Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12 Page 13 Page 14 Page 15 Page 16 Page 17 Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 21 Page 22 Page 23 Page 24 Page 25 Page 26 Page 27 Page 28 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 35 Page 36 Page 37 Page 38 Page 39 Page 40 Page 41 Page 42 Page 43 Page 44 Page 45 Page 46 Page 47 Page 48 Page 49 Page 50 Page 51 Page 52 Page 53 Page 54 Page 55 Page 56 Page 57 Page 58 Page 59 Page 607 Today, the federally-recognized tribes in the United States still maintain certain aspects of their inherent sovereignty and are considered by the United States Supreme Court as “domestic, dependent nations.” Tribes have been brought under the protection of the United States and are no longer fully independent of the United States. Nevertheless, they retain certain powers of sovereignty, including the right to determine tribal membership and to regulate themselves in the exercise of treaty rights. In the 1934 Indian Reorganization Act, Congress intended to better organize tribal gov- ernments through the establishment of tribal constitutions, tribal councils and an election pro- cess. The Act fostered tribal self-regulation and decision-making, but often at the price of more traditional forms of tribal governance. Today, many Ojibwe tribes exercise sov- ereignty by regulating off-reservation, treaty harvests. Tribal conservation codes govern off- reservation seasons and are enforced by tribal or state conservation wardens. Violators are cited into and tried in tribal courts. “Tribes have a sovereign right, reserved by our treaties, to govern our members and manage our territories. Tribal self-regulation of treaty rights, including enforcement, is a key compo- nent of our sovereignty.” —Michael “Mic” Isham, GLIFWC Board of Commissioners Chairman and LCO Tribal Chairman Tribal government Tribes maintain elected governments which actively pursue the objectives of sovereignty, self- determination and self-regulation. This means that tribal governments make their own deci- sions regarding the needs and goals of their tribes, establish tribal laws and ordinances, and make sure those ordinances are enforced. The sovereign power of tribes is greatest over tribal members and tribal lands. The powers of tribes over non-Indians and non-Indian lands within reservations remains the subject of legal and political debate. The tribal governing body is often referred to as a tribal council. On some reservations it may be called a reservation business com- mittee (RBC) or tribal governing board. The number serving on a council or RBC varies according to each tribal constitution as do the length of terms. Like other governments within the United States, tribal governments are concerned with a variety of community issues: economic develop- ment, social programs, law enforcement, natural resource conservation, education, health, roads, water systems, and waste disposal issues, to men- tion a few. They seek to serve the needs of their constituents and are answerable to the tribal members. Onaakonigewin—judged in court. All eleven GLIFWCmemberbandshavetribalcourts.To the left, Bad River Tribal Judge Ervin Soulier prepares to hold court.