Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42 Page 43 Page 44 Page 45 Page 46 Page 47 Page 48 Page 49 Page 50 Page 51 Page 52 Page 53 Page 54 Page 55 Page 56 Page 57 Page 58 Page 59 Page 6016 Implementation of the Minnesota 1837 Treaty rights Based on the January 1997 District Court ruling, the exercise of the 1837 Treaty rights is governedbyanumberofdocumentsandsystems. These include: 1) the bands’ natural resource management plans; 2) the Minnesota 1837 Ceded Territory Conservation Codes; and 3) tribal/state cooperative management agreements. Each of these is reviewed below. Management plans structure 1837 Treaty harvest As provided for in the Mille Lacs case 1997 final judgment, the bands adopted two manage- ment plans—one applying to fishery issues and the other applying to wildlife and wild plant issues. Both were initial five-year plans and were followed by second multi-year plans. With the exception of a small harvest for cer- emonial use, no exercise of spring spearing and netting was allowed in 1997 due to the court- ordered stay. Therefore, in March 1998 the bands adopted a motion that changed the plan to begin with the 1998 season. These plans provide the structure for treaty harvest while safeguarding the resour- ces. They establish the basis for regulations contained in band, Ceded Territory conserva- tion codes, particularly as to allowable harvest methods and the amount of species available for treaty harvest. In some instances, such as for walleye and antlerless deer, the plans set low initial treaty harvest ceilings that have gradually increased in the following years. While the plans provide for a limited, gradual implementation of the rights, they specifically do not limit or waive the full extent of the treaty rights. Fishery management plan The fishery management plan establishes the framework for fishing in all waters in the Ceded Territory for all species and methods. Particular provisions apply to Mille Lacs Lake, to all other lakes, and to rivers. The plan also contains an intertribal agreement, much like the LCO harvest declaration protocols, that de- scribes how the bands will work together to de- clare their harvests for the upcoming fishing year. Methods The plan allows for a number of fishing methods that may be used throughout the Ceded Territory. These include hook-and-line, open- water and ice spearing, setlines, set or bank poles, and various nets including gillnets, fyke nets and seines. Some of these methods are limited to certain species and/or locations. In addition, some har- vest methods are governed by daily bag limits, while other methods are governed by season caps or quotas. Bagida’waawin—fishing with a net. Bad River treaty fishermen, Charlie Thannum, left, and his cousin Charlie Hornett, lift a net in Minnesota’s Mille Lacs Lake while fishing for ogaa (walleye).