• MA’IINGAN/WAAWAASHKESHI• On the cover Wild turkey (mizise) abundance is growing steadily across much of the Ceded Territory. The spring season offers tribal members great hunting opportunities for some lean protein. (Photo courtesy of the National Wild Turkey Federation.) The relatively mild winters over the past few years have likely contributed to an uptick in the waawaashkeshi (deer) population throughout much of the Ceded Territories.The2017off-reservationtreatydeerhuntturnedouttobesuccessfulfor many tribal members. Overall, the off reservation tribal harvest was up compared to 2016 by approximately 15%. During the 2017 off-reservation treaty deer hunt, tribal members harvested 2,003 deer throughout the Ceded Territories. Antlerless deer accounted for 58% while antlered deer accounted for 42% of the total. Tribal hunters harvested deer from 37 counties within the Ceded Territories (Figure 1). This included 22 counties in Wisconsin, 11 counties in Michigan, and four counties in Minnesota. Similar to 2016, four counties in northwest- ern Wisconsin accounted for over half (51%) of the total off-reservation deer harvest. Those counties included Burnett Co. with 17%, Bayfield Co. (16%), Douglas Co. (10%), and Sawyer Co. accounting for 8% of the total harvest. The most active and successful part of the hunting season occurred between October27andNovember26,accountingforjustover58%ofthetotaldeerharvest. The most deer harvested by tribal members on a single day occurred on November 18, 2016, coinciding with the state of Wisconsin’s state gun deer season opener. —T. Bartnick Off-reservation waawaashkeshi hunt tops 2K Figure 1. Distribution of waawaashkeshi (deer) harvest by GLIFWC member tribes during the 2017 off-reservation tribal hunting season, summarized by total deer harvested in each county. New VITF officers At the January 4 Voigt Intertribal Task Force meeting, Jason Schlender (left, Lac Courte Oreilles) was elected as the new Task Force Chair. John Johnson, Sr. (Lac du Flambeau) was elected as the new Task Force Vice Chair. VITF officers serve for a term of one year. (P. Maday photo) Bayfield, Wis.—Following the death of a female wolf in theApostle Islands archipelago,Ojibweculturaladvisorsarecollaboratingtobothhonortheanimaland help a family in need. The effort comes with support from a coalition of resource agenciesandtheirrepresentativescommittedto—asOjibwepeoplesay—dothings in a good way. “She died in a hard way,” said Denise Cloud, a Bad River Band member who learned about the wolf soon after it was discovered on Stockton Island. “It was important to do what could be done right away to help her rest.” Cloud’s co-workers from the National Park Service (NPS)— administrators of the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore on Lake Supe- rior—found the emaciated wolf last year on August 30 near Quarry Bay. A rare presence far from mainland Wisconsin, the wolf was known to NPS authorities as earlyas2015fromtrailcameraspositionedaroundtheisland.Theanimalappeared thin in those early images, even more so by the summer of 2017. NPS officials transferred the carcass to the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR). With help from GLIFWC staff, Cloud met with DNR Wildlife Biologist Todd Naas and smudged the remains of ma’iingan with sage. “I explained to her what would be happening, and did a short ceremony,” Cloud said, knowing wildlife officials were looking to establish a cause of death in a laboratory examination. The next day, the wolf was transferred to the Wildlife Health Center in Madison for a necropsy, and Cloud went to work consulting with Ojibwe spiritual leaders to determine the right course of action. She got her answer upon learning of a local families’ struggles—a family from the Wolf Clan in need of guidance on navigating through a difficult situation. Healing and a teaching Following instructions from Anishinaabe relatives in Saskatchewan, Denise Cloud prepared the wolf carcass for burial. GLIFWC, DNR, NPS and the Wildlife Health Center had coordinated to deliver it to Cloud after the necropsy examina- tion. She removed the hide, leaving the paws intact, and wrapped the body in red and blue cloth, singing a song in Ojibwemowin. “You do not remove the feet because they still have to walk,” Cloud said. “I gifted her with asemaa (tobacco) and sweet grass. We thawed out a spot on the ground and buried her. Getting her in a place where she can finally rest was important.” 1854 Treaty case By Charlie Otto Rasmussen, Editor Apostle Islands wolf generates healing, cooperation (see Ma’iingan, page 4) NPS trail cam photo (continued from page 1) MAZINA’IGAN PAGE 2 SPRING 2018 naag ogimaa, Enimaasing, whose name translates in English to: “he sails away, or sails away.” The agreement—sanctioned by a judge on December 12—takes the form of a memorandum of understanding, or MOU, and serves as a capstone to litigation that began in 1992.As legal experts on both sides debated the status of 1854 Treaty rights over the past quarter century, Fond du Lac authorities implemented both off-reservation natural resource assessments and tribal harvest seasons for species like moose and walleye. Tribal regulators freely shared data with their state coun- terparts, including fisheries and wild rice research from northeast Minnesota lakes. “We are very pleased that our work on these issues, and our history of coor- dination with the State on natural resource matters, allows us to now memorialize those processes in an MOU with the State,” Dupuis said. The 1854 MOU comes a decade after five tribes in Michigan negotiated a similar agreement that recognizes treaty rights in the 1836 Ceded Territory. Bypassing an uncertain court outcome, state and tribal representatives produced the 2007 Inland Consent Decree, which spells out resource management and law enforcement protocols across inland regions of Upper and Lower Michigan. For Fond du Lac, cutting edge research on fish and wildlife helped fortify the bandasaleaderinnaturalresourcesmanagement.Inanexerciseinsovereignty,the Band took a principal role in studying moose health when the population in north- east Minnesota began a dramatic decline in the late 2000s. The interagency work has led to a better understanding of the moose herd and its habitat requirements. “Co-management is important,” said GLIFWC ExecutiveAdministrator Jim Zorn at the all-band celebration. “You have these rights. You’ve always known it, and now the larger society knows it. But we always have to go out and educate.” Event moderator Reggie DeFoe, Fond du Lac resource management director and GLIFWC Board Commissioner, said that to help non-natives better under- stand the bond between Ojibweg and the outdoors, he likens the Ceded Territory as both “a church and a kitchen.” Read the MOU and associated documents at http://mn.gov/gov-stat/pdf/2017_12_08_483_STATE_DEFS.pdf