Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 9 Page 10 Page 11 Page 12PAGE 3 MAZINA’IGAN SPRING 2017 • NEWS BRIEFS/CWD/MILLE LACS PIKE • On the cover All ages take to the field for a Lacrosse match. Lacrosse, known as the Creator’s game, brought people from Bad River, Red Cliff, and surrounding communities to winter camp in Odanah. (Photo by Hannah Stonehouse Hudson) Correction: Myron Burns Sr. appears with an old winnowing machine, not a threshing machine in the Biboon 2016-17 Mazina’igan. Ceded Territory news briefs Good elk hunting for Bay Mills in Lower Michigan In the 1836 Ceded Territory, the Bay Mills Indian Community issued four omashkooz (elk) harvest permits to tribal hunters for the 2016 elk hunt. Of these four permits, one bull and three cow permits were made available. Bay Mills members successfully filled all four elk permits. During the first hunt period, one cow was harvested inAugust and one bull was harvested in September. During the second hunt period, another cow was harvested in December. The third cow was harvested during the tribal season in late December. –T Bartnick Aging Line 5 under increased scrutiny The Bad River Band formally joined other Ojibwe tribes concerned about the environmental threats posed by a pipeline that spans the Ceded Territory. Citing potential risks to both natural and cultural resources, the tribal council passed a resolution calling for the decommissioning and removal of Enbridge’s Line 5 within the Bad River Reservation. Constructed in 1953, the 30-inch diameter fuel line runs from Superior, Wisconsin to Sarnia, Ontario, lying exposed in the water at the bottom of the Straits of Mackinac—one of the most ecologically sensitive areas in the Ceded Territory. —CO Rasmussen (continued on page 10) Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was recently detected at two deer farms in Minnesota, according to a recent press release from the Minnesota Board of Animal Health. One of the deer farms is located in Crow Wing County, just a few miles to the northwest of the 1837 Ceded Territory boundary, and about 20 miles from the Mille Lacs reservation. After the discovery of the two CWD-positive deer, another deer tested positive at another deer farm in Meeker County. An investigation determined that the deer that tested positiveattheMeekerCountyprivate deer farm was born on the CWD- positiveCrowWingCountydeerfarm and was transported to the Meeker County deer farm in 2014. Both pri- vate deer farms are currently under a quarantine.Additionalinvestigations have determined that one of the two CWD-positivedeerattheCrowWing County deer farm was born at the Crow Wing County deer farm, and the other had been born at a deer farm that is no longer in operation. In addition, movement records out of the CWD-positive Crow Wing County deer farm indicate that several deer were moved to four other Minnesota deer farms in the past five years. Movement restrictions remain in effect at all associ- ated deer farms. In addition to the CWD-positive deer recently detected at private deer farms, two wild deer in southeastern Minnesota have also tested positive in recent months. CWDisadiseasethataffectscervidssuchasdeer,elk,andmoose.Thedisease is caused by an abnormally shaped protein known as a prion. The prions can cause damage to brain and nerve tissue. CWD is always fatal and there are currently no known treatments or vaccines. CWD is likely transmitted when infected animals shed prions in saliva, urine, feces, or from their tissues when the infected animals die. Human activity (transportation of live or dead deer) is likely a major cause of the spread of CWD. The prions can remain in the environment for an indefinite amount of time, and they are extremely difficult to destroy. Prions can bind to soil and research indicates that some plants can bind, retain, uptake, and transport infectious prions. This means that CWD can potentially be spread by transporting crops (e.g., hay and other livestock feed) grown in CWD-infected areas. There are no known cases of CWD infecting humans, but health experts generally caution people to avoid eating meat from CWD-infected animals. CWD detected on deer farms near Mille Lacs Reservation By Travis Bartnick, GLIFWC Wildlife Biologist management, conduct- ing mid-winter hunting seasons while bears are hibernating. Matagis also lamentthevolumeof“dam- agecontrol”permitsissued by local authorities, which resultsinkillingunsustain- able numbers of bears by using traps. “Bears are a gift, something that’s given to [Matagipeople],”saidelder Shigemi Saito. “Everyone in the village has a right to benefit from a bear.” To illustrate, the visitors playedavideodepictingthe divisionanddistributionof a recently harvested black bearataceremony.Usinga rope with a complex series of loops, the hunt master invites villagers to select a random loop which, once unfurled, determines what cut of meat or organ a per- son receives. In this way, the“goddess”decideshow the animal is shared. North of the Matagi homeland,theAinupeople of Hokkaido also revere native bears added anthropologist Hiromi Taguchi. For many Ainu people, the island’s brown bears—relations to North American griz- zlies—are seen as gods. Preserving native culture GLIFWCanditsmemberbandsalsofacesomeofthesameissuesastraditional Japanese said Executive Administrator James Zorn. To help counter the outflow of youth from Ojibwe lifeways, GLIFWC sponsors events that promote language, culture, plus how-to lessons on harvesting natural resources under reserved treaty rights. Zorn went on to stress the importance of “having a seat at the table” with government agencies—to get into a position to effectively advocate for the needs of native people. “We have many similarities,” said Matsuhashi. “I will share what we have learned with our people back home.” Japan’s bear culture (continued from page 1) In the mountains of Honshu a Matagi hunter conducts a ceremony with a bear hide to send the animal’s spirit to the Mountain Goddess. (photo by Hiromi Taguchi) As with any fish from Ceded Territory waters, northern pike from Mille Lacs do have some mercury in their tissues. Pike are predatory fish that sit near the top of the food chain and they can therefore accumulate enough mercury that it limits the amount of fish that can be safely consumed.The good news is fish from Mille Lacs tend to have mercury levels that are lower than many other Ceded Territory lakes. GLIFWC tested mercury in northern pike from Mille Lacs in 2013 and 2014. The data collected was analyzed to see what the consumption advice might be.The results of this analysis indicated that children under 15 and women of childbear- ing age limit their consumption of northern pike from Mille Lacs to two 8-ounce meals per month. Men 15 and older and women beyond-child-bearing age can safely consume up to eight 8-ounce meals per month. This analysis was based on a 30-inch northern pike. Since mercury levels are higher in bigger fish, the number of safe meals per month is fewer if you are eat- ing pike over 30 inches. Also, remember that if you are consuming other types of fish, such as walleye, the safe number of meals of pike per month will be reduced since all fish contain mercury and the meal frequency categories above are based only on a person eating only northern pike from Mille Lacs. Choose smaller Mille Lacs pike By Sara Moses, GLIFWC Environmental Biologist Sensitive Population (women of childbearing age and children under 15) General Population (women beyond childbearing age and men 15 and older) Eat up to two meals or 16 oz. per month Eat up to eight meals or 64 oz. per month Mille Lacs northern pike (up to 36”) consumption advice