Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42 Page 43 Page 44 Page 45 Page 46 Page 47 Page 48 Page 49 Page 50 Page 51 Page 52 Page 53 Page 54 Page 55 Page 56 Page 57 Page 58 Page 59 Page 606 As settlement grew, the vast territories of the midwest became the states of Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota, each with its own sovereign powers and ability to regulate its citi- zenry. Some territory of the Ojibwe nation was artificially divided by these state boundaries, and consequently, by the regulations that each state imposed upon the Ojibwe people within its boundaries. Agreements made with the federal gov- ernment in treaties were forgotten or set aside by state governments as they imposed state regulations on hunting, fishing and gathering activities within state boundaries. Ojibwe band members exercising treaty rights off-res- ervation were arrested and prosecuted under state law until the Ojibwe bands took their treaty claims into state and federal courts and ultimately won. Tribal sovereignty Understanding treaty rights requires under- standing tribal sovereignty. Sovereignty refers to the right of inherent self-government and self- determination, or the freedom from external control. When the European countries first began to occupy the land that is now the United States, they dealt with the native Indian tribes as sover- eign governments under the guidelines of inter- national law. The tribes were respected as sovereign na- tions. When the United States became indepen- dent of England and became sovereign itself, the U.S. government continued to deal with the native tribes on a nation-to-nation basis, respect- ing the sovereignty of the tribes. During the treaty era of United States history, the United States entered into many treaty agree- ments with the tribes. Although many U.S. citi- zens today believe that all tribes were conquered by the United States, the U.S. government and tribes actually sought to avoid conflict in many instances through the treaty-making process. In the case of the Ojibwe, the treaties resolved land issues without the necessity of war. “Self-government is not a new or radical idea. Rather, it is one of the oldest staple ingredi- ents of the American way of life. Indians in this country enjoyed self-government long before European immigrants who came to these shores did. It took the white colonists north of the Rio Grande about 170 years to rid themselves of the traditional pattern of the divine right of kings… and to substitute the less efficient but more satisfying Indian pattern of self-government. South of the Rio Grande the process took more than three centuries, and there are some who are still skeptical as to the completeness of the shift.” —Felix Cohen, “The Legal Conscience” Yale University Press, Inc., 1960 Voigt Intertribal Task Force Chairman Tom Maulson smokes an Opwaagan (Pipe) prior to a 2013 hearing in US District Court, Western District, Madison, on night hunting waawaas- hkeshi (deer) under treaty.