MAZINA’IGAN PAGE 20 WINTER 2018-2019 respect, and reciprocity—all of which are critical for successful climate adaptation. In general, this menu resonates in that it is rooted in indigenous ways of being, knowing and adapting.” An overview of the Menu was presented at the September GLIFWC Board of Commissioners meet- ing in Bad River and at the October GLIFWC/Forest Service Annual MOU meeting in Lac Vieux Desert. In response to feedback received at these meetings, GLIFWC Climate Change staff have already started engagingwitheldersandTribalHistoricPreservation Officers (THPO) from GLIFWC member tribes so that the Tribal Adaptation Menu team may benefit fromtheirknowledgeandexperiencewhiletheMenu is undergoing additional field testing. Publication of the final version is planned for 2019. GLIFWC, NIACS and other partners are col- laborating on additional projects that will benefit GLIFWC tribes and natural resources in the Ceded Territories in the future, including a new Wildlife ManagementClimateAdaptationMenuandaClimate Change Vulnerability Assessment for the Apostle Islands National Lakeshore. For more information on the Tribal Adapta- tion Menu go to https://data.glifwc.org/archive.bio/ Tribal%20Menu%20Flyer%209-18.pdf, for further informationonotherGLIFWC/NIACSprojectsorthe GLIFWCClimateChangeProgramcontactGLIFWC Climate Change Program Coordinator Rob Croll at rcroll@glifwc.org. It has been about one year since I have gone without eating bread, macaroni, and potatoes. The reason I did this was, because my diabetes was getting the best of me. Everyday I had to take pills to try and control my diabetes. Today I no longer have to take diabetes medication, since I watch carefully what I eat. I do not always eat everything. I am also no longer as heavy as I once was. My belly also does not extend out as much as it once used to. It is not easy. I cannot eat of the foods that I used to love to eat. I do not eat cake or ice cream. I also cannot eat candy. Nebowa niwaabamaa a’aw Anishinaabe gaa-kiishkigaadezhond maagizhaa gayegaa-kiishkizidezhond.Miidashi’iwweweniwenji-ganawenindizoyaanziinzi- baakwadaapineyaan gaye. Mii imaa ziinzibaakwadaapined wenjikaamagadanig ani-noogishkaajigaadenig weweni imaa da-izhijiwang omiskwiim awiya imaa okaading maagizhaa gaye ozidaang. Mii gaye ezhiwebizid ani-ginjiba’igod ziinzibaakwadaapined awiya. Mii-go gegapii gaawiin weweni anokiisiiwan inow odoonikosiwan. Mii imaa ezhijiwang awiya omiskwiim odoonikosiwaning, mii dashiweni-izhichigenidinowodoonikosiwanani-mamaagodmaanaadadinigimaa omiskwiiming ayaamagadinig. Ishkwaa-anokiinid inow odoonikosiwan mii iwidi boochaakoziiwigamigongda-izhaadda-biitaabiiginindimaage-onjikaamagadinig da-biinichigaadenig omiskwiim nising endaso-giizis booch. Mii iw dialysis ezhi- wiindanga’awchi-mookomaanda-izhaad.Niizaanadgegetganawendanzigweweni ziinzibaakwadaapined awiya. I see a lot of Anishinaabe that have amputated legs or amputated feet. That is another reason I take care of my diabetes also. The reason this happens is because the diabetes has stopped the circulation of blood maybe in his leg or his foot. That is what happens when someone loses control of his or her diabetes. Eventually their kidneys are not working properly. Their blood flows threw their kidneys, which filters the toxins from their blood. When their kidneys fail they have to go to the hospital to get hooked up to a machine that filters their blood for them three times a week. That is what the white man calls dialysis. It is dangerous for someone to not take good care of his or her diabetes. Ishke gaye miinigooyaan a’aw opin gebozod imaa wiisiniiwigamigong, mii eta-go aabita ezhi-amwag. Ishke gaye naajimiijimeyaan, mii imaa ani-dibaaban- damaan aaniin minik imaa ziinzibaakwad ani-dagonigaadeg waa-adaaweyaan. Ambe sanoo ganawaabandamok maajiyeg! Ishkemiiiwgaa-onji-boonitooyaani’iwbizhiki-doodooshaaboonigii-waabandaan ozhibii’igaadeg nebowa imaa ziinzibaakwad dagonigaadeg. Mii iw noongom bagaane-doodooshaaboo menikweyaan waashkobanzinok. Mii gaye a’aw wiis- agadesijigan gaa-izhi-minwenimag gaawiin geyaabi indamwaasiin onji a’aw bibine-bakwezhigan ayaabajichigaazod gii-ozhi’ind a’aw wiisagadesijigan. Niga- nawaabandaan gaye minik waasiniyaan. Mii iko gaa-izhichigeyaan baanimaa igo gii-wawiinge-debishkineyaangii-poonitooyaanmaajiyaan.Miidashnoongommii eta-go da-debisewendamaan minik maajiyaan gegoo naa gaye weweni nidibaabi- ishkoodoonnimiskwiimminikmaaziinzibaakwadeyaamagak.Niiwingmaagizhaa gaye awashime dasing bimi-giizhigak. When I go to restaurants and they give me a baked potato I only eat half of it. Also, when I am out shopping for food I have to check the labels to see how much sugar has been added to the food. I also quit drink- ing cow milk because I noticed how much sugar was in the milk. Now I drink unsweetened almond milk. As much as I love eating pizza I no longer eat that either, because of the flour used to make the crust. I also watch the amount that I eat. What I used to do was eat until I was plump full before I stopped eating. Now today I just eat enough so I am content and I also make sure I check my blood sugar. I may check it four times or more a day. Ishke a’aw Anishinaabe gaawiin weweni ganawenindizosiin dibishkoo-go odapiitendanziini’iwbimaadizid.Dibiwenjikaamagadinigweni’iwizhichigeda’aw Anishinaabe,maagizhaagayemiiimaaani-debwetamanggii-aaniwenimigooyang anishinaabewiyanggii-goopidenimigooyang.Miidashimaabiinjinabemiwidooy- ang o’ow weweni ganawenindizosiwang. The Anishinaabe does not take good care of himself, as if he has no regardforhisownlife.IdonotknowwherethatcomesfromthatAnishinaabe does that, it could be that we believe what we were told that we were inferior and not worthy. We carry that belief within us and is the reason we do not take good care of ourselves. Bizindawishig weweni gidaa-ganawendaanaawaa bimaadiziyeg. Mii ingiw Manidoog gigii-miinigonaanig i’iw bimaadiziwin. Gigii-ina’oonigonaanig ingiw Manidoog i’iw bimaadiziwin. Gaawiin gidaa-wii-nishwanaajitoosiimin. Listen to what I am saying and take good care of your life. The Mani- doog were the ones who gave us our lives. Our life was a gift from the Manidoog, therefore we should not waste it away. • CEDED TERRITORY NEWS • (continued from page 15) Dependence on snow or ice: Snow cover is a critical component of waabooz habitat and may be the primary factor in its vulnerability to climate change. Decreases in duration and depth, and increases in the density of the snowpack are expected to negatively impact waabooz. Reductions in the depth of the snowpack will decrease the availability of browse on upper branches. Waabooz is also dependent on snow cover for camouflage, and fewer days with snow on the ground has been linked to increases in predation. Decreasing duration of snow cover has been found to be the most important driving factor in the range shift of waabooz in Wisconsin. Pathogens or predators: Waabooz is a major prey item for many carnivores that are less vulnerable to or may benefit from climate change in the Ceded Territories, including gidagaabizhiw (bobcat), wiisagazi ma’iingan (coyote), and ojiig (fisher). Interspecific interactions: Population cycling in waabooz has been tied to specific predators (especially lynx) and beings/species with overlapping ranges (such as ruffed grouse). If those beings/species are also affected by climate change, waabooz population cycles may be dampened and abundance may be affected. Genetic variation: Northern and eastern populations of waabooz in Canada and the eastern US are generally characterized by high genetic diversity, but at the southern end of its range in the Ceded Territories, genetic diversity is lower. Phenological response: Two Montana studies found waaboozoog did not vary the date or rate of fall molt (turning color from brown to white) with the timing of snowfall, indicating that fall molt is initiated by day length and not presence of snow. The spring molt did vary with longer or shorter snow seasons. The consistent timing of the waabooz fall color change will cause waabooz to stand out more to predators if snows come later in the year. However, the studies did find some variation in timing and rate of molt among regional populations of waabooz, and another study found waabooz in Pennsylvania had less white winter coats than in northern Canada. Both of these may indicate some ability in waabooz to adapt to changing winter conditions. However, models in Wisconsin and Michigan show waabooz is currently not able to keep pace with recent declines in snow cover. Continuing phenological mismatches will cause waabooz to lose its camouflage, particularly in the fall, and be subject to increased predation. Documented response to climate change: Waabooz has already begun responding to climate change; waabooz range receded northward in the Ceded Territories at an average rate of 5.4 miles per decade from 1980 to 2014. This recession is primarily linked to duration in snow cover. Modeled future range: Models show waabooz range continuing to move northward, though uncertainty about snowfall projections complicates the models, especially given snow cover is likely the primary driver of waabooz range. I Increase This factor increases vulnerability Somewhat Increase This factor somewhat increases vulnerability Neutral/Somewhat Increase This factor may not increase or may somewhat increase vulnerability I Legend SI N/SI SI/I I/GI GI Somewhat Increase/Increase This factor may somewhat increase or increase vulnerability Greatly Increase This factor greatly increases vulnerability Increase/Greatly Increase This factor may increase or greatly increase vulnerability SI/I SI N/SI SI N/SI GI Waabooz continued (continued from page 19) learn about hydrology of the lake, contaminants and other important subjects that impact this amazing ecosystem.” As the sun set on the shores of gichigami, con- ference participants returned to their respective com- munities.Greatdialogueandnextstepswereaffirmed at the closing of the 2018 event. Participants agreed that even though the conference is just once a year, theworktoprotectgichigamiisaneverydaypractice. Anishinaabeg have always recognized the great lake as a source of protection and nourishment. It’s time for all walks of life to stand up and reciprocate for the preservation of a powerful yet nurturing form of life. (continued from page 7) Gichigami Stewardship (continued from page 6)