsin Tribal and Estimated Angling Walleye Harvest Number of Walleye (Thousands) 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Estimated Angling Harvest Tribal Harvest More than 80% of the treaty walleye harvest is comprised of male fish. Large adult females— crucial to spawning success—spend very little time in the shallow waters where spring fish- ing takes place, while males typically linger, seeking reproduction opportunities.