Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42 Page 43 Page 44 Page 45 Page 46 Page 47 Page 48 Page 49 Page 50 Page 51 Page 52 Page 53 Page 54 Page 55 Page 56 Page 57 Page 58 Page 59 Page 60have affirmed the treaty rights of the Ojibwe in the last forty years, including: the 1971 Jondreau decision, Michigan State Court; the 1972 Gurnoe decision,WisconsinStateCourt;andthe1981U.S. v. Michigan (Fox) decision, U.S. Federal District Court. All affirm tribal rights to fish in areas of the Great Lakes. Decisions affirming inland hunting, fishing and gathering rights include the 1983 Lac Courte Oreilles v. State of Wisconsin (LCO) decision, also known as the Voigt decision, the 1997 Mille Lacs and Fond du Lac decisions in Minnesota’s 1837 Ceded Territory, and the 1999 Supreme Court decision in favor of the Mille Lacs Band. Most treaties were signed prior to the for- mation of the states of Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota. At the time there were no state regulations over hunting, fishing and gathering activities. As the territories became states and popula- tions grew, the states passed laws governing hunt- ing, fishing and gathering activities and enforced them against the Ojibwe people. Tribal members exercising off-reservation treaty rights were cited into state courts for violations of state conserva- tion laws. By the mid-1900s, tribes began to challenge in court the right of a state to enforce state law on off-reservation hunting, fishing and gathering activities in the Ceded Territories. These legal challenges gave rise to the many federal and state court decisions which reaffirm Ojibwe treaty rights today. (See Appendix II) ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( ! ( PRICE CLARK VILAS POLK RUSK ONEIDA IRON BAYFIELD SAWYER DUNN MARATHON DOUGLAS FOREST TAYLOR WOOD MARINETTE OCONTO LINCOLN BARRON ASHLAND CHIPPEWA BURNETT SHAWANO PORTAGE LANGLADE ST. CROIX EAU CLAIRE FLORENCE WASHBURN MENOMINEE ST. LOUIS AITKIN LAKE PINE COOK MORRISON CROW WING CARLTON MILLE LACS KANABEC ISANTI CHISAGO SHERBURNE ANOKA BENTON W AS HI NG TO N IRON DELTA LUCE MARQUETTE ALGER CHIPPEWA GOGEBIC BARRAGA ONTONAGON SCHOOLCRAFT MENOMINEE HOUGHTON DICKINSON KEEWENAW MACKINAC KENT IONIA LAKE CLARE NEWAYGO ALPENA ANTRIM OTTAWA MASON ISABELLA OSCODA MONTCALM OSTEGO EMMET OSCEOLA OSCEANA CHEBOYGAN WEXFORD MECOSTA CRAWFORD KALKASKA MANISTEE PRESQUE ISLE MISSAUKEE BENZIE LEELANAU CHARLEVOIX MUSKEGON ROSCOMMON MONTMORENCY GRAND TRAVERSE 1854 1837 1842 1836 Minnesota Wisconsin Michigan Anishinaabeg Gichigami Ceded Territory Boundaries Fond du Lac Mille Lacs Red Cliff Bad River St. Croix Lac Courte Oreilles Mole Lake Lac Du Flambeau Lac Vieux Desert Keweenaw Bay Bay Mills 1836 Odaawa Gichigami Naadowe Gichigami Ceded territory and tribal reservation boundaries are representations and may not be the actual legally binding boundaries. Ceded Territory Boundary GLIFWC Member Tribes Tribal Land County Boundary Great Lakes