Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42 Page 43 Page 44 Page 45 Page 46 Page 47 Page 48 Page 49 Page 50 Page 51 Page 52 Page 53 Page 54 Page 55 Page 56 Page 57 Page 58 Page 59 Page 6034 1848 Wisconsin gains statehood 1850 Presidential Executive Order (Removal Order) InFebruaryof1850,PresidentZacharyTaylor ordered the Chippewa living in ceded lands to prepare for removal, disregarding a request from Chippewa leaders who had come to Washington, D.C., in 1849 to grant them lands surrounding seven of their villages, plus their sugar orchards and rice beds. The tribes insisted they had never intended to leave and had signed the 1842 Treaty only to accommodate copper mining pursuits. 1852 Presidential Executive Order (Removal Order) suspended President Millard Fillmore, Taylor’s succes- sor, rescinded the order following a meeting with a delegation of Ojibwe chiefs led by Chief Buffalo. 1854 Treaty with the Chippewa Signed at LaPointe, this treaty formally aban- doned the removal policy by establishing perma- nent homelands (reservations) for the Chippewa inWisconsin,Michigan,andMinnesota.Remain- ing Chippewa land in Minnesota was also ceded at this time. 1855 Treaty with the Chippewa Signed at Washington D.C., the treaty ceded land in the Minnesota territory for monetary and other stipulations. Reservations were also estab- lished in Minnesota. 1855 Treaty with the Ottawa and Chippewa Signed in Detroit, this treaty reestablished the fishing and encampment rights established under the Treaty of 1820 for the Sault Ste. Marie Chippewa. 1858 Minnesota gains statehood 1866 Treaty with the Chippewa— Bois Forte Band Signed at Washington D.C., this treaty ceded lands to the U.S. and set aside lands for the Bois Forte Band. 1924 Indian Citizenship Act This Act of the U.S. Congress granted citi- zenship to all Native Americans in the country. The Act passed partially because of the many Indian people who had served during World War I. There was no provision in the Act, however, that required Indian people to relinquish tribal membership or identity. 1934 Indian Reorganization Act (IRA) The policy of the United States Federal Government supporting tribal self-regulation was confirmed through this Act. It established, nationally, a policy of tribal self-government through a tribal governing body, the tribal coun- cil, and the ability of those elected governments to manage the affairs of their respective tribes. 1942 Tulee v. the State of Washington The U.S. Supreme Court decided that be- cause a treaty takes precedence over state law, Indians with tribal treaty rights can’t be required to buy state licenses to exercise their treaty fish- ing rights. This was also the first case to rule that state regulation of treaty fisheries can only be for purposes of conservation. 1969 U.S. v. Oregon (Belloni decision) Federal Judge Belloni held that the state is limited in its power to regulate treaty Indian fisheries. The decision indicated the state may only regulate when “reasonable and necessary for conservation,” and state conservation regula- tions must not discriminate against the Indians and must be the least restrictive means. 1971 People of the State of Michigan v. William Jondreau (Jondreau decision) Reversed People v. Chosa (1930), 252 Michi- gan 154, 233 N.W. 205. The Jondreau decision re- affirmed the right of the Keweenaw Bay Indian Community members to fish in the Keweenaw Bay waters of Lake Superior without regard to Michigan fishing regulations.