MAZINA’IGAN PAGE 6 WINTER 2018-2019 Red Cliff, partners remove non-native phragmites beds from Chequamegon Bay region From spring to early fall the Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa’s Treaty Natural Resources Division led a project to eliminate three large seed sources of non-native phragmites (common reed) in Bayfield County with partners Strand Associates, the Greater Bayfield area, and the City of Washburn. GLIFWC and Red Cliff staff began finding small populations of non-native phragmites in 2013, pri- marily within one mile of each of the three Bayfield Peninsula wastewater treatment plants (see WWTPs on map). An additional outbreak of the invasive plant was found across Chequamegon Bay near the Kakagon Sloughs in 2016, which was treated by Bad River and GLIFWC staff. At the time, theseWWTPswereutilizingnon- native phragmites reed beds (see photobelow)todewaterbiosolids aspartofthewastewatertreatment process. A 2016 genetic study led by Red Cliff confirmed the external populations originated from seed andshowedsomegeneticsimilar- itytoWWTPreedbedphragmites.Whenthesereedbed installations occurred during the late 1990’s and early 2000’s, there was a widespread belief that non-native phragmiteswouldonlyspreadbyrhizomes(roots)and notbyseed.Theplantswereexpectedtostaycontained within the concrete walls of the reed beds. Efforts in 2018 included removal of non-native phragmitesplantsandallothermaterial(biosolids,soil & bed liners) from the reed beds at the three WWTPs. To prevent any further spread of the invasive plant, all material that was removed from the reed beds was land-filled.Inaddition,everytruckandpieceofequip- ment that operated onsite was washed and inspected through each phase of the project. The existing reed bedinfrastructurewillcontinuetobeutilized,nowwith the non-invasive, native phragmites subspecies. The new plants were sourced from within Bayfield County and genetic testing confirmed that they are indeed the native subspecies of Phragmites. GLIFWC and Red Cliff staff will continue to monitor throughout the region for non-native phrag- mitesandtreatnewpopulationsasnecessary.RedCliff staff will also work closely with the WWTP operators to monitor newly establishedreedbedsandaroundeach facility to ensure long term project success. By removing the previous reed bed populations, the only known Chequamegon Bay local seed source of non-native phragmites has been eradicated, and 14,000+ acres of coastal wetlands among countless inland wetlands have been protected from this highly invasive plant. —VanBergen is Project Coordinator, Red Cliff Treaty Natural Resources Division By Gabrielle VanBergen For Mazina’igan In May 2017 GLIFWC became a formal partner with the Northern Institute of AppliedClimateScience(NIACS).NIACSisaregionalcollaborativeeffortbetween the Forest Service and several public and private partners, including GLIFWC. NIACS assists natural resource managers and landowners in climate assess- ment and adaptation, focusing on the land manager’s values, judgement and knowledge of their land to help set goals and priorities for adaptation. As part of the partnership with GLIFWC, changes to the NIACS charter were made to reflect tribal sovereignty and GLIFWC member tribes’ unique status as co-managers of the natural resources in the Ceded Territories. One significant project resulting from the partnership is the Tribal Adapta- tion Menu. GLIFWC and NIACS staff have been working with partners from the Intertribal Council of Michigan, 1854 Treaty Authority, College of Menominee Nation Sustainable Development Institute, Lac du Flambeau Band, Red Cliff Band, Keweenaw Bay Indian Community and MichiganTechnological University to create the Menu. The project began in March 2017 after NIACS’s “Adapting Forested Water- sheds to Climate Change” workshop. A sample exercise at the workshop utilized a wild rice revitalization project from Lac du Flambeau. Group members working on the exercise felt NIACS’s Adaptation Menu and approaches didn’t adequately recognize or incorporate cultural considerations important for tribal climate adap- tation projects. From this experience came the idea to create a tribally-oriented product specifically for tribes, and nontribal partners, to use in climate change planning efforts. The Tribal Adaptation Menu is designed to be used in conjunction with the NIACS Adaptation Workbook, a collection of resources designed to help natural resource managers incorporate climate change into management decisions and devise adaptation tactics. The TribalAdaptation Menu includes considerationssuchastraditionalknowledgeoftribaleldersand harvesters,culturally-basedmanagementtechniques,community engagement and consensus decision-making, consideration of cultural and historical sites, indigenous languages, and other appropriate cultural values and priorities. While the initial Menu was created from an Ojibwe & Menominee perspective, the Tribal Adaptation Menu is intentionally designed to be a living and adaptable document transferable to other indigenous communities through the incorporation of their language, his- tory and culture. AninitialfieldtestoftheTribalAdaptationMenuoccurred at the BIA Partners in Action Conference in July 2018 in Mil- waukee. A small group of tribal natural resource and climate change professionals used the Menu to evaluate real world cli- mate adaptation scenarios. According to workshop participant Allissa Stutte, Environmental Justice Specialist with the Red Cliff Band, “One of the aspects that resonated the most was the focus on community input, involvement, and engagement, By Rob Croll, Hannah Panci & Melonee Montano GLIFWC Staff Non-native phragmites locations were primarily within one mile of each of the three Bayfield Peninsula wastewater treatment plants. INSET: Wastewater treatment plants in the Bayfield Peninsula of Wisconsin utilized non- native phragmites reed beds to dewater biosolids as part of the wastewater treatment process. These beds were replaced by non-invasive native phragmites subspecies. (submitted photo) • WILD PLANTS • GLIFWC & NIACS Tribal Adaptation Menu A tool focused on stewardship through an indigenous lens Using the Tribal Adaptation Menu as a reference, land managers can make decisions—like what trees to cut at a timber sale—that both support cultural practices, such as making maple syrup, and advance climate change adaptation efforts. (CO Rasmussen photos) (see Stewardship, page 20)