Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42 Page 43 Page 44 Page 45 Page 46 Page 47 Page 48 Page 49 Page 50 Page 51 Page 52 Page 53 Page 54 Page 55 Page 56 Page 57 Page 58 Page 59 Page 60Treaty history In 1825 the Ojibwe participated in a treaty that defined the boundaries of the “Great Chip- pewa Nation” and the “Great Sioux Nation.” In the 1825 Treaty, the United States recognized that the Ojibwe owned vast acres of what are now Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan. The United States encouraged the signing of the 1825 Treaty in order to end continuing land disputes between the Ojibwe and the Sioux and secure a “peaceful frontier” for settlers. The treaty defined boundaries of land ownership for the Ojibwe. Later, non-Indian interest in the mineral and timber resources in the midwest pushed the United States to enter into more treaties with the Ojibwe, such as the 1837 Treaty ceding lands in central Wisconsin and Minnesota, in order to secure land for mining and logging. In 1842 the Ojibwe ceded land north of the 1837 cession line in what is now northern Wisconsin and Michigan’s western Upper Peninsula. Provisions of the treaties did not indicate that the Ojibwe were to abandon their homelands. Instead, the government agreed that the Ojibwe could continue to “hunt, fish, and gather” in the Ceded Territories. In the late 1840s, growing pressure from non-Indian settlement led to demands for the re- moval of the Ojibwe from their ceded lands. A disastrous effort at removal was orchestrated in February 1850 when President Zachary Taylor issued a Presidential Executive Order. Ojibwe residing on the south shore of Lake Superior were lured to the Minnesota Territory, left waiting at Sandy Lake as bitter winter weather approached, and then supplied with wholly inadequate and largely spoiled rations. Hundreds died. Concerned about the federal removal policy, a delegation of Ojibwe, led by Chief Buffalo, traveled to Washington, D.C. in 1852 to petition Congress and President Fillmore for permanent homelands. The removal effort was abandoned in 1852 in the face of widespread protests from Indians and non-Indians alike. Federal courts have since found the Executive Order for removal to be invalid. In the subsequent 1854 Treaty, more Ojibwe land was ceded in north- eastern Minnesota. Reser- vations were also estab- lished in the 1837, 1842 and 1854 Ceded Territories where the Ojibwe people would be free from non- Indian intrusions and fur- ther threats of removal. The Mille Lacs reserva- tion was established in the 1855 Treaty of Peace and Friendship. “The rights of Indian people to take fish and game and gather food are, and have historically been, an integral part of their subsistence as well as their culture and religious heritage. In turn they have formed a foundation for their trade and commerce. These rights were widely recognized in treaty negotiations and have been found by the courts to exist even where not specifically reserved in treaties.” —American Indian Policy Review, Commission of the United States Congress, 1977 Manoomin continues to be an important food for Ojibwe people today and is harvested both on and off-reservation. (Photo courtesy of the Wis- consin Historical Society)