Hookedonphenology?Thisissuecontainsoursummer/fallphenologybrochure for you to record your own observations. Make a fun activity out of watching for the events that are listed, or by noting other phenological or seasonal events you observe throughout the year. Complete as much of the form as you can. If you submit your 2018 observations to GLIFWC, we will include some of your observations in future phenology calendars. If you would like to submit observations online instead of mailing in the paper form, please visit www.glifwc.org/ClimateChange/PhenologyStudy.html to find the link to our online observation form. Using the online form, you can submit observations as they occur. This can be a fun activity for teachers, families, or anyone that enjoys spending time outdoors! If you missed our winter edition of the Mazina’igan, here’s some background information on phenology: Phenology is the study of the timing of biological events throughout the year—when the maple sap starts running, the ruffed grouse begins drumming, or blueberries ripen. Phenology is a useful way to monitor possible long-term trends in environmental conditions, such as a changing climate. Seasonality is related to phenology, but has less to do with biology and more to do with variations in environmental factors that occur at specific intervals that span less than one year. Seasonal observations are also important to record from year to year, as they help determine trends in things such as the average ice-on or ice-out dates on lakes, the date of the first snowfall, or the first thunderstorm of the year. Many people jot down observations on their own calendars, and some have been keeping phenological or seasonal records for decades! Thisinformationcanbeusefulforscientiststryingtogainabetterunderstanding of which species are more or less able to adapt to environmental changes over time. If you would like a copy of the 2018 phenology calendar email lynn@glifwc.org or call (715) 685-2108. (see What are you observing in the Ceded Territory, page 14) By Travis Bartnick, GLIFWC Wildlife Biologist and Hannah Panci, GLIFWC Climate Change Scientist & Get hooked on phenology The future of ziinzibaakwadwaatig and the sugarbush in a changing climate To the Ojibwe people, ziinzibaakwadwaatig is an extremely important tree. Maples are a source of medicine and food and the subject of numerous traditional stories. For generations, tapping trees for maple sap has brought families together every year for several weeks in the springtime. Families would often tap 100 to 150 trees, and many would (and still do) carve their own taps out of maple—maple swells when wet, creating a tight seal. The late Jim Northrup of Fond du Lac reservation described the sugarbush as being more than just a location; he saw it as “a state of mind.” During Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) interviews carried out through the climate change program at GLIFWC, ziinzibaakwadwaatig is often mentioned, in the form of memories and knowledge of everything from methods used to stories told while in the sugarbush. Much of this knowledge can be related to climate change and integrated into our GLIFWC vulnerability assessment. So what can research and TEK tell us about how climate change will affect the tradition of maple sugaring? Researchers at ACERnet, the Acer (Acer is the genus of maple trees) Climate and Socio-Ecological Research Network, have ‘boiled down’ the factors in the amount of syrup produced every year to four things: tree availability, tree health, timing and length of the tapping season, and the quality and quantity of sap. Each of these factors are likely to be affected in some way by climate change. Ziinzibaakwadwaatig availability: Ziinzibaakwadwaatig is expected to experience a range reduction, but the timing of this is uncertain. By the end of this century,modelsshowthattheziinzibaakwadwaatigrangecouldstayaboutthesame By Melonee Montano, GLIFWC TEK Outreach Specialist and Hannah Panci, GLIFWC Climate Change Scientist (See Ziinzibaakwadwaatig, page 14) PAGE 13 MAZINA’IGAN SPRING 2018 • PHENOLOGY •