Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42 Page 43 Page 44 Page 45 Page 46 Page 47 Page 48 Page 49 Page 50 Page 51 Page 52 Page 53 Page 54 Page 55 Page 56 Page 57 Page 58 Page 59 Page 6029 catesinthecommunities.Amongthesegroups were the Midwest Treaty Network, Honor Our Neighbors Origins & Rights (HONOR), and the Waswagoning Treaty Association. Non- Indian and Indian voices joined in response to the many misconceptions and to reveal the racial overtones of the protest movement. While tribal harvests continued to be well below state harvests, the issue of damaging the resource was not resolved until 1990 when state, tribal and federal biological staff jointly per- formed population assessments of many lakes used by spearfishermen. Their 1991 report, Casting Light Upon the Water, found tribal spear- ing was not depleting the resource, effectively eliminating the biological argument from the protesters. Reports, such as the WDNR’s 1981 tour- ism industry study also revealed that supposed tourism downturns in northern Wisconsin were occurring before tribal spearfishing even began and were a result of multiple factors not attribut- able to tribal spearing. Finally, in 1991 the court issued a temporary injunction preventing STA and its members from engaging in protest activities on the landings. A permanent injunction was issued in 1992, and in further proceedings, the court found that STA members and its leader Dean Crist were moti- vated by racial animus. With the issues of resource depletion an- swered and the racial motivation of the protest confirmed, the protest on landings declined. While a few isolated incidents of harassment may still occur, tribal members today exercise their treaty rights peacefully. This is not to say that tribal treaty rights are not still controversial or are fully accepted by all, but through public education endeavors, such as Wisconsin’s Act 31 requiring education about tribes and tribal issues in school curriculum, and continued effective resource management, the voices of protest are quieter and much less prevalent today. In actuality, natural resources have bene- fitted from the affirmation of treaty rights and the cooperative management opportunities that resulted. As Dr. George Spangler, University of Minnesota, Dept. of Fisheries, Wildlife and Conservation Biology indicated in his paper, “Closing the Circle: Restoring the Seasonal Round to the Ceded Territories:” In her 1994 finding that Dean Crist and STA were motivated by racial animus, she cites some of the testimony that led to her decision. It reads in part: On posters and in verbal taunts, STA mem- bers and other protesters have expressed racial insults to plaintiffs, their family mem- bers and their friends, such as ‘Timber nig- ger;’ ‘Save a walleye, spear a squaw;’ ‘Spear a pregnant squaw, save two walleye;’ ‘Custer had the right idea,’ ‘Scalp ‘em;’ ‘Tom Maulson is a #%&!?»} Jew, he needs a Hitler;’ ‘You’re a conquered nation, go home to the reserva- tion;’ ‘wagonburners’ and ‘diarrhea face.’ Defendant David Worthen has a poster in his bar that reads, ‘Help Wanted: Small Indians for mud flaps. Must be willing to travel.’ Lac du Flambeau Band v. Stop Treaty Abuse– Wisconsin, 843 F. 3d 1190 (7th Cir. 1994) cert. denied 115 th S. Ct. 1823 (1995) Fueling the fires in opposition to treaty rights, anti-Indian activ- ists spread misinformation and fear at public rallies and encour- agedprotestsattheboatlandings.