(continued from page 13) & What are you observing in the Ceded Territories? Ozhibii’an ezhiwebak noopiming? ***Please record the date, location, and species (if applicable) for each observation. Return to GLIFWC by December 31, 2018. Miigwech! (in a low emissions scenario) or experience a large decrease (in a high emissions scenario). If and when ziinzibaakwadwaatig does experience a range reduction, there will be fewer trees on the landscape available for tapping, especially at the southern end of its range. Ziinzibaakwadwaatig health: There are many aspects to this factor, but climate change impacts could both positively and negatively affect ziinzibaak- wadwaatighealth.Ziinzibaakwadwaatigtypicallygrowsinmoistsoils,andaltered precipitation (both drought and flooding) could negatively impact growth. Pests such as the forest tent caterpillar, gypsy moth, and others that could increasingly survive warmer winters may negatively affect ziinzibaakwadwaatig health. Increased deer populations due to warmer winters with less snowpack may increase browse pressure on ziinzibaakwadwaatig saplings. Ziinzibaakwadwaatig also grows best with a deep snowpack in the winter—one study found that shal- lower snowpack in the winter was related to root dieback. However, ziinzibaak- wadwaatig is also fairly adaptable—it is shade tolerant and has a wide range of soil requirements. Also, some aspects of climate change may have a positive impact on ziinzibaakwadwaatig—one study showed warmer summer temperatures in the Great Lakes region was related to faster growth of ziinzibaakwadwaatig saplings. Timing and length of tapping season: The Ojibwe often pay attention to the animals in order to know when to carry out certain seasonal activities, including the tapping of maples. It is said that when one sees and hears the crows arrive in the spring, it is time to tap trees. The Ojibwe have observed that the season is not only coming sooner in the year but the window of opportunity to tap is also getting shorter (years ago, the sap would run for about two weeks). Models agree: freeze/ thaw cycles that create conditions for sap flow will continue to occur earlier in the year, causing the sap to run earlier, and there will be fewer freeze/thaw days, which means the tapping season will likely be shorter. Qualityandquantityofsap:Manyfactorscontributetosugarcontentofsap, but one thatACERnet identified was July temperatures.Warmer July temperatures were linked with lower maple sap sugar content the following spring, suggesting thatheatstressmayreducesugarstores.Interestingly,TEKintervieweesmentioned that years ago, 50 to 55 gallons of sap were needed to make one gallon of syrup, whereas it is currently about 40 gallons. This may mean that in some areas in the Ceded Territories, sugar sap content has actually increased. Ziinzibaakwadwaatig in a changing climate (continued from page 13) Essential Ojibwemowin ziinzibaakwadwaaboo—maple sap Other research shows that stressed maple trees produce compounds called secondary metabolites, which make syrup darker and affect the taste of the syrup. Researchers have found more of these metabolites in southern parts of the ziinzibaakwadwaatig range; therefore, warmer temperatures may cause increased metabolite production and darker syrup. Interviewees have mentioned sap color in the context of tapping hard maple (sugar maple) versus soft maple (red maple)—soft maple produces really dark sap and is not recommended for tapping. What does all of this mean for the future of ziinzibaakwadwaatig tapping? People that tap trees in general are noticing more variability in the weather and other factors that affect sap flow. This variability is expected to continue. Models looking into the future project that the tapping season will occur (on average) two to three weeks earlier by the end of the century. Northern sites, including here in the Ceded Territories, may see stable or even increasing sap collection, while southern sites are expected to see a decrease. Sugar content of sap is projected to decline in most regions. Most sites, particularly in southern parts of the country, will see a resulting decline in syrup production, though in far northern regions it may not decline as much. For more information on the research summarized here, see http://blogs. umass.edu/acernet/. Climate change may impact Ceded Territory sugarbushes in a number of ways including the timing and length of the maple tapping season. (COR photo) MAZINA’IGAN PAGE 14 SPRING 2018 • CLIMATE CHANGE •