Ceded Territory news briefs Minnesota sulfate standards on manoomin waters remains unchanged An Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) issued a decision on January 11 dis- approving the State of Minnesota’s proposal to change sulfate standards. The sulfate standard of 10 mg/L was adopted in 1973 in order to protect manoomin (wild rice), and was based upon research conducted in the 1930s showing that manoomin did not occur in waters with high sulfate concentrations. The ALJ report found the proposed rule defective in several fundamental aspects, including its equation-based standard and the list of waters to which the rule would apply. For more, read the decision at: www.pca.state.mn.us/sites/ default/files/wq-rule4-15mm.pdf —P. Kebec Michigan omashkooz hunt: Bay Mills goes 4-for-4 In the 1836 Ceded Territory, the Bay Mills Indian Community issued four omashkooz (elk) harvest permits to tribal hunters for the 2017 elk hunt. Tribal hunters successfully filled all four of the available elk permits. During the first hunt period (early season), one bull and two cows were harvested. During the second hunt period (late season), another cow was harvested. Bay Mills shares an allocation of elk harvest tags with four other treaty tribes in Michigan: Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians, Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians, Sault Tribe of Chippewa Indians, Little River Band of Ottawa Indians. The elk herd is located in north-central Lower Michigan within lands the tribes ceded to the United States in the Treaty of 1836. –—GLIFWC staff Minnesota Ojibweg seek cultural resources survey on pipeline route Seeking to build the largest pipeline in company history, Enbridge, Inc. received approval from Canadian agencies in November 2016 to move ahead with plans for building Line 3. The pipeline would run from Hardisty, Alberta to Superior, Wis., carrying tar sands oil across 1,031 miles. Approval is still needed on the United States side. The Minnesota Public Utilities Commission (PUC) is currently considering whether to approve or deny the Certificate of Need and Route Permit necessary for Enbridge to move forwardwithconstructingthepipeline.LastOctober,theMinnesotaDepartment ofCommercedeterminedthatEnbridgehadnotshownthattheproposedproject is needed. The PUC is also reviewing Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) in order to determine whether to issue a route permit. AccordingtofiveOjibweBands,theFEISisdeficientasitdoesnotinclude a full historic properties review and the route planned for the pipeline contains a significant amount of tribal cultural properties. Mille Lacs, Fond du Lac, White Earth, Red Lake and Leech Lake Bands filed a Joint Tribal Petition with the PUC on January 2 requesting reconsidera- tion of its decision to exclude the cultural resources survey from the FEIS. The Bands also filed briefs as “intervening parties” in the overall review process on the decision related to the route permit. A decision by the Administrative Law Judge is expected by April 23. —P. Kebec Bay Mills, Michigan tribes reject Line 5 tunnel at Straits Tribes in Michigan recently submitted comments on an analysis of alterna- tives for addressing Enbridge Line 5’s crossing at the Straits of Mackinac. The State of Michigan hired Dynamic Risk to evaluate the existing pipeline under the Straits along with alternatives to its current lake-bottom crossing. Among thealternativesanalyzed—includingabandonment—thereportfavoredtunnel- ing into the lake-bottom to create a route for the pipeline. In their comments, Michigan Tribes expressed disappointment in the final report. According to the tribes, the report obscures the high risk of rupture associated with maintaining a pipeline within the Straits—a risk that cannot be justified for Michigan-based needs. Moreover, the tribes contend that the final report prioritizes the commercial needs of Enbridge over tribal and community interests.Fivetribes,includingGLIFWC-memberBayMillsIndianCommunity, reserved treaty fishing rights in the waters that could be affected by a spill. The Tribes concluded their comments by expressing their common goal of “decommissioningtheStraitsPipelines.”Line5continuestotransportoilunder the Straits despite recent admissions by Enbridge that some areas on the under- water pipes lack protective coating to prevent corrosion. —P. Kebec European shrimp is latest invasive species found in Gichigami Superior, Wis.—Bloody red shrimp, an aquatic invasive species from easternEurope,hasbeendiscoveredattheintersectionoftheSt.LouisRiverand LakeSuperior.TheUSFish&WildlifeService(USFWS)announcedthefinding in mid-February. The creatures are small—typically under one-half inch—but USFWS researchers note they are responsible for habitat degradation in other Great Lakes and disrupt aquatic food webs by competing with native species. Invasive organisms are often found near ports like Superior and Duluth where ships discharge ballast water. —GLIFWC staff • NEWS BRIEFS/TURKEY HUNT• Hunt by day, spear at night There’s never been a better time for a spring turkey hunt Highly adaptable to both habitat and forage, wild turkeys have expanded across much of the Ceded Territory. But for many treaty harvesters, longbeards remain a bird of opportunity relegated to autumn hunts. Sure enough, a wild turkey would go nicely with a pot of manoomin and grilled leeks. Otherwise, springtime is centered on one thing: spearfishing. Turns out the best time to hunt wild turkeys—whengobblersaremostreceptive to calls—typically coincides with ice-out, primetime for bagging walleye, northern pike,muskellungeandotherspecies.Fishing in ziigwan can yield food for households and extended families for the rest of the year. Seasonal Ojibwe camps, even entire villages,werehistoricallylocatedonwaters that hosted giigoonyag spawning runs. Wildturkeysjusthavenotdrawnmuch interest on a subsistence or cultural level. Overthepastsixyears—inthemidstofever increasing turkey numbers—treaty hunters have killed as few as seven birds during spring seasons, at most 33. That’s across ceded lands from Minnesota, Wisconsin, and through Michigan. Those modest harvest numbers can triple in the fall during general hunting outings. Few, if any, wild turkeys (mizise) traditionally occupied big-woods Ojibwe Country. Now that they’re here through successful translocations, tribal members have a uniquely modern opportunity to hunt by day, spear by night. Need to know Springtime is breeding season and males—known as gobblers or toms—have an ear for female birds. Learn to mimic basic hen “yelps” with friction or mouth calls to bring a gobbler into shotgun range. A 12-gauge fitted with a full choke is a good choice. Inside of 40 yards, aim for the head and neck—turkey feathers serve as armor to wind, rain, and shot ammunition. Dressing in full camouflage or utilizing a blind will also help keep you concealed from sharp-eyed turkeys. Locating public land birds can be accomplished by networking with commu- nity members, and scouting on foot or from a vehicle. Turkeys spend evenings on the roost, often choosing large white pines with stout upper branches. Toms will gobble from the roost in the pre-dawn, revealing their location to potential mates and, of course, hunters who can move in close and take a seat before fly down. The Wisconsin Ceded Territory youth wild turkey hunt isApril 7-8. Mem- bers 10-15 years old can hunt accompanied by a parent, guardian or designated adult. Youth must be in possession of a valid turkey hunting permit issued by the tribe or a GLIFWC clerk. The regular season opens April 11 In Minnesota, the treaty season kicks off April 14. The Michigan territory has multiple wild turkey openers—see your tribal conservation office for dates and band-specific rules. By Charlie Otto Rasmussen, Editor (See Spring turkey hunt, page 5) Friction calls commonly include a wooden peg to create a range of vocalizations, including hen “yelps” and “cutts.” The wooden peg (left) makes sounds by striking it across the round slate. The call on the right is a simple push-button call, a great choice for beginning spring turkey hunters. (COR photos) PAGE 3 MAZINA’IGAN SPRING 2018